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- Repository of Maulana Malik Ibrahim State
Proceeding International Conference of Islamic Education: Reforms, Prospects and Challenges
Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teaching Training, Maulana Malik Ibrahim State Islamic University, Malang
December 2-3, 2015
ISSN-2477-3638
Islamic Education Curriculum Management of SMK at Pesantren
Nur Ali
Dean of Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teaching Sciences, State Islamic University Maulana Malik
Ibrahim Malang
Abstract: Education has been the main strategy to fulfill diverse demands for reaching the
quality of the future generation, comprising on the demands of culture, social and children
growth. Muhadjir (2000) argues that educational institutions is expected to establish three
educational foci (1) maintaining values of insani (human relation) and ilahi (God relation) (2)
stimulating and growing the children creativity and (3) preparing productive educators that are
competent to anticipate future challenges so as to contribute to the future workplace structure,
not adjusting the estimation of economical needs.
Educational function is philosophically educating learners through mental and rational process
to achieve noble morals, while seeing at sociological perspective, it has two main functions,
namely manifest and latent. In economic side, education function is providing contribution to
the economic growth through the hike of employer productivity as the economic growth is not
determined by capital investation only. The employers who posses high flexibility to empower
new skills to counter new marketplace, in accordance with the changing of economic structure
and marketplace.
Pesantren, one of educational institution-based society has established refurbishemnt for its
educational components. Educational system of pessantren that is basically traditional, in its
development, is more dynamic, adaptive, emansipative and responsive on the evolvement and
society’s demand as well as government policies. Thus, pesantren will not let itself on its endless
coventionality, but it will thrive on the adjusment and new value adoption, or innovation that
has direct or indirect impacts to its educational system.
If the inovations on pesantren mileu are meticulously analyzed, the curriculum materials taught
and learning methodology as the innovative aspects in pesantren can be glaringly accentuated.
Dhofir (1985) states that most of small pesantren was in vacum during 1950, but the other
surviving pesantren are caused by the establishment of general education inside the pesantren
curriculum. Therefore, more pesantren established non religion based curriculum as stipulated
in Junior High School (SMP, Senior High School (SMA) and Vocational School (SMK).
The establishment of vocational education is categorized as vocational school oriented to the
skill education and workplace preparation for its graduates, while the orientation of pesantren
education is centered on the educational principles and values that are influential to its
curriculum, such as theosentric not antroposentric, that is emphasized on searching knowledge
as a worship, tawassut (moderate). Therefore, this paper is going to deeply discuss how the
implementation of management functions on the curriculum practice and Islamic education
learning on SMK in pesantren boundary.
Keywords: vocational education, pesantren, theosentric, antroposentric
A.
Introduction
Education is essentially an effort to fulfill the various demands on the quality of the
nation's generation, i.e. cultural demands, social demands, and child development demands.
Muhadjir (2000) states that educational institutions are expected to carry out three
functions of education , namely: ( 1 ) maintaining the conservation of human values and
God values ; ( 2 ) establishing the creativity of students ; and ( 3 ) preparing a productive
manpower who can anticipate the future , so that education gives characteristic to the
structure of future work, not adjusting to the predictions of economic necessity.
Philosophically, the function of education is to guide students through mental and
rational processes in order to have a good prestige. Sociologically, education has two main
Page 144 of 152
Proceeding International Conference of Islamic Education: Reforms, Prospects and Challenges
Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teaching Training, Maulana Malik Ibrahim State Islamic University, Malang
December 2-3, 2015
ISSN-2477-3638
functions, they are manifest function and latent function. Economically, the function of
education is to give contribution to economy growth through increasing the productivity of
the existing manpower , because economy growth is not only determined by capital
investment , but also manpower who has the flexibility in mastering new skills to do new
jobs, in line with the changing of economy structure and job field.
Pesantren as one of the community-based educational institutions also has
implemented innovation in the various components of its education. Pesantren education
system that originally is characterized as traditional, in its development is more dynamic,
adaptive, emancipative, and responsive to the developments and demands of society and
government policies. Therefore, pesantren does not let itself into the traditional prolonged,
but rather on adaptation and adoption of new values, either directly or indirