...

Tidal Evolution into the Laplace Resonance and the

by user

on
Category:

statistics

0

views

Report

Comments

Transcript

Tidal Evolution into the Laplace Resonance and the
ICARUS
127, 93–111 (1997)
IS965669
ARTICLE NO.
Tidal Evolution into the Laplace Resonance and the
Resurfacing of Ganymede
ADAM P. SHOWMAN
Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences 170-25, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, and
Lunar and Planetary Institute, 3600 Bay Area Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77058
E-mail: [email protected]
AND
RENU MALHOTRA
Lunar and Planetary Institute, 3600 Bay Area Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77058
Received January 10, 1996; revised December 5, 1996
v 1 / v 2 P 3/2 and v 1 / v 2 P 2 resonances can pump Ganymede’s
free eccentricity up to p10 23 independent of Q9Gany /Q9J . We also
show that Ganymede’s free eccentricity cannot have been
produced by impact with a large asteroid or comet.  1997 Aca-
We use the numerical model of R. Malhotra (1991, Icarus
94, 399–412) to explore the orbital history of Io, Europa, and
Ganymede for a large range of parameters and initial conditions
near the Laplace resonance. We identify two new Laplace-like
resonances which pump Ganymede’s eccentricity and may help
explain the resurfacing of Ganymede. Near the Laplace resonance, the Io–Europa conjunction drifts at a mean angular
velocity v 1 ; 2n 2 2 n 1 , while the Europa-Ganymede conjunction drifts at a rate v 2 ; 2n 3 2 n 2 , where n 1 , n 2 , and n 3 are
the mean motions of Io, Europa, and Ganymede. We find that
Laplace-like resonances characterized by v 1 / v 2 P 3/2 and v 1 /
v 2 P 2 can pump Ganymede’s eccentricity to p0.07, producing
tidal heating several hundred times higher than at the present
epoch and 2 to 30 times greater than that occurring in the v 1 /
v 2 P 1/2 resonance identified previously by Malhotra. The
evolution of v 1 and v 2 prior to capture is strongly affected by
Q9Io /Q9J . (Here, Q9 5 Q/k is the ratio of the tidal dissipation
function to second-degree Love number; the subscript J is for
Jupiter.) We find that capture into v 1 / v 2 P 3/2 or 2 occurs
over a large range of possible initial satellite orbits if Q9Io /Q9J #
4 3 10 24, but cannot occur for values $ 8 3 10 24. (The latter
is approximately two-thirds the value required to maintain Io’s
current eccentricity in steady state.) For constant Q/k, the
system, once captured, remains trapped in these resonances.
We show, however, that they can be disrupted by rapid changes
in the tidal dissipation rate in Io or Europa during the course of
the evolution; the satellites subsequently evolve into the Laplace
resonance (v 1 5 v 2 ) with high probability. Because the higher
dissipation in these resonances increases the likelihood of internal activity within Ganymede, we favor the v 1 / v 2 P 3/2 and
2 resonances over v 1 / v 2 P 1/2 for the evolutionary path taken
by the Galilean satellites before their capture into the Laplace resonance.
In addition to its surface appearance, Ganymede’s large free
eccentricity (0.0015) has long been a puzzle. We find that the
demic Press
1. INTRODUCTION
The orbital resonances among the jovian moons Io, Europa, and Ganymede present a fascinating dynamical system. The strongest resonant interactions are those between
Io and Europa and between Europa and Ganymede. The
ratios of mean motions (i.e., mean orbital angular velocities) of these satellite pairs are both near 2:1, causing their
successive conjunctions to occur near the same jovicentric
longitude. This allows their mutual gravitational perturbations to add constructively and, as we shall see later, allows
a secular transfer of energy and angular momentum from
Io to Europa to Ganymede.
As the ratio of mean motions is not exactly 2:1, the
conjunctions between Io and Europa drift at a mean angular velocity g 1 ; 2n 2 2 n 1 , while the conjunctions between
Europa and Ganymede drift at a rate g 2 ; 2n 3 2 n 2 , where
n 1 , n 2 , and n 3 are the mean motions of Io, Europa, and
Ganymede. The Io–Europa conjunction is locked to Io’s
perijove and also to Europa’s apojove; the Europa–
Ganymede conjunction occurs when Europa is near perijove. These pairwise resonances are described by the libration of the following resonance angles:
u 11 5 2l 2 2 l 1 2 Ã 1 librates about 08,
u 12 5 2l 2 2 l 1 2 Ã 2 librates about 1808,
u 23 5 2l 3 2 l 2 2 Ã 2 librates about 08.
93
0019-1035/97 $25.00
Copyright  1997 by Academic Press
All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.
94
SHOWMAN AND MALHOTRA
Here l i and à i are the satellites’ mean anomalies and
longitudes of perijove. In this paper, all subscripts i 5 1,
2, and 3 refer to Io, Europa, and Ganymede. (The Europa–
Ganymede conjunction is not locked to either apse of Ganymede, so the other possible resonant variable, 2l 3 2 l 2
2 Ã 3 , circulates through all possible values.) The fourth
major resonance, the Laplace resonance, is characterized
by the libration of the following critical angle:
f 5 2l 3 2 3l 2 1 l 1 librates about 1808.
The Laplace resonance is a 1:1 commensurability between
the rates of motion of the Io–Europa and Europa–
Ganymede conjunctions (as opposed to the 2:1 commensurabilities between the satellites’ mean motions): the Io–
Europa conjunction drifts at the same rate as the
Europa–Ganymede conjunction, so that g 1 /g 2 5 1. Currently we have g 1 5 g 2 5 20.748 day 21. This is an extremely
small value compared with the satellites’ mean motions,
which range from approximately 508 day 21 for Ganymede
to approximately 2008 day 21 for Io.
These orbital resonances have a strong effect on the
satellites’ thermal evolution. Io’s active volcanism and high
thermal heat flux of p2 W m 22 (Smith et al. 1979, Veeder et
al. 1994) are probably caused by tidal dissipation associated
with its resonantly forced orbital eccentricity of 0.0044
(Peale et al. 1979). Europa’s tectonism possibly also results
from tidal flexing (Malin and Pieri 1986). Although Ganymede’s eccentricity is currently too low for significant
tidal heating, the ancient resurfacing on this satellite
(McKinnon and Parmentier 1986) may be linked to higher
tidal dissipation in the past. Especially for Ganymede,
knowledge of past orbital history is critical for elucidating
the thermal evolution.
Yoder (1979) and Yoder and Peale (1981) constructed
an analytical theory to explain the high rate of internal
activity on Io as well as the origin of the Laplace resonance
from initially nonresonant orbits. According to this scenario, tides raised on Jupiter by the satellites cause the
satellite orbits to expand outward over time. As Io approaches the 2:1 resonance with Europa, g 1 approaches
zero, forcing Io’s eccentricity, e 1 , to increase; however,
tidal dissipation in Io (which increases with e 1 ) lowers
Io’s semimajor axis and eccentricity. This counteracts the
effects of Jupiter’s tides, which push Io outward into 2:1
resonance with Europa, as well as the resonant gravitational perturbations from Europa, which pump Io’s eccentricity. Thus, an equilibrium characterized by constant values of g 1 and e 1 is achieved, and the orbits of Io and
Europa expand together while being locked in resonance.
(This involves a secular transfer of orbital angular momentum from Io to Europa.) The equilibrium values of g 1 and
e 1 estimated by Yoder and Peale are 21.28 day 21 and
0.0026, respectively. This is a metastable state, however,
as Europa approaches the 2:1 resonance with Ganymede
and the Europa–Ganymede resonant perturbations become significant. During this evolution, g 2 approaches g 1
and the satellites are captured into the Laplace resonance.
Yoder and Peale calculate that the capture probability is
high provided ug 1 u, ug 2 u & 28 day 21. As Jupiter’s tides continue to transfer angular momentum to the satellites (primarily Io), the Laplace resonance forces a secular transfer
of orbital angular momentum from Io to Europa to Ganymede. A new equilibrium is reached in which g 1 stabilizes at a new value, and the resonantly forced eccentricities
of all three satellites also reach constant values. If the
present state of the system is at this equilibrium, this theory
predicts Q91 /Q9J P 1.1 3 10 23. (Here Q9 ; Q/k is the ratio
of the tidal dissipation function to the second-degree Love
number, and subscript J refers to Jupiter.) Ganymede’s
eccentricity remains low in this scenario.
A second scenario was outlined by Greenberg (1982,
1987). He noted that the Yoder–Peale scenario was predicated on significant tidal dissipation within Jupiter, at a
rate greater than any known physical mechanisms for tidal
dissipation in gaseous planets. To circumvent this apparent
difficulty, he suggested that Io, Europa, and Ganymede
formed in orbits deep in resonance, with g 1 and g 2 closer
to zero. Since satellite formation, dissipation in Io has
decreased the satellite’s semimajor axis and increased ug 1 u;
thus, Io has evolved away from the 2:1 resonance with
Europa. Similarly, Europa and Ganymede were deeper in
the 2:1 resonance in the past, so that Ganymede would
have had a higher forced eccentricity. This scenario allows
slightly more tidal heating in Ganymede than at present
(eccentricity p0.003, as compared with the current free
and forced eccentricities of 0.0015 and 6 3 10 24 ). However,
recent theoretical work on the tidal Q of gaseous planets
(Ioannou and Lindzen 1993) and estimates of low upper
bounds for the tidal Q of other outer planets [Q , 39,000
for Uranus (Tittemore and Wisdom 1989) and Q , 3 3
10 5 for Neptune (Banfield and Murray 1992)] suggest that
Q J was low enough for significant orbital evolution, increasing the plausibility of the tidal assembly of the Galilean resonances.
Greenberg (1982) has also suggested the possibility of
episodic tidal heating of Io, in which the Galilean satellites
oscillate about the equilibrium point of the Laplace resonance, causing Io’s Q9 and resonantly forced eccentricity
to vary periodically. This possibility was explored in some
detail in Ojakangas and Stevenson (1986), and it remains
a viable model for the present state of the system; however,
it has not been shown to have significant import for Ganymede’s evolution.
More recently, Malhotra (1991) showed that the evolutionary path described by the Yoder–Peale theory for the
tidal assembly of the resonances is not unique. She found
TIDAL EVOLUTION INTO LAPLACE RESONANCE
that for a wide range of initial conditions, the satellites
would have encountered and been temporarily captured
in one or more ‘‘Laplace-like’’ resonances g 1 /g 2 P j/( j 1
1), j 5 1, 2, or 3, before evolving into the present state.
(We define a ‘‘Laplace-like’’ resonance to be one in which
the ratio of the mean conjunction drift rates, g 1 /g 2 , is that
of two small positive integers.) Capture into any of these
three resonances can occur at relatively high values of ug 1 u
and ug 2 u (p7–88 day 21, before either pairwise resonance
has achieved equilibrium), and is fairly likely. The 2:1 mean
motion resonances then evolve in concert during passage
through one of these Laplace-like resonances, as g 1 and
g 2 continue to approach zero. At sufficiently small values
of ug 1 u and ug 2 u, the g 1 /g 2 P j/( j 1 1) resonance is disrupted
and the satellites are captured into the Laplace resonance.
Of potentially great significance for Ganymede was the
discovery that the g 1 /g 2 P 1/2 resonance pumps Ganymede’s eccentricity up to p0.01–0.03, possibly enough
for internal activity and consequent resurfacing.
For completeness, we mention here Tittemore’s (1990)
proposal for the tidal heating of Ganymede. In this scenario, Europa and Ganymede pass through the pairwise
3:1 mean motion resonance which chaotically pumps up
their orbital eccentricities to large values (e 2,max P 0.13,
e 3,max p 0.06) before the satellites eventually disengage
from that resonance. (They are presumed to subsequently
evolve to their present 2:1 resonant orbits.) Tittemore argued that the extent of orbital evolution of Europa and
Ganymede required in this scenario can be accommodated
provided Io and Europa were locked in the pairwise 2:1
resonance early on. Tittemore’s numerical modeling of the
Europa–Ganymede 3:1 resonance passage did not include
the 2:1 resonant perturbations of the Io–Europa interaction, and also neglected tidal dissipation within the satellites, both factors that significantly affect the dynamical
evolution of the system. It is possible to overcome these
deficiencies and it would be worth reevaluating the 3:1
Europa–Ganymede resonance with a more complete numerical model; however, such a study is beyond the scope
of the present work. We do not discuss this scenario further
because it does not speak to the evolution of the satellites
near the Laplace resonance.
The three scenarios of Yoder and Peale, Greenberg, and
Malhotra are best visualized by plotting the system’s path
in g 1 –g 2 space. This will also prove useful for discussing
our results. In Fig. 1 we depict the paths just discussed.
The initial position in g 1 –g 2 space after satellite formation
is completely unknown. Specifying a point on the plot is
equivalent to specifying the ratios a 1 : a 2 : a 3 of the satellites’
semimajor axes. Consider the tidal assembly scenarios. Far
from equilibrium of the pairwise 2:1 resonances and in the
absence of any Laplace-like resonances, Io’s orbit expands
much more rapidly than Europa’s, so g 1 increases faster
than g 2 . Starting from its initial position, the system thus
95
FIG. 1. Several possible paths to the current state as proposed by
previous authors, shown in g 1 –g 2 space. The current position is marked
by a circle; the Laplace resonance, g 1 /g 2 5 1, and the Laplace-like
resonance, g 1 /g 2 P 1/2, are shown by dotted lines. Dot–dashed line:
Yoder and Peale (1981) scenario in which the Io–Europa 2 : 1 resonance
equilibrates before capture into the Laplace resonance. Dashed line:
Malhotra (1991) scenario for passage through g 1 /g 2 P 1/2 prior to capture
into the Laplace resonance; in this scenario, neither 2 : 1 pairwise resonance equilibrates before capture into the Laplace resonance. Short solid
line moving downward from near the origin: Greenberg (1987) scenario
in which tidal dissipation in Jupiter is negligible.
moves nearly horizontally to the right in g 1 –g 2 space. In
the Yoder–Peale scenario, the system evolves unhindered
by any Laplace-like resonance to equilibration of the Io–
Europa resonance, and g 1 becomes constant (dash–dot
line). As g 2 continues to increase, the system then moves
vertically upward in g 1 –g 2 space. Capture into the Laplace
resonance, g 1 /g 2 5 1, eventually occurs from below, i.e.,
from a smaller value of g 1 /g 2 . In contrast, Malhotra (1991)
showed that the first metastable state in Yoder and Peale’s
scenario was unlikely to be achieved as there was a high
probability that the approach to this state would be interrupted by capture into a g 1 /g 2 5 j/( j 1 1) Laplace-like
resonance. This is shown by the dashed line. Greenberg’s
scenario is shown with a solid line.
In this paper we use Malhotra’s (1991) numerical model
to explore evolution into the Laplace resonance over a
much wider range of conditions than she examined. Our
main finding is that two other Laplace-like resonances
above the Laplace resonance, g 1 /g 2 P 2 and g 1 /g 2 P 3/2,
have high capture probability and can pump Ganymede’s
eccentricity to p0.07. Capture into these resonances is
possible only if Q91 /Q9J , 8 3 10 24. [This upper bound is
96
SHOWMAN AND MALHOTRA
slightly smaller than the value needed to maintain the
current orbital configuration in steady state, as discussed
in Yoder and Peale (1981).] If this condition is satisfied,
capture into one of these resonances is quite likely. We
also find that if the Q/k are constant in time, the satellites
do not evolve into the Laplace resonance from these resonances. We show that rapid changes in Q91 /Q9J or Q92 /Q9J
can cause disruption followed by capture into the Laplace
resonance. Several plausible mechanisms can easily produce the requisite time variability in Q9i /Q9J .
The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2 we present our results. We begin with a brief description of the
dynamical model and a discussion of the low-order perturbation theory for the Galilean resonances. (The details of
the latter are given in the Appendix.) This is followed by
a detailed description of some example runs. Next, we
identify the conditions under which capture into g 1 /g 2
P 3/2 or g 1 /g 2 P 2 can occur, and we characterize the
resonances by determining the eccentricities and dissipated
power they produce under different conditions. We then
explore the manner in which Q91 /Q9J or Q92 /Q9J must change
to allow disruption of these new Laplace-like resonances
and evolution into the Laplace resonance. We end the
section with some additional results on the evolution of
g 1 and g 2 toward equilibrium. In Section 3 we calculate
the size of the cometary impactor necessary to excite Ganymede’s free eccentricity to its current value (0.0015); we
show that the free eccentricity cannot have been produced
by cometary impact. In Section 4 we summarize our results
and conclusions. Implications for Ganymede’s thermal history are discussed in two companion papers (Showman
et al. 1996, Showman and Stevenson 1996).
2. RESULTS
2.1. The Model
The dynamical model we use is described in detail in
Malhotra (1991). The model includes perturbations from
Jupiter’s gravity field to order J4 and the mutual satellite
perturbations to second order in the orbital eccentricities.
The secular perturbations due to Callisto are also included.
The effects of tidal dissipation in the planet as well as
the satellites are parameterized by the tidal dissipation
functions, Q9i , Q9J , and are included in the perturbation
equations. The ratios Q9i /Q9J are free parameters which we
specify as inputs to the model.
As described in the Introduction, a particular solution
for the evolution into the Laplace resonance admitted by
this dynamical model was first found by Yoder and Peale
(1981). This is not a unique solution, however, as was
shown by Malhotra (1991), and there is a high probability
that the evolutionary path described by the Yoder–Peale
solution would be interrupted by capture into one of sev-
eral possible Laplace-like resonances defined by g 1 /g 2 P
j/( j 1 1), where j is an integer. These higher-order resonances arise from subtle three-body interactions that are
difficult to extract analytically from the equations of motion, and the fidelity of standard perturbation theory to
describe these resonances is difficult to establish. In fact,
Yoder and Peale considered the possibility of one such
higher-order Laplace-like resonance, g 1 /g 2 P 1/2. From
their perturbation analysis, they concluded that this resonance was unstable, and passage through it would excite
small free eccentricities on Io and Europa; at the lowest
order, Ganymede’s eccentricity would not be perturbed
by this resonance. They estimated higher order effects of
this resonance on e 3 to be on the order of 10 24. Yoder
and Peale were careful to note that these Laplace-like
resonances are sufficiently subtle that their particular analysis may not have provided an adequate description. By
taking the same perturbation approach as Yoder and Peale,
we find that their analysis was incomplete in at least one
respect: the g 1 /g 2 P 2 Laplace-like resonance appears in
the same order in perturbation theory as the g 1 /g 2 P
1/2 resonance. Furthermore, this resonance does affect
Ganymede’s orbital eccentricity in the lowest order, and
is therefore of particular interest for the geophysical evolution of this satellite. We have obtained several analytical
results for the g 1 /g 2 P 2 Laplace-like resonance that help
to understand—and provide corroboration for—the numerical results. These calculations are given in the Appendix. Other Laplace-like resonances also are potentially significant for the problem of Ganymede, e.g., g 1 /g 2 P 3/2,
but with the Yoder–Peale approach, these require going
to the next order in perturbation theory. Higher-order
perturbation theory in this particular context does not necessarily imply that the resonance is weak, because each
new factor of the small parameter (e.g., perturbing satellite
mass relative to that of Jupiter) is accompanied by at least
one power of a small divisor. Many of the results of numerical simulations can be understood in light of this analysis,
but not all. It appears likely to us that this particular analytical approach does not describe the complete picture for
the three-body resonances, possibly because we are in a
regime where the perturbation expansions are poorly convergent. (It should be emphasized that the problems lie
not with the truncation of the disturbing function, but
rather with the perturbative resonance analysis built on
it.) A different approach is called for. We defer this to
future work, and concentrate on the numerical solution of
the perturbation equations.
The differential equations are approximated by an algebraic mapping (details given in Malhotra 1991). This speeds
up the numerical simulation by a factor of several hundred.
Even so, it is necessary to artificially enhance the rate
of orbital evolution to obtain results within reasonable
computational time. We used Q J 5 100 in all our runs.
TIDAL EVOLUTION INTO LAPLACE RESONANCE
(The Q9i /Q9J are independently specified free parameters.)
A typical run uses p8 hr of CPU time on an HP-735/99MHz workstation. To illustrate, suppose the ‘‘real’’ value
of Q J is 10 5 ; then, using Q J 5 100 in the numerical simulation means that the entire evolution over the 4.5-byr age
of the system is forced to occur over only 4.5 myr. Nevertheless, we expect that the qualitative features of the dynamics are not affected because tidal evolution with Q J 5
100 is slow enough to be adiabatic on the time scale of the
gravitational perturbations. Quantitative confirmation of
this assumption is discussed in Section 2.5.
We note here that the model accounts for only the lowfrequency resonant perturbations, and so is valid only for
sufficiently small ug 1 u and ug 2u. We restrict our calculations
to ug 1 u, ug 2 u , 108 day 21. Although this range corresponds
to only a few percent change in a 1 /a 2 and a 2 /a 3 , it is comparable to the extent of evolution expected over Solar System
history for reasonable Q J values (p10 5 ). The satellites may
thus have formed in the region of validity of the model
for g 1 and g 2 .
For most of the simulations discussed in this paper, Ganymede’s initial eccentricity was 0.001. Resonance encounter usually occurred (when at all) with an eccentricity somewhat smaller than the initial value.
2.2. Example Runs
In this section, we describe in detail the evolution of the
system in three different runs. These illustrate the range
of possible orbital and dynamical histories of the Galilean
satellites that we have found in more than 300 numerical
simulations. The time evolution of several parameters in
these runs is plotted in Figs. 2, 3, and 4. Panels (a), (b),
and (c) in these figures depict the evolution of the orbital
eccentricities of Io, Europa, and Ganymede; panel (d)
shows the ratio g 1 /g 2 ; and (e) shows our assumed Q91 /
Q9J . The time axis runs from 0 to 1.3 3 10 4 Q J years (assuming k J 5 0.38, following Gavrilov and Zharkov 1977). (In
displaying the results of our simulations, we have factored
out QJ on the time axis. This stresses the fact that QJ is
unknown and that, for a given simulation with specified
Q9i /Q9J over time, the timescale for the evolution scales
linearly with QJ.) Thus, the evolution shown in these figures
would occur in 4 byr if QJ 5 3 3 105, but only 400 myr if
QJ 5 3 3 104. There is no special significance to the origin
on the time axis. Note that the end state of the system in
each of these runs is close to that observed at the present
epoch: the satellites are trapped in the Laplace resonance,
and the final orbital eccentricities are close to the observed
forced eccentricities. The three runs differ in initial conditions and in the assumed tidal dissipation functions. Consequently, the runs differ in the sequence of Laplace-like
resonances that the satellites encounter and temporarily
enter before reaching the current state.
97
The initial values of the frequencies (g 1 ,g 2 ) in Figs. 2,
3, and 4 were (25.6,23.2), (26.2,22.6), and (24.7,28.0)
degrees per day, respectively. All three runs begin with
Q91 /Q9J 5 4 3 10 24. (Other parameter values are listed in
the captions.) We also show the evolution for these runs
on a g 1 –g 2 plot in Fig. 5. In Figs. 2 and 3, the initial value
of g 1 /g 2 is greater than 1, whereas in Fig. 4 it is less than
1. In all three cases, g 1 and g 2 both increase toward zero
over time, but g 1 increases more rapidly, so g 1 /g 2 initially decreases.
In Fig. 2, g 1 /g 2 initially passes through 3/2 from above
without entering this resonance. The rate of change of g 1
decreases, and at some point g 1 becomes almost constant
at a value near 22.5 to 23.08 day 21 (see Fig. 5). (As in
the Yoder–Peale scenario, competition between the effects
of Jupiter’s and Io’s tides causes this effect, but here it
occurs at a larger value of ug 1 u because Q91 /Q9J is one-third
that in the Yoder–Peale scenario.) g 2 continues to increase, however, so g 1 /g 2 reverses direction and begins
climbing. When g 1 /g 2 5 3/2 is reached from below, resonance capture occurs. The resonance excites Ganymede’s
orbital eccentricity, and also causes large variations in Europa’s eccentricity. g 1 and g 2 continue to increase, and a
new equilibrium is reached. At time t 5 10 4 Q J years, we
abruptly increase Q91 /Q9J to 1.27 3 10 23. This change destabilizes the g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 resonance: a short time (p10 3 Q J
years) later, the orbital parameters exhibit large fluctuations and the satellites enter the Laplace resonance
(g 1 5 g 2 ).
The evolution in Fig. 3 is qualitatively similar to that
in Fig. 2: g 1 /g 2 initially decreases, minimizes, and then
increases. The value of g 1 at the minimum is roughly the
same as in Fig. 2 (see Fig. 5). Because we started with a
greater initial value of g 2 , however, the minimum occurs
at g 1 /g 2 . 3/2 in Fig. 3, rather than at g 1 /g 2 , 3/2 as in
Fig. 2. Thus, in this case, the system never encounters the
g 1 /g 2 5 3/2 resonance. When g 1 /g 2 approaches the value
2, the satellites are captured in this Laplace-like resonance.
(Note again that this resonance capture occurs from below;
the early encounter of g 1 /g 2 with the value 2 from above
did not result in resonance capture.) This resonance also
pumps up Ganymede’s eccentricity. At t 5 10 4 Q J years,
we change Q91 /Q9J to 2.5 3 10 23, and the system jumps into
the Laplace resonance.
In our third example, shown in Fig. 4, the system first
enters the g 1 /g 2 P 1/2 Laplace-like resonance; however,
this resonance is soon disrupted, and g 1 /g 2 increases past
1 (without entering the Laplace resonance), and is next
captured into the g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 resonance. When we change
Q91 /Q9J to 1.9 3 10 23 at time at t 5 10 4 Q J years, the system
jumps into the Laplace resonance. In this example there
are two eccentricity pumping episodes, one for g 1 /g 2 P
1/2 and one for g 1 /g 2 P 3/2. If resurfacing is associated
with each episode, two resurfacing events would occur.
98
SHOWMAN AND MALHOTRA
Evolutionary paths as shown in Figs. 2, 3, and 4 represent
plausible paths to the current state: in all three cases the
system ends in the Laplace resonance. However, this has
occurred only because we increased Q91 /Q9J by a factor of
p3 during each run; we will see later that decreasing
FIG. 2. First example run: The system was temporarily captured in
the g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 resonance before evolving into the Laplace resonance.
Shown are time evolution of the eccentricities of (a) Io, (b) Europa, and
(c) Ganymede, and (d) the ratio g 1/g 2; panel (e) shows the assumed
Q91 /Q9J over time. The time axes in (a)–(e) are the same and run from
0 to 1.3 3 104QJ years. In this run, the ratios of the tidal dissipation
functions, Q9i /Q9J (Q9 ; Q/k), were Q93 /Q9J 5 0.127 and Q92 /Q9J 5 4.1 3
1023; Q91 /Q9J was initially set to 4 3 1024 and was changed at time 104QJ
years to 1.27 3 1023, which caused the system to jump from g 1 /g 2 P 3/2
into the Laplace resonance (g 1 5 g 2 ) after rapid fluctuation of the
variables. The state of the system at the end of the integration is close
to that observed at present.
FIG. 3. Second example run: The system was temporarily captured
in the g 1 /g 2 P 2 resonance before reaching the current configuration.
All panels are the same as in Fig. 2. The tidal parameters Q9i /Q9J are the
same as for Fig. 2, except that at 104 QJ years, Q91 /Q9J was changed to
2.5 3 1023. This change disrupted the g 1 /g 2 P 2 resonance and allowed
capture into the Laplace resonance.
TIDAL EVOLUTION INTO LAPLACE RESONANCE
99
heat flow measured by Veeder et al. (1994) may require
time variable Q91 /Q9J , given the lower bound on the timeaveraged Q J (Goldreich and Soter 1966, Yoder and Peale
1981). Furthermore, laboratory experiments have shown
that terrestrial rocks have strongly temperature-dependent
Q at high frequencies (Berckhemer et al. 1982). Although
data at low frequencies are lacking, it is reasonable to
expect temperature dependence at tidal frequencies also,
especially at temperatures near the solidus. In addition,
Io’s and Europa’s second-degree Love numbers depend
on satellite structure: they are near p0.02 for a frozen
interior but close to p1 for a massively molten interior.
Changes in satellite internal temperature or structure could
thus cause large variations in Q9i . Finally, processes may
act in Jupiter to produce changes in Q J (e.g., Stevenson
1983, Ioannou and Lindzen 1993), possibly of large amplitude. Any of these mechanisms could produce time-variable Q91 /Q9J and may allow disruption of the g 1 /g 2 P 2 or
g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 Laplace-like resonances followed by capture
into the Laplace resonance.
When Q91 /Q9J oscillates (as a sinusoid or square wave)
with periods of p10 8 –10 9 years and amplitudes comparable
to that used in Figs. 2–4, the Laplace-like resonances are
generally disrupted near a maximum in the cycle (not necessarily the first). Subsequent minima of Q91 /Q9J , however,
do not cause a second resonance capture into the Laplacelike resonance—the system generally remains in the La-
FIG. 4. Third example run: The system evolved through both the
g 1 /g 2 P 1/2 and g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 resonances in this run. All panels are the
same as in Figs. 2 and 3. The ratios of tidal Q9i /Q9J are exactly the same
as those used in Fig. 2, except for a change in Q91 /Q9J to 1.9 3 1023 at
104QJ years. The main differences are the initial values of g 1 and g 2.
Q92 /Q9J by a factor of p100 also leads to disruption. Superficially, the discrete changes we make in the tidal Q’s in
these numerical experiments may appear artificial to the
reader; however, despite the fact that most analytical orbital modeling assumes constant Q, time variability of
Q91 /Q9J and Q92 /Q9J is very likely. Indeed, the high ionian
FIG. 5. Paths of the system in the three example runs of Figs. 2–4
are displayed on an g 1 –g 2 diagram. Note that all three paths change to
high slope at g 1 P 238 day21.
100
SHOWMAN AND MALHOTRA
place resonance itself. The Greenberg (1982)/Ojakangas
and Stevenson (1986) model, in which the coupling between orbital dynamics and geophysics drives oscillation
in Q91 /Q9J , thus constitutes a plausible mechanism for disruption of the g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 or 2 resonance and capture
into the Laplace resonance.
2.3. Capture Statistics for the g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 and g 1 /g 2 P 2
Resonances
We have seen that the g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 and g 1 /g 2 P 2
Laplace-like resonances excite Ganymede’s eccentricity to
sufficiently high values that the consequent enhanced tidal
heating could be geophysically significant. To estimate the
viability of this scenario, we have to consider two issues:
(1) What are the capture probabilities for g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 and
2 resonances assuming they are encountered? (2) What
conditions allow g 1 and g 2 to evolve in such a manner
that the resonances are encountered?
To answer these questions, we made many numerical
simulations with a large range of initial conditions. Our
study covered the range (29,22) and (28,21) deg/day for
the initial values of (g 1 , g 2 ), with initial g 1 /g 2 ranging
from 0.2 to 3.1. We used a variety of Q91 /Q9J values and
Q93 /Q9J values. Most runs used Q92 /Q9J 5 4 3 10 23 (which
implies Q 2 5 100 for k 2 5 0.03, Q J 5 3 3 10 5, and k J 5
0.38); in a few runs we varied Q92 /Q9J by factors of p2. The
Q9i /Q9J are constant in time for all runs discussed in this subsection.
First consider capture probabilities. Of 88 runs encountering g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 from above, none was captured; however, of 64 runs encountering g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 from below, 60
were captured. For the g 1 /g 2 P 2 resonance, 0 of 36 runs
were captured from above and 35 of 37 were captured
from below. Thus, for both resonances, capture probabilities from below are very high, but capture from above
apparently cannot occur. This behavior contrasts with that
of the g 1 /g 2 P 1/2, 2/3, and 3/4 resonances, for which
capture occurs from above (Malhotra 1991). This also differs from the Laplace resonance, for which capture from
either above or below can easily occur. The runs encountering these resonances from above use Q91 /Q9J 5 (6–400)
3 1025, while those from below use Q91 /Q9J 5 (6–80) 3
1025. We noticed no dependence of capture probability on
Q91 /Q J within that range.
Next consider conditions leading to resonance encounter. From a wide variety of initial g 1 and g 2 , capture into
g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 or 2 occurs commonly for Q91 /Q9J # few 3
1024, but never for Q91 /Q9J P 1023. This phenomenon results
not from a different capture probability at higher Q91 /Q9J
but because the resonances are never encountered from
below for these large values. The runs displayed in Figs.
2, 3, and 4 suggest an explanation for this phenomenon,
which we have confirmed with another p100 runs. As
described by the Yoder and Peale (1981) scenario, g 1 initially increases much faster than g 2 , so the system moves
almost horizontally (with low positive slope) across the
g 1 –g 2 plot. Eventually, g 1 achieves equilibrium while g 2
continues to increase, so g 1 /g 2 minimizes and begins increasing, and the slope turns toward vertical (i.e., high
positive slope). If Q91 /Q9J P 1023, as assumed by Yoder and
Peale (1981), this happens at g 1 P 21.28 day21, as shown
in Fig. 1. Unless g 2 is very close to zero, the minimum
occurs at g 1 /g 2 , 1, so that the system encounters the
Laplace resonance before encountering g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 or 2
from below. At these low values of ug 1 u and ug 2 u, capture
into the Laplace resonance is ensured (Yoder and Peale
1981), so entry into g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 or 2 cannot occur.
When Q91 /Q9J is lower, however, the equilibrium value
of g 1 is more negative. This phenomenon has two effects
which favor capture into g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 or 2. First, for given
initial g 1 and g 2 , equilibration occurs at larger values of
g 1 /g 2 than is possible for greater Q91 /Q9J . Thus, some runs
minimize at g 1 /g 2 greater than 1, which is essentially impossible at Q91 /Q9J P 1023. These runs will never encounter
the Laplace resonance, and will therefore be captured into
g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 or 2 with near-unit probability if the minimum
value of g 1 /g 2 is between 1 and 2. The fraction of initial
g 1 and g 2 values for which such ensured capture occurs
increases with decreasing Q91 /Q9J . Second, scenarios that
encounter the Laplace resonance from below do so at
larger negative values of g 1 , for which capture into the
Laplace resonance is unlikely (Yoder and Peale 1981).
There is thus a significant probability that the system will
not enter the resonance, but instead that g 1 /g 2 will continue to increase. The system will then be captured into
g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 or 2 with high probability. Our simulations
confirm this picture. Of the 27 runs that minimize at g 1 /
g 2 , 1 (for Q91 /Q9J P 4 3 1024), 11 entered g 1 /g 2 5 3/2
and 16 entered the Laplace resonance. (The run shown in
Fig. 4 is one of the 11 that entered g 1 /g 2 P 3/2.) These
runs encountered the Laplace resonance at g 1 and g 2 between 23 and 248 day21.
These results are shown graphically in Fig. 6 which shows
the capture probabilities into various resonances on an
g 1 –g 2 diagram. For concreteness, we show probabilities
for Q91 /Q9J 5 4 3 1024. The figure depicts the capture
probabilities into (a) the Laplace resonance, (b) the g 1 /
g 2 P 3/2 resonance, (c) the g 1 /g 2 P 2 resonance, and (d)
other resonances. The shading at a given (g 1 , g 2 ) point
gives the capture probability for the resonance in question,
for evolution beginning at that point on the diagram. (The
runs that enter g 1 5 g 2 often pass through g 1 /g 2 P 1/2,
2/3, or 3/4 first.) Dark hatching corresponds to unit probability, white to zero probability, and light hatching to intermediate (p50%) probability. The axes span approximately
0 to 258 day21. As can be seen, there are large portions
of the diagram for which capture into g 1 /g 2 5 3/2 or 2 is
TIDAL EVOLUTION INTO LAPLACE RESONANCE
101
FIG. 6. Schematic summary of capture probabilities as a function of initial g 1 and g 2 for the different resonances, shown on g 1 –g 2 plots.
The probabilities shown hold for Q91 /Q9J P 4 3 1024. Capture probabilities from given initial (g 1, g 2) are 1 if the point is dark-hatched, 0 if the
point is white, and intermediate for light hatching. The four panels show probabilities for capture into (a) the Laplace resonance, (b) g 1 /g 2 P
3/2, (c) g 1 /g 2 P 2, and (d) other states characterized by evolution to high g 1/g 2 values. The probabilities depend on Q91 /Q9J , as described in the text.
ensured. More than half the area has moderate capture
probability for g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 and for the Laplace resonance.
Runs starting in the dark region indicated in Fig. 6d evolved
toward greater g 1 /g 2 , stabilizing at g 1 /g 2 p 8–40, depending on initial conditions. We surmise that in these
runs, where the system is initially very close to the Europa–
Ganymede 2 : 1 resonance, equilibrium of the 2 : 1 pairwise
resonances was achieved without the system ever becoming
captured in a Laplace-like resonance.
The probabilities shown in Fig. 6 depend on Q91 /Q9J . For
smaller values of Q91 /Q9J , the pattern would be similar, but
the axes would span a larger range of g 1 and g 2 and conversely for larger values of Q91 /Q9J . For example, for Q91 /
Q9J p 7 3 1025, the axes span 0 to 2108 day21 in g 1 and
g 2 . If Q91 /Q9J 5 1 3 1023 the picture is very different:
capture into the Laplace resonance would occur from everywhere in the g 1 –g 2 diagram except possibly for very
small initial values of ug 2 u; capture into g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 or 2
is impossible. The corresponding Fig. 6a would then be
almost fully dark-hatched, and Figs. 6b and c would be
fully white.
Capture probability also depends on e 3 before resonance
encounter. We conclude in the Appendix that capture into
the g 1 /g 2 P 2 resonance is likely if the initial e 3 # 0.001.
Because the damping time for the eccentricity is on the
order of 108 years for reasonable (Q/k)3 , Ganymede’s eccentricity would likely have been negligible if resonance
encounter occurred more than half a billion years after
Solar System formation.
In summary, for plausible values of Q91 /Q9J , capture into
g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 or g 1 /g 2 P 2 is moderately probable. For a
substantial fraction of plausible initial conditions, the satellites pass through the g 1 /g 2 P 1/2, 2/3, or 3/4 resonance.
2.4. Characteristics of g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 and 2 Resonances
As mentioned in the Introduction, the g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 and
g 1 /g 2 P 2 Laplace-like resonances provide potentially
much greater tidal heating in Ganymede than the g 1 /g 2
P 1/2 resonance identified in Malhotra (1991). In Fig. 7,
we display the maximum eccentricity and energy dissipation that Ganymede can achieve in the g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 and
2 resonances, and compare them with the maximum possible for the g 1 /g 2 P 1/2 resonance. As the dissipated power
FIG. 7. (a) Maximum eccentricities and (b) the dissipated power
associated with those eccentricities, for the g 1 /g 2 P 2, g 1 /g 2 P 3/2, and
g 1 /g 2 P 1/2 resonances, as a function of Q93 /Q9J , the ratio of Q/k for
Ganymede to that for Jupiter. For the g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 and 2 resonances,
‘‘maximum eccentricity’’ is the equilibrated (steady-state) eccentricity;
for the g 1 /g 2 P 1/2 resonance, it is that at the peak of the largest possible eccentricity ‘‘bump.’’ (Runs for g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 and 2 used Q91 /Q9J 5
4 3 1024, and those for g 1 /g 2 P 1/2 used 1.2 3 1023. All runs used
Q92 /Q9J 5 4 3 1023.)
102
SHOWMAN AND MALHOTRA
depends on Q93 /Q9J , we plot the eccentricity and dissipation
as a function of Q93 /Q9J . The eccentricity shown is the
steady-state eccentricity occurring after equilibration of
the three-body resonance. The dissipation is calculated
from Q93 /Q9J , Q9J , and the equilibrated eccentricity using
the formula for tidal dissipation in a homogeneous, synchronously rotating satellite in an eccentric orbit (Peale
and Cassen 1978),
Ė 5
21 k R 5GM 2p ne 2
,
2 Q
a6
where Ė is the dissipated power, R is the satellite’s radius,
a, e, and n are the orbital semimajor axis, eccentricity, and
mean motion, Mp is the primary’s mass (Jupiter), G is the
gravitational constant, Q is the satellite’s effective tidal
dissipation function, and k is the satellite’s second-degree
Love number; we use modern values a 5 1.07 3 109 m
and n 5 1.0 3 1025 s21. For the highest eccentricities shown,
the equilibrium eccentricity is reached 1–2 3 104 Q J years
after resonance capture; however, for the lowest eccentricities, the equilibration time is only p103 Q J years. The
maximum eccentricity and dissipation for g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 or
2 are significantly greater than for g 1 /g 2 P 1/2. Interestingly, as Q93 /Q9J R y, the eccentricity saturates at a finite
value, and as Q93 /Q9J R 0, the eccentricity tends to zero.
The dissipation requires more careful consideration. For
a given Q9J , the dissipation saturates at a finite value as
Q93 R 0 but tends to zero for Q93 R y; however, for a
given Q93 , dissipation R y as Q9J R 0, while dissipation
tends to zero for Q9J R y. Dissipation is thus not solely a
function of Q93 /Q9J ; we plot it as such by incorporating Q J
into the vertical axis, using k J 5 0.38. For Q J p 3 3 105,
the maximum dissipation for these resonances is few 3 1011
W, about an order of magnitude lower than the primordial
radiogenic heating rate (using carbonaceous chondritic radionuclide abundances for Ganymede’s rock). If the resonances are disrupted before equilibration occurs, the actual
peak eccentricity and dissipation would be lower, as occurs,
for example, in Fig. 4 during the g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 resonance.
We find that the dissipation and eccentricity for g 1 /g 2
P 3/2 are roughly independent of g 1 or g 2 at capture. For
a given Q93 /Q9J , runs achieving values of ug 1 u from 2 to 88
day21 at capture and from 1.5 to 4.38 day21 at equilibrium
of the three-body resonance yielded steady-state eccentricities differing by only 4%. Similar results hold for g 1 /g 2
P 2. In contrast, Malhotra (1991) found that for g 1 /g 2 P
1/2 the maximum eccentricity depends strongly on g 1 at
capture. This occurs because entry into the resonance at
lower values of g 1 and g 2 allows a longer resonance lifetime, which leads to higher eccentricities; however, the g 1 /
g 2 P 3/2 and 2 resonances are never disrupted by themselves, so the lifetimes are not short enough to prevent
equilibration of the eccentricity. The power and eccentric-
TABLE I
Disruption from v1 / v 2 P 3/2 into Other Resonances
Time of disruption (QJ years)
(Q91 /Q9J )0
3 3 103
7 3 103
104
1.3 3 104
5 3 1024
8 3 1024
1.3 3 1024
No
No
g1 5 g2
No
No
g1 5 g2
No
No
g1 5 g2
No
No
g 1 /g 2 P 2
Note. Entries display the resonance entered after disruption. Runs
labeled ‘‘no’’ were not disrupted from g 1 /g 2 P 3/2.
ity for g 1 /g 2 P 1/2 shown in Fig. 7 are the maximum found
by Malhotra; capture at other g 1 can produce a power for
g 1 /g 2 P 1/2 up to p10 times lower.
Two runs (with Q93 /Q9J P 1021 –1022) entering g 1 /g 2 P
3/2 yielded anomalously low eccentricities of p0.008.
These values fall far below the curve in Fig. 7. We do not
understand this phenomenon, but the probability appears
small, since it occurred in only 3% of our runs for g 1 /g 2
P 3/2 and never occurred for g 1 /g 2 P 2.
2.5. Disruption of g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 and 2 Resonances
For constant Q9i /Q9J values, none of the runs that entered
g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 or 2 was ever disrupted from the resonance.
Thus, if the Q/k are constant in time, the g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 and
2 resonances cannot be possible paths to the current state.
We find that by changing Q91 /Q J or Q92 /Q9J during the run,
however, the resonances can be disrupted and the satellites
subsequently evolve into the Laplace resonance.
We did a number of runs to characterize the conditions
leading to disruption. First consider the g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 resonance. This set of runs was started with g 1 5 25.68 day21
and g 2 5 23.28 day21, with initial g 1 /g 2 5 1.8. The system
thus encountered the g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 resonance from above,
passed through it without capture, minimized at g 1 /g 2 Q
1.2, and as g 1/g 2 increased to 1.5, it entered the g 1 /g 2 P
3/2 resonance from below at g 1 5 22.58 day21. We used
Q93 /Q9J 5 0.0127. The system entered resonance at t 5
2300Q J years, and we continued the integration until 1.7
3 104 Q J years (5 byr for Q J 5 3 3 105). During this initial
phase of the run, we kept Q91 /Q9J constant at 4 3 1024.
Then, at a time t 0 , we changed Q91 /Q9J to another value,
(Q91 /Q9J)0 . We used several different values of t 0 [3300Q J ,
6600Q J , 104 Q J , and 1.33 3 104 Q J years] and of (Q91 /
Q9J)0 [5.0 3 1024, 7.6 3 1024, and 1.3 3 1023].
The results of these 12 runs are summarized in Table I.
None of the runs for the smaller two values of (Q91 /Q9J)0
were disrupted, and all four runs for the larger value were
disrupted. The conditions for disruption thus seem relatively insensitive to the time during resonance at which
disruption occurs. Of the four runs that were disrupted,
TIDAL EVOLUTION INTO LAPLACE RESONANCE
three were captured into the Laplace resonance and one
into g 1 /g 2 P 2. Disruption usually occurred p103 Q J years
after t 0 rather than immediately; such delays are evident
in Figs. 2–4 for our example runs. (When the system is
disrupted from resonance, the new path taken is not predictable on a case-by-case basis. Thus, we cannot infer
from Table I that capture probabilities into g 1 5 g 2 vs g 1 /
g 2 P 2 vary with time of disruption from g 1 /g 2 P 3/
2. Rather, our runs suggest only that disruption into the
Laplace resonance is more likely than into g 1 /g 2 P 2 in
an average sense.)
We also tried two runs for smaller values of Q93 /Q9J , 1.27
3 1023 and 1.27 3 1024, with (Q91 /Q9J)0 5 1.3 3 1023 and
Q92 /Q9J 5 4.1 3 1023. The time between t 0 and disruption
increased substantially over the case with Q93 /Q9J 5 0.0127.
The first run was disrupted, but the second run did not
disrupt before the end of the simulation. The resonance
appears to be slightly more stable at low Q93 /Q9J , presumably because of the lower eccentricities. Using a greater
value (Q91 /Q9J)0 5 1.9 3 1023 allows disruption of the resonance almost immediately at these low Q93 /Q9J values, however. Thus, the dependence on Q93 /Q9J seems much weaker
than that on (Q91 /Q9J)0 .
We also made four runs for g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 in which we
kept Q91 /Q9J constant over the run, but in which we increased or decreased Q92 /Q9J by one or two orders of magnitude at time t 0 . Our initial value was Q92 /Q9J 5 4.1 3 1023
(same as that in the runs discussed above). We found that
abruptly increasing Q92 /Q9J by one or two orders of magnitude during the run produced no visible effect on the resonances. Decreasing by one order of magnitude destabilized
but did not disrupt the resonance, and decreasing by two
orders of magnitude knocked the system into the Laplace resonance.
Next consider g 1 /g 2 P 2. We find that this resonance
is somewhat more stable than g 1 /g 2 P 3/2, requiring an
increase in Q91 /Q9J to (Q91 /Q9J)0 5 1.9 3 1023 for disruption
(using the same Q93 /Q9J and Q92 /Q9J as the 12 runs in Table
I). Changing Q92 /Q9J (but not Q91 /Q9J) during the runs had
the same effect as for the g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 resonance: increasing Q92 /Q9J by one or two orders of magnitude had no effect,
decreasing it by one order of magnitude destabilized but
did not disrupt the resonance, and decreasing it by two
orders of magnitude disrupted the resonance, with subsequent capture into the Laplace resonance.
Both resonances are stable to large decreases in Q91 /
Q9J from 4 3 1024 to 3 3 1025. The change simply shifted
the three-body equilibrium from 21.5 to 288 day21.
Finally, we mention two runs within the Laplace resonance, during which we changed Q91 /Q9J to the large value
p1022. In these runs, Io’s eccentricity reached a maximum
value of 0.012 after the change, soon followed by disruption
of the Laplace resonance. The system then settled at g 1 /
g 2 P 9/10. This result is consistent with the Yoder–Peale
103
theory, which predicts the Laplace resonance to be unstable for e 1 . 0.012.
The above results can be understood as follows in light
of the analysis given in the Appendix. Within any resonance, the equilibrium value of g 1 (and hence also the
equilibrium value of Io’s forced eccentricity, e 12 ) is determined by the value of D1 Q 4.85(Q9J /Q91); e 12 is proportional
to Q91 /Q9J [see Eqs. (A49) and (A60) in the Appendix].
For Q91 /Q9J 5 4 3 1024, we find from Eq. (A60) that e 12 Q
0.0020 in the g 1 /g 2 P 2 Laplace-like resonance; this is
verified in the numerical simulations. (We have also estimated the equilibrium value for the g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 Laplacelike resonance: e 12 P 0.0023.) Note that the three-body
resonant interactions also force large-amplitude oscillations about the mean forced eccentricity, so that the maximum eccentricity is significantly larger. When we change
the value of Q91 /Q9J during the evolution, the equilibrium
is shifted, and the system tries to evolve to the new equilibrium while maintaining the three-body resonance lock. A
decrease in Q91 /Q9J shifts e 12 and g 1 to smaller values, and
the system accordingly moves to the lower equilibrium
point, with no loss of stability. An increase in Q91 /Q9J , on
the other hand, raises these equilibrium values, and the
system tries to move toward this higher equilibrium. In
this case, there are several sources of instability.
1. The resonances are unstable when e 1 exceeds some
maximum value. For the Laplace resonance, Yoder and
Peale (1981) estimated the upper limit to be 0.012 from a
linear stability analysis. For the other Laplace-like resonances, we expect a smaller upper limit for stability.
2. A second, qualitatively distinct source of instability
is the overlap of all Laplace-like resonances sufficiently
close to the origin in the g 1 , g 2 plane. The numerical
explorations by Malhotra (1991) as well as those in the
present work indicate that sufficiently close to the origin
in the g 1 , g 2 plane, the phase space is dominated by the
Laplace resonance. The Galilean satellites evolving along
one of the Laplace-like resonances, g 1 /g 2 P j/( j 1 1) or
( j 1 1)/j, eventually exit that resonance when both ug 1 u
and ug 2 u become sufficiently small; after a period of chaotic
evolution, they eventually enter the Laplace resonance.
3. We see from Eqs. (A59) and (A60) that, after Io’s
eccentricity has reached equilibrium, an increase in (Q91 /
Q9J) by a factor greater than 55.2/21.0 Q 2.6 changes the
sign of the tidal term in the pendulum-like equation for the
g 1 /g 2 P 2 Laplace-like resonance. (This factor is slightly
different for other Laplace-like resonances.) This means
that the tidal torque on the equivalent pendulum would
change direction, causing a slow increase of libration amplitude and eventual disruption of the resonance librations.
All of the above three sources of instability come into play
when we increase Q91 /Q9J during the course of the evolution.
Which of them is the primary cause of resonance disruption
104
SHOWMAN AND MALHOTRA
depends on the exact parameters and state of the system.
But it is clear that even in the absence of the first two, a
sufficiently large increase in Q91 /Q9J during the course of
the evolution would certainly disrupt the resonance.
In the numerical experiments where we start with Q91 /
Q9J 5 4 3 1024, and later increase its value by a factor of
about 3, we note that the g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 or 2 Laplace-like
resonance is not immediately disrupted (cf. Figs. 2–4). Io’s
eccentricity increases toward the new equilibrium value,
while the ratio g 1 /g 2 is, on average, maintained at the
resonant value. During this period, Ganymede’s forced
eccentricity is also maintained at a high value, although
it does not continue its previous increase; this is further
evidence of the fact that the Laplace-like resonance remains in place with the new value of Q91 /Q9J , but there is
no longer the same rate of secular transfer of orbital energy
and angular momentum to Ganymede from Io and Europa.
Eventually the g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 or 2 resonance does become
unstable, when Io’s mean forced eccentricity approaches
p0.005 (maximum e 1 exceeds p0.01) This is followed by
a short period, p103 Q J years, of chaotic, large-amplitude
fluctuations in all dynamical variables, culminating in the
satellites’ entering the Laplace resonance. The Laplace
resonance cannot maintain Ganymede’s high forced eccentricity, so e 3 plummets rapidly. It appears likely in this case
that the parameters of the system conspire in such a way
that all three causes of instability identified above occur
nearly simultaneously.
In the above numerical experiments, we have chosen to
use a very simple step-function model for the time variation
of Q91 /Q9J . This is admittedly not a physically realistic
model; however, physically realistic models for the Q and
k 2 of Io as well as the Q of Jupiter remain highly unconstrained at present. Given this, building a specific physical
model for the evolution of these parameters and folding
it in with the orbital dynamics model are poorly justified.
The numerical experiments here do serve our limited purpose of investigating the response of the three-body Laplace-like resonances to changes in Q91 /Q9J .
2.6. Other Results
We report in this section the results of a few runs in
which the system entered other resonances. One entered
g 1 /g 2 P 13/6, and another entered what was perhaps g 1 /
g 2 p 7/3 or 11/5. Two runs spent a few percent of the
integration time in g 1 /g 2 P 4/3 before disruption into
another resonance (g 1 /g 2 P 2 in one case and g 1 /g 2 p 7/3
in another). None of these resonances pumps Ganymede’s
eccentricity, and the combined probabilities for these paths
appear low.
These resonances are dynamically similar to the g 1 /g 2
P 3/2 and 2 resonances: capture occurred only from below,
and, with the exception of g 1 /g 2 P 4/3, disruption never
occurred; the system equilibrated at values of g 1 greater
than that for the Io–Europa pairwise resonance alone. In
contrast, resonances below g 1 /g 2 5 1 are always disrupted,
usually into the Laplace resonance or g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 (depending on Q91 /Q9J); these resonances never achieved equilibrium. The resonances above the Laplace resonance thus
seem to exhibit dynamics very different from those below
the Laplace resonance.
3. GANYMEDE’S FREE ECCENTRICITY
In this section, we consider the problem of Ganymede’s
large free eccentricity, e free 5 0.0015. This has long been
a puzzle because the tidal damping time for Ganymede’s
eccentricity is 106 Q 3 , or about 108 years for a plausible
Q 3 P 102 ; its free eccentricity should therefore have long
damped by the present time. Although free eccentricity is
often portrayed as a ‘‘remnant’’ primordial eccentricity,
orbital resonances can pump the free as well as the forced
eccentricity. (The free eccentricity is manifested in Figs.
2–4 as a rapid oscillation about the mean value.) Since
the Laplace resonance does not pump Ganymede’s free
eccentricity, e free may thus provide a useful constraint on
past orbital evolution. We find that the free eccentricity
Ganymede attains in the g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 or 2 resonance is
greater for smaller Q91 /Q9J , possibly because smaller Q91 /
Q9J leads to equilibration of the three-body resonances
closer to the (g 1 , g 2 ) origin. For constant Q91 /Q9J P 4 3
1024, the g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 and 2 resonances pump Ganymede’s
free eccentricity to p6–9 3 1024, independent of Q93 /Q9J .
Although this is almost an order of magnitude higher than
that typically achieved during g 1 /g 2 P 1/2, it is still a factor
of p2 lower than that observed.
We consider here the size of an asteroidal or cometary
impactor required to excite Ganymede’s eccentricity to
0.0015, and compare this estimate with the impactor masses
obtained from Ganymede’s largest craters.
Let the comet strike Ganymede at an angle u tangent
to Ganymede’s orbit, where u is measured in an inertial
reference frame centered on Jupiter. Let u p 0 imply an
overtaking collision and u p f imply a head-on collision.
We assume the comet strikes through Ganymede’s center
of mass, so no change in rotation occurs. We further assume
an inelastic collision in which Ganymede retains the cometary mass. If the eccentricity is initially zero, then the
eccentricity after impact is (to second order in m/M, which
is taken to be a small quantity)
e2 5
S DF
m
M
2
41
G
v2c
vc
2
cos u ,
2 (1 1 3 cos u ) 2 8
vi
vi
where m and vc are the cometary mass and speed, and M
and vi are Ganymede’s mass and speed, respectively. Both
TIDAL EVOLUTION INTO LAPLACE RESONANCE
speeds are measured relative to Jupiter. For vc 5 vi and
u 5 0, the comet should ‘‘soft land’’ on Ganymede without
perturbing the eccentricity. As required, the equation gives
e 5 0 for this situation.
A comet capable of pumping Ganymede’s eccentricity
to 0.0015 must thus be of mass p1020 kg. Is this plausible?
The largest fresh crater on Ganymede is Gilgamesh, which
has a probable excavation diameter of 550 km (Shoemaker
et al. 1982). We calculate the transient crater diameter
using the relation from McKinnon and Schenk (1995), and
then estimate the impactor mass from the scaling law in
Chapman and McKinnon (1986, p. 502),
m5
F G S D
3V
4f
r
3
4fA
3/(32a)
3.22g
u2
3a /(32a)
,
where V is the transient crater volume, r is the impactor
density (assumed equal to the target density), u is impact
speed, g is surface gravity, and A and a are dimensionless
parameters. Using nominal values u 5 15 km sec21, g 5
1.5 m sec22, plus A 5 0.19 and a 5 0.65 appropriate to
a solid ice target, we find that a 1017-kg bolide created
Gilgamesh. Choosing smaller values for A and a allows a
larger impactor for a given crater size. Using A 5 0.1 and
a 5 0.5, which are plausible lower bounds, implies an
impactor of mass p1018 kg, still far too small. Other large
impact features on Ganymede, such as palimpsests, are so
old that any eccentricity they produce would be damped
by the present time. Thus, we conclude that Ganymede’s
eccentricity cannot have been produced by an impact.
Although the g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 and 2 resonances excite Ganymede’s free eccentricity to only half the current value
in our runs, paths may exist that allow larger free eccentricities. Exploratory runs suggest that these resonances are
slightly more stable to gradual billion-year changes in
Q91 /Q9J than to abrupt changes (although disruption can
still occur). Slow change to Q91 /Q9J 5 1023 leads to e free 5
1.0 3 1023 in cases when disruption does not occur, and
larger e free may be possible if Q91 /Q9J rises even higher
before disruption.
4. SUMMARY
We have used the model of Malhotra (1991) to explore
the orbital dynamics and tidal evolution of Io, Europa,
and Ganymede near the Laplace resonance. Our principal
results are those relevant to Ganymede’s thermal history.
We have shown that if the satellites passed through a Laplace-like resonance characterized by either g 1 /g 2 P 3/2
or g 1 /g 2 P 2, Ganymede’s eccentricity could have risen as
high as p0.07. These resonances produce a tidal dissipation
rate several hundred times times higher than at the present
epoch (for reasonable Q J ), and p2–30 times higher than
105
the maximum possible for the g 1 /g 2 P 1/2 Laplace-like
resonance identified by Malhotra (1991). Capture probabilities for these two resonances are p0.9 if they are encountered from below (i.e., with g 1/g 2 increasing with
time); the capture probability is negligible otherwise. We
have found that resonance capture can occur with initial
conditions in a substantial fraction of the g 1 –g 2 plane (i.e.,
for a large range of initial a 1 /a 2 and a 2 /a 3 values) provided
Q91 /Q9J # 6 3 1024. This upper limit is slightly smaller than
that needed to maintain Io’s current eccentricity in steady
state, Q91 /Q9J P 1.1 3 1023 (cf. Yoder and Peale 1981). For
the latter value, the properties of the evolution of g 1 and
g 2 conspire with capture statistics for the Laplace resonance to prevent the system from ever encountering these
new resonances from below. This explains why they were
not seen by Malhotra (1991), who restricted her study to
Q91 /Q9J P 1.1 3 1023. We note that the smaller values of
Q91 /Q9J (which allow capture in the g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 and g 1 /g 2
P 2 resonances) are reasonable, and could in fact be close
to the modern value because that required for equilibrium
at present may be too large to maintain Io’s current heat
flow (Veeder et al. 1994).
These new resonances differ from g 1 /g 2 P 1/2 in one
important respect: they achieve stable equilibria and,
therefore, are never disrupted if the Q/k are constant in
time; however, we find that increasing Q91 /Q9J by a factor
of p3 or decreasing Q92 /Q9J by a factor of p100 disrupts
the resonances, allowing capture into the Laplace resonance with high probability. We have verified many of
the results of our numerical simulations by a perturbation
analysis of the low-order resonant interactions.
Just as in the previous study of Malhotra (1991), the
net orbital expansion of the Galilean satellites required in
these evolutionary paths is easily accommodated with a
tidal dissipation function for Jupiter, Q J , of a few 3105.
In two companion papers we discuss the implications
of resonance passage for Ganymede’s thermal history. In
Showman et al. (1996) we couple the orbital model to an
internal model for Ganymede. In certain circumstances,
nonlinear ‘‘thermal runaways’’ can occur within Ganymede, causing internal warming and melting of the ice
mantle. In Showman and Stevenson (1996), we propose
models of local, near-surface thermal runaways, and evaluate the efficacy of several resurfacing mechanisms. Because
the greater dissipation increases the likelihood of resurfacing, we favor g 1 /g 2 P 3/2 or 2 over g 1 /g 2 P 1/2 for the
orbital history of the Galilean satellites before evolution
into the Laplace resonance.
Since the current resonances do not explain Ganymede’s
free eccentricity, e free is a remnant of Ganymede’s prior
history. We have shown that the mass of a cometary or
asteroidal impactor required to pump e free to its current
value is p102 –103 times larger than that which produced
Gilgamesh, the only candidate crater for such an impact.
106
SHOWMAN AND MALHOTRA
We surmise that the current free eccentricity is thus remnant from an ancient resonance passage. The g 1 /g 2 P 3/
2 and 2 resonances can pump e free up to two-thirds its
modern value. Our models employ constant or step-function Q9i /Q9J , however. More realistic time variation in these
parameters may yield larger e free .
Other observed orbital parameters of the Galilean satellites also hold memory of their prior evolution and may
provide further constraints. The libration amplitudes for
the u 11 , u 12 , u 23 , and Laplace resonances (Sinclair 1975)
contain information about the age of the resonances, the
g 1 –g 2 path followed in the past, the Q9i /Q9J and their time
histories, and other factors. A successful model of the orbital and thermal history of these satellites should, in principle, yield simultaneously the current values of all four
libration amplitudes; this constraint could allow some orbital histories to be excluded. In practice, however, the
factors affecting the amplitudes might be difficult to separate, preventing useful constraints on any individual parameter from being developed. Furthermore, passage
through resonance inevitably involves the crossing of a
chaotic region of phase space. This means that a certain
degree of uncertainty in the final values of the orbital
parameters is unavoidable. Finally, it is also worth keeping
in mind that for a dissipative system, there are multiple,
nonunique, paths to an equilibrium (or quasi-equilibrium)
state; the final state of the system would retain only partial
memory of initial conditions and intermediate states.
tricity. [We also take account of three other sources of
secular terms: in the Io–Ganymede interaction, the secular
perturbations of Callisto on Io, Europa and Ganymede,
and the effects of the oblateness of Jupiter. Details on
these are not essential to the analysis here; the interested
reader is referred to Malhotra (1991).] The expansion of
R (12) is given by
R (12) 5 f0(e 21 1 e 22 ) 1 f1 e 1 cos(u 1 2 Ã 1 )
1 f2 e 2 cos(u 1 2 Ã 2 ) 1 f3 e 21 cos 2(u 1 2 Ã 1 )
1 f4 e 22 cos 2(u 1 2 Ã 2 )
(A1)
1 f5 e 1 e 2 cos(2u 1 2 Ã 1 2 Ã 2 )
1 f6 e 1 e 2 cos(Ã 1 2 Ã 2 ).
The expression for R (23) is obtained by shifting the satellite
indices by 1 (1 R 2, 2 R 3). Here à i are the longitudes
of periapse; u 1 5 2l 2 2 l 1 and u 2 5 2l 3 2 l 2 are the
pairwise 2 : 1 resonant combinations of mean longitudes
l i ; and the fi are functions of Laplace coefficients,
b s( j)(a) (a 5 a 1 /a 2 , 1 is the ratio of the semimajor axes).
The expressions for the fi and their numerical values evaluated at exact resonance, a 5 (1/2)2/3 5 0.62996, are as
follows:
D
d2
1
d
(0)
1 a 2 2 b 1/2
2a
(a) Q 10.39,
8
da
da
f1 5 2
1
d
41a
b (2) (a) Q 21.19,
2
da 1/2
f2 5 1
1
d
31a
b (1) (a) 2 2a Q 10.43,
2
da 1/2
f3 5 1
d2
1
d
(4)
44 1 14a
(a) Q 11.67,
1 a 2 2 b 1/2
8
da
da
f4 5 1
d2
1
d
(2)
38 1 14a
(a) Q 13.59,
1 a 2 2 b 1/2
8
da
da
f5 5 2
d2
1
d
(3)
42 1 14a
(a) Q 24.97,
1 a 2 2 b 1/2
4
da
da
f6 5 1
d2
1
d
(1)
2 2 2a
(a) Q 10.58.
2 a 2 2 b 1/2
4
da
da
APPENDIX
In this Appendix we give a perturbative analysis of the
evolution of the Galilean satellites near the current pairwise 2 : 1 mean motion resonances, the Laplace resonance
and the lowest-order Laplace-like resonances. We generally follow the approach of Yoder and Peale (1981), so
that the first part of the analysis is essentially similar to
theirs; we provide it here only for completeness and easy
access for the subsequent calculations. We carry the analysis further to isolate the g 1 /g 2 P 2 Laplace-like resonance
that pumps up Ganymede’s eccentricity. Other Laplacelike resonances discussed in this paper require even higher
order analysis, and we do not pursue that here.
For the mutual perturbations of the inner three Galilean
satellites, Io, Europa, and Ganymede, we have two disturbing functions, (Gm 1 m 2 /a 2 )R (12) and (Gm 2 m 3 /a 3 )R (23),
where G is the universal constant of gravitation, m i are
the satellite masses, and a i are the orbital semimajor axes;
the indices 1, 2, and 3 refer to Io, Europa, and Ganymede,
respectively. We use a series expansion of the pairwise
disturbing function in powers of the orbital eccentricities,
retaining only the terms that describe the secular and 2 : 1
resonant interactions between Io and Europa and between
Europa and Ganymede, up to the second order in eccen-
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
f0 5 1
D
D
D
D
D
D
(A2)
The equations for the perturbations are most conveniently written in terms of the Poincaré variables, (k i , h i )
5 (e i cos à i , e i sin à i ), and the angles, u 1 and u 2 . Then,
k̇ 1 5 2e 2 an 1
­ (12)
R ,
­h 1
ḣ 1 5 1e 2 an 1
­ (12)
R ,
­k 1
(A3)
107
TIDAL EVOLUTION INTO LAPLACE RESONANCE
k̇ 2 5 2e 1 n 2
­ (12)
­ (23)
R 2 e 3 an 2
R ,
­h 2
­h 2
ḣ 2 5 1e 1 n 2
­ (12)
­ (23)
R 1 e 3 an 2
R ,
­k 2
­k 2
k̇ 3 5 2e 2 n 3
­ (23)
R ,
­h 3
­ (23)
R ,
ḣ 3 5 1e 2 n 3
­k 3
ṅ 1 5 13e 2 an 21
­ (12)
R ,
­u 1
­ (12)
­ (23)
ṅ 2 5 26e 1 n 22
R 1 3e 3 an 22
R ,
­u 1
­u 2
ṅ 3 5 26e 2 n 23
­ (23)
R ,
­u 2
variations. We thus obtain the following first order
‘‘forced’’ variations of k i , h i :
SD
S D
de 2i
dt
T
T
5 2c i (1 2 (7Di 2 12.75)e 2i ),
5 2Sd c i (7Di 2 4.75)e 2i .
(A15)
d1 k3 5 e32 cos(u2 1 «3),
(A5)
d1 h3 5 e32 sin(u2 1 «3),
(A16)
(A6)
where, to lowest order, we have
(A7)
(A8)
u 1 5 g 1 t 1 u 10 ,
(A17)
u 2 5 g 2 t 1 u 20 ,
(A18)
g 1 5 2n 2 2 n 1
(A19)
g 2 5 2n 3 2 n 2
(A20)
and
are the unperturbed frequencies of u 1 and u 2 . The forced
eccentricities are given by
(A9)
e 12 5
n 1 e 2 af1
,
g1 2 g1
(A21)
(A10)
e 21 5
n 2 e 1 f2
,
g1 2 g2
(A22)
e 23 5
n 2 e 3 af1
,
g2 2 g2
(A23)
e 32 5
n 3 e 2 f2
,
g2 2 g3
(A24)
k̇ 1 5 2Jd c 1 D1 k 1 2 g 1 h 1 2 n 1 e 2 af1 sin u 1 ,
(A11)
The phase lags in Eqs. (A14)–(A16) are given by
k̇ 2 5 2Jd c 2 D2 k 2 2 g 2 h 2 2 n 2 e 1 f2 sin u 1 2 n 2 e 3 af1 sin u 2 ,
ḣ 2 5 2Jd c 2 D2 h 2 1 g 2 k 2 1 n 2 e 1 f2 cos u 1 1 n 2 e 3 af1 cos u 2 ,
(A12)
k̇ 3 5 2Jd c 3 D3 k 3 2 g 3 h 3 2 n 3 e 2 f2 sin u 2 ,
ḣ 3 5 2Jd c 3 D3 h 3 1 g 3 k 3 1 n 3 e 2 f2 cos u 2 ,
(A14)
d1 h2 5 e21 sin(u1 1 «21) 1 e23 sin(u2 1 «23),
Now, the lowest-order equations for the (k, h) are as
follows:
ḣ 1 5 2Jd c 1 D1 h 1 1 g 1 k 1 1 n 1 e 2 af1 cos u 1 ,
d1 h1 5 e12 sin(u1 1 «1),
d1 k2 5 e21 cos(u1 1 «21) 1 e23 cos(u2 1 «23),
where the n i are the mean motions of the satellites, and
e i 5 m i /M are the satellite masses relative to the mass of
Jupiter. Note that the lowest-order terms for k̇ i , ḣ i are
O (e), whereas for ṅ i , the lowest-order terms are O (ee).
Following Yoder and Peale [1981, their equations (3)–
(6)], we include the effects of tidal dissipation according to
ṅ i
ni
d1 k1 5 e12 cos(u1 1 «1),
(A4)
(A13)
where g i are the precession rates induced by the secular
perturbations alone; in Yoder and Peale’s (1981) notation,
g i 5 Ã̇ is .
We can obtain an approximate solution of these equations by assuming that u̇ 1 5 2n 2 2 n 1 and u̇ 2 5 2n 3 2
n 2 are slowly varying quantities and neglecting their time
«1 5
7 c 1 D1
,
3 g1 2 g1
(A25)
« 21 5
7 c 2 D2
,
3 g1 2 g2
(A26)
« 23 5
7 c 2 D2
,
3 g2 2 g2
(A27)
«3 5
7 c 3 D3
.
3 g2 2 g3
(A28)
The above approximate solution is valid in the regime
where ug 1 u and ug 2 u are not too small compared with
108
SHOWMAN AND MALHOTRA
pn(ee)1/2, a condition that is satisfied for most of the range
of evolution of the system that we have explored in this
paper.
To obtain the lowest-order perturbations on the mean
motions, we retain only the first-order eccentricity terms in
the disturbing function and substitute the forced solutions
[Eqs. (A14)–(A16)] into the right hand side of Eqs. (A6)–
(A8). We also include the dissipative terms [Eq. (A9)].
This yields the following equations that describe the lowest-order three-body interaction:
ṅ 1 5 13n 21 e 2 a[ f1 e 12 « 1 1 f2 e 21 « 21
1 f2 e 23 sin(f 1 « 23 )] 1 (ṅ 1 )T ,
(A37)
ṅ 2 5 2A2 n 22 sin f 2 10.31n 1 c 1 D1 e 212 ,
(A38)
ṅ 3 5 2A3 n 22 sin f,
(A39)
where
A1 5 23e 2 e 3 a 21f1 f2
A2 5 13e 1 e 3 af1 f2
(A29)
ṅ 2 5 26n 22 e 1[ f1 e 12 « 1 1 f2 e 21 « 21 1 f2 e 23 sin(f 1 « 23 )]
1 3n 22 e 3 a[ f1 e 23 « 23 1 f2 e 32 « 3
2 f1 e 21 sin(f 2 « 21 )] 1 (ṅ 2 )T ,
(A30)
ṅ 3 5 26n 23 e 2[ f1 e 23 « 23 1 f2 e 32 « 3
2 f1 e 21 sin(f 2 « 21 )] 1 (ṅ 3 )T ,
ṅ 1 5 2A1 n 22 sin f 2 n 1 c 1(1 2 14D1 e 212 ),
r5
(A32)
1 f2 e 21 « 21 ]
SD
(A33)
a
(A42)
n 2 e 2 f2
e 21
g1 2 g2
(A43)
ġ 1 5 2(2A2 2 A1 )n 22 sin f 1 n 1 c 1(1 2 34.6D1 e 212 ),
(A44)
sin f 1
(A45)
A2 )n 22
10.3n 1 c 1 D1 e 212 ,
and the dynamical equation for f is
f̈ 5 2(A1 2 3A2 1 2A3 )n 22 sin f 2 n 1 c 1(1 2 44.6D1 e 212 ).
(A46)
Q 7n 1 c 1 D1 e 212 1 9.50n 2 c 2 D2 e 221 ,
where we have set n 1 /n 2 Q 2, a 5 0.63, and used the
numerical values of e i . Similar simplifications follow for
the other terms. We then obtain
ṅ 1 5 2n 1 c 1[1 2 (7e 21 1 7e 212 )D1 ] 1 9.50n 2 c 2 D2 e 221
1 3n 21 e 2 af2 e 23 sin(f 1 « 23 ),
g1 2 g2
.
g2 2 g2
From (A37)–(A39), the lowest order perturbation equations for g 1 and g 2 are as follows:
ġ 2 5 2(2A3 2
n 1 e 2 af1
e 12
5 7n 1 c 1 D1
g1 2 g1
e2 n1
e1 n2
(A41)
(A31)
The terms involving the phase lags in the above equations
can be simplified as follows:
1 7n 2 c 2 D2
(A40)
and
f 5 u 2 2 u 1 5 l 1 2 3l 2 1 2l 3 .
2
n2
(1 1 2r),
g1 2 g2
n2
3
A3 5 2 e 1 e 2 f1 f2
,
2
g1 2 g2
where f is the Laplace resonance angle:
3e 2 n 21 a[ f1 e 12 « 1
n2
,
g2 2 g2
(A34)
ṅ 2 5 2n 2 c 2[1 2 (7e 22 1 7e 223 2 14e 221 )D2 ] 2 10.31n 1 c 1 D1 e 212
1 54.56n 3 c 3 D3 e 223 2 6n 22 e 1 f2 e 23 sin(f 1 « 23 )
(A35)
2 3n 22 e 3 af1 e 21 sin(f 2 « 21 ),
ṅ 3 5 2n 3 c 3[1 2 (7e 23 2 14e 232 )D3 ] 2 1.80n 2 c 2 D2 e 223
(A36)
1 6n 23 e 2 f1 e 21 sin(f 2 « 21 ).
Now, following Yoder and Peale (1981), we retain only
the dissipative effects in Io, and we drop the distinction
between e 1 and e 12 . Then,
We note that the coefficient of sin f on the right-hand
side of (A46) is positive. This means that the center of
libration is near f 5 f, as is observed at the present epoch.
It is useful to make some numerical estimates relevant
to our simulations. For the value Q J 5 100 adopted in the
numerical simulations, the magnitude of the tidal dissipation term in Eq. (A46) is p6 3 10210 n 22 , while the ‘‘strength
of the resonance’’ represented by the coefficient of sin f
has a magnitude p4 3 1026 n 22 (where we set n 2 /ug 1 2 g 2 u
P 100, typical value that occurs when the Laplace resonance is encountered). In other words, the tidal torque is
about four orders of magnitude weaker than the strength
of the Laplace resonance, even with the ‘‘artificially enhanced’’ tidal torque that is necessary to do the numerical
simulations in reasonable computer time. Therefore, we
conclude that the adiabaticity of the real system near the
Laplace resonance is preserved in our simulations.
TIDAL EVOLUTION INTO LAPLACE RESONANCE
Eliminating sin f from Eqs. (A44) and (A46), we obtain
F
f̈ 5 2bġ 1 1 (b 2 1)n 1 c 1 1 2
G
34.6b 2 44.6
D1 e 212 ,
b21
(A47)
where
b52
5
A 1 2 3A 2 1 2A 3
2A 2 2 A 1
3 1 (e 2 /ae 3 ) 1 6(1 1 (2ae 2 /3e 1 ))r
2 1 4(1 1 (ae 2 /e 1 ))r
(A48)
of the equations for n i and for (k i , h i ) [Eqs. (A3)–(A8)],
this time retaining terms of the second order in eccentricity
in the disturbing functions. By expanding the resulting
expressions consistent to the next order in perturbation
theory, we find new terms with arguments corresponding
to the g 1 /g 2 5 j/( j 1 1) and g 1 /g 2 5 ( j 1 1)/j Laplacelike resonances.
Omitting the details of the long and tedious algebra
necessary to obtain the complete expansions, we reproduce
below only the slow components corresponding to Laplacelike resonances:
d 2 ṅ 1 5 13n 21 e 2 a[(2 f5 e 23 2 As f1B1 )e*1 sin(2u 1(0) 2 u 2(0) 2 Ã*1 )
1 (4f4 e 23 2 As f2B1 )e*2 sin(2u 1(0) 2 u 2(0) 2 Ã*2 )],
r 1 0.48
5 1.37
.
r 1 0.37
(A53)
Note that b is greater than 1 for all positive values of r
and that its numerical value varies in the small range (1.4,
1.65) for r in the range p1/5 to p5.
For the Laplace resonance, we recover Yoder and
Peale’s (1981) results by setting r 5 1; then b 5 1.48, and
we have
f̈ 5 21.48ġ 1 1 0.48n 1 c 1(1 2 13.7D1 e 212 ).
(A49)
Furthermore, since f librates within the Laplace resonance, we have kf̈l 5 0. Then Eq. (A49) indicates that the
equilibrium value of Io’s forced eccentricity in the Laplace
resonance is given by e 12 5 (13.7D1 )1/2 where ġ 1 (and
ġ 2 ) vanish.
Away from the Laplace resonance, Eqs. (A44)–(A46)
give the following first-order periodic components in the
perturbations of u i :
(2A2 2 A1 )n 22
d 1 u 1 5 B1 sin f, B1 5
,
(g 2 2 g 1 )2
(A50)
(2A3 2 A2 )n 22
.
(g 2 2 g 1 )2
(A51)
d 1 u 2 5 B2 sin f, B2 5
109
To obtain the slow frequency terms describing Laplacelike resonances, g 1 /g 2 P j/( j 1 1) or ( j 1 1)/j, we note that
such terms can arise in higher-order perturbation theory
through combinations of the lower-order solutions. Accordingly, we assume a solution of the form
(k i , h i ) 5 (k*i 1 d 1 k i , h*i 1 d 1 h i ),
(A52)
where d 1 k i , d 1 h i are the first-order ‘‘fast’’ perturbations
[Eqs. (A14)–(A16)], and k*i , h*i refer to the slow components corresponding to a Laplace-like resonance. We substitute the lowest-order solutions into the right-hand sides
d 2 ṅ 3 5 26n 23 e 2[(4f3 e 21 1 As f1B2 )e*2 sin(2u 2(0) 2 u 1(0) 2 Ã*2 )
1 (2 f5 e 21 1 As f2 B2 )e*3 sin(2u 2(0) 2 u 1(0) 2 Ã*3 )],
(A54)
d 2 ṅ 2 5 22
n 22 e 1
1 n 22 e 3 a
d
ṅ
2
d 2 ṅ 3 ,
2
1
n 21 e 2 a
2 n 23 e 2
(A55)
where u i(0) refers to the zeroth-order solution given in Eqs.
(A17) and (A18). We see that there are two Laplace-like
resonances, g 1 /g 2 P 1/2 and g 1 /g 2 P 2, that arise at this
order in the perturbation analysis. Furthermore, there are
two resonant arguments for each of these. Yoder and Peale
(1981) had discussed the former resonances (i.e., the g 1 /
g 2 P 1/2), but not the latter. Here we consider only one
of the g 1 /g 2 P 2 resonances, namely,
c 3 5 2u 2 2 u 1 2 Ã 3 ,
(A56)
which is of interest for Ganymede. [In principle, we should
first establish the conditions under which the two g 1 /g 2
P 2 Laplace-like resonances are decoupled and can be
analyzed separately. Here we note only that to the order
considered, there is no direct coupling between the c 3 and
c 2 5 2u 2 2 u 1 2 Ã 2 resonances, i.e., we find no terms with
arguments that are linear combinations of c 2 and c 3 , and
use this as justification for analyzing the c 3 resonance in
isolation.]
From (A53)–(A55) we obtain the following perturbation
equations for the c 3 components in g 1 and g 2 ,
ġ*1 5 16n 22 e 3 a(2 f5 e 21 1 As f2 B2 )e*3 sin c *3
1 n 1 c 1(1 2 34.6D1 e 212 ),
(A57)
ġ*2 5 2(12n 33 e 2 1 3n 22 e 3 a)(2 f5 e 21 1 As f2 B2 )e*3 sin c *3
(A58)
1 10.3n 1 c 1 D1 e 212 ,
and the pendulum-like equation for c *3 ,
110
SHOWMAN AND MALHOTRA
c̈ *3 Q 2(24n 23 e 2 1 12n 22 e 3 a)(2 f5 e 21 1 As f2 B2 )e*3 sin c *3
2 n 1 c 1(1 2 55.2D1 e 212 ),
(A59)
where we have neglected Ã̈ *3. Equation (A59) shows that
center of libration of c *3 is near 0. Comparison of Eq.
(A59) with Eq. (A46) shows that the c 3 resonance is
weaker than the Laplace resonance by a factor of pe*3.
This means that for the value Q J 5 100 adopted in our
numerical simulations, the tidal dissipation term in Eq.
(A59) is about two orders of magnitude weaker than the
strength of the c 3* resonance [see discussion following Eq.
(A46)]. Therefore, we conclude that the adiabaticity of
the evolution of the real system near this resonance is
preserved in our simulations.
Eliminating e*3 sin c 3* from (A57) and (A59), we have
c̈ *3 5 22.51ġ 1 1 1.51n 1 c 1(1 2 21.0D1 e 212 ). (A60)
When the satellites are locked in this resonance, we have
kc̈ 3*l5 0. Equation (A60) then indicates that within the c 3
resonance Io’s forced eccentricity e 12 reaches an equilibrium value at e 12 5 (21D1 )21/2, where ġ 1 vanishes; however,
this is not a true equilibrium of the system because Ganymede’s forced eccentricity continues to grow.
The forced eccentricity of Ganymede within the c 3 resonance is obtained by considering the equations for k*3 ,
h*3 , including terms up to the second order in eccentricity
in the disturbing function, using the first-order solutions
[(A14)–(A16), (A50), (A51)] to obtain the (2u 2 2 u 1 )
component in the perturbation equations. We find
k̇*3 5 2e 2 n 3( f5 e 21 1 As f2 B2 ) sin(2u 2(0) 2 u 1(0) ),
ḣ*3 5 1e 2 n 3( f5 e 21 1 As f2 B2 ) cos(2u
(0)
2
2u
(A61)
(0)
1 ),
which yield the following approximate solution,
k*3 5 e*32 cos(2u 2(0) 2 u 1(0) ), h*3 5 e*32 sin(2u 2(0) 2 u 1(0) ),
(A62)
where
e*32 5
n 3 e 2( f5 e21 1 As f2 B2 )
.
2g 2 2 g 1
(A63)
Substituting the expressions for e 21 [Eq. (A22)] and B2
[Eq. (A51)] in (A63), setting 2g 2 5 g 1 everywhere except
in the combination 2g 2 2 g 1 , and using numerical values
of e i and the coefficients fi , we have
e*32 Q 1.26 3 1029
F
S
DS
S DG
n2
2g 2 2 g 1
1 2 1.67 3 1024
n2
g1
n2
g1 2 g2
D
(A64)
2
.
We note that as ug 1 u decreases, the first two factors contribute to increasing Ganymede’s forced eccentricity, while
the factor in square braces diminishes it. Thus the general
behavior is that e*32 at first increases, reaches a maximum,
then decreases and vanishes (and the c 3 resonance is disrupted) as ug 1 u decreases. [Numerical experiments revealed
similar behavior of the forced eccentricity of Ganymede
as well as Europa in other Laplace-like resonances; see
Malhotra (1991).] The factor in square braces vanishes
when g 1 /n 2 Q 0.013. The forced eccentricity of Io corresponding to this value is P0.003; however, long before g 1
and e 12 reach these values, we expect the above solution
to break down.
The approximate ‘‘forced’’ solution for k*3 , h*3 given in
Eqs. (A62) and (A63) is valid provided 2g 2 2 g 1 varies
slowly and its magnitude is not too small compared with
nuee 21 e 3 u 1/2, the quantity that describes the approximate
strength of the c 3 resonance [see Eq. (A59)]. (More precisely, use of a Hamiltonian formalism yields the critical
value, e*3,crit , for the c 3 resonance which provides an equivalent estimate of the regime of validity of the approximate
forced solution. We find e 3,crit P 1023.) Thus, we conclude
that the above solution breaks down by the time Ganymede’s eccentricity is excited to values p1023 after the
satellites are captured in the c 3 resonance. We also conclude that capture into the c 3 resonance has high probability if Ganymede’s initial eccentricity is smaller than 1023.
We do not pursue this analysis further, for the degree of
difficulty increases greatly at this stage. Many uncontrolled
approximations are necessary to push the analysis further,
and it has proven difficult to control the proliferation of
terms that occurs in a higher-order analysis. The above
analysis does show that (1) low-order Laplace-like resonances exist that can excite Ganymede’s eccentricity, and
(2) the g 1 /g 2 P 2 resonance is sufficiently strong for resonance capture to occur and for the c 3 libration to be maintained. The analysis increases our confidence in the validity
of the numerical results.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank Paul Schenk for useful discussions. A.S. gratefully acknowledges the Lunar and Planetary Institute Visiting Student and National
Science Foundation graduate fellow support. This research was done
while one of the authors (R.M.) was a Staff Scientist at the Lunar and
Planetary Institute, which is operated by the Universities Space Research
Association under contract NASW-4574 with the National Aeronautics
and Space Administration.
TIDAL EVOLUTION INTO LAPLACE RESONANCE
REFERENCES
BANFIELD, D., AND N. MURRAY 1992. A dynamical history of the inner
neptunian satellites. Icarus 99, 390–401.
BERCKHEMER, H., W. KAMPFMANN, E. AULBACH, AND H. SCHMELING
1982. Shear modulus and Q of forsterite and dunite near partial melting
from forced-oscillation experiments. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 29,
30–41.
CHAPMAN, C. R., AND W. B. MCKINNON 1986. Cratering of planetary
satellites. In Satellites (J. A. Burns and M. S. Matthews, Eds.),
pp. 492–580. Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson.
GAVRILOV, S. V., AND V. N. ZHARKOV 1977. Love numbers of the giant
planets. Icarus 32, 443–449.
GOLDREICH, P.,
375–389.
AND
S. SOTER 1966. Q in the Solar System. Icarus 5,
GREENBERG, R. 1982. Orbital evolution of the Galilean satellites. In
Satellites of Jupiter (D. Morrison, Ed.), pp. 65–92. Univ. of Arizona
Press, Tucson.
GREENBERG, R. 1987. Galilean satellites: Evolutionary paths in deep
resonance. Icarus 70, 334–347.
HENRARD, J. 1983. Orbital evolution of the Galilean satellites: Capture
into resonance. Icarus 53, 55–77.
IOANNOU, P. J., AND R. S. LINDZEN 1993. Gravitational tides in the outer
planets. II. Interior calculations and estimation of the tidal dissipation
factor. Astrophys. J. 406, 266–278.
MALHOTRA, R. 1991. Tidal origin of the Laplace resonance and the
resurfacing of Ganymede. Icarus 94, 399–412.
MALIN, M. C., AND D. C. PIERI 1986. Europa. In Satellites (J. A. Burns and
M. S. Matthews, Eds.), pp. 689–717. Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson.
MCKINNON, W. B., AND E. M. PARMENTIER 1986. Ganymede and Callisto.
In Satellites (J. A. Burns and M. S. Matthews, Eds.), pp. 718–763. Univ.
of Arizona Press, Tucson.
MCKINNON, W. B., AND P. M. SCHENK 1995. Estimates of comet fragment
masses from impact crater chains on Callisto and Ganymede. Geophys.
Res. Lett. 22, 1829–1832.
111
OJAKANGAS, G. W., AND D. J. STEVENSON 1986. Episodic volcanism of
tidally heated satellites with application to Io. Icarus 66, 341–358.
PEALE, S. J., AND P. M. CASSEN 1978. Contribution of tidal dissipation
to lunar thermal history. Icarus 36, 245–269.
PEALE, S. J., P. CASSEN, AND R. T. REYNOLDS 1979. Melting of Io by
tidal dissipation. Science 203, 892–894.
SHOEMAKER, E. M., B. K. LUCCHITTA, D. E. WILHELMS, J. B. PLESCIA,
AND S. W. SQUYRES 1982. The geology of Ganymede. In Satellites of
Jupiter (D. Morrison, Ed.), pp. 435–520. Univ. of Arizona Press,
Tucson.
SHOWMAN, A. P., AND D. J. STEVENSON 1996. Resurfacing of Ganymede
and other icy satellites by passage through orbital resonance. Icarus,
submitted.
SHOWMAN, A. P., D. J. STEVENSON, AND R. MALHOTRA 1996. Coupled
orbital and thermal evolution of Ganymede. Icarus, submitted.
SINCLAIR, A. T. 1975. The orbital resonance amongst the Galilean satellites of Jupiter. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 171, 59–72.
SMITH, B. A., L. A. SODERBLOM, T. V. JOHNSON, A. P. INGERSOLL, S. A.
COLLINS, E. M. SHOEMAKER, G. E. HUNT, H. MASURSKY, M. H. CARR,
M. E. DAVIES, A. F. COOK II, J. BOYCE, G. E. DANIELSON, T. OWEN,
C. SAGAN, R. F. BEEBE, J. VEVERKA, R. G. STROM, J. F. MCCAULEY,
D. MORRISON, G. A. BRIGGS, AND V. E. SUOMI 1979. The Jupiter
system through the eyes of Voyager 1. Science 204, 951–972.
STEVENSON, D. J. 1983. Anomalous bulk viscosity of two-phase fluids and
implications for planetary interiors. J. Geophys. Res. 88, 2445–2455.
TITTEMORE, W. C. 1990. Chaotic motion of Europa and Ganymede and
the Ganymede–Callisto dichotomy. Science 250, 263–267.
TITTEMORE, W. C., AND J. WISDOM 1989. Tidal evolution of the uranian
satellites: II. An explanation of the anomalously high orbital inclination
of Miranda. Icarus 78, 63–89.
VEEDER, J. G., D. L. MATSON, T. V. JOHNSON, D. L. BLANEY, AND J. D.
GOGUEN 1994. Io’s heat flow from infrared radiometry: 1983–1993.
J. Geophys. Res. 99, 17,095–17,162.
YODER, C. F. 1979. How tidal heating in Io drives the Galilean orbital
resonance locks. Nature 279, 767–770.
YODER, C. F., AND S. J. PEALE 1981. The tides of Io. Icarus 47, 1–35.
Fly UP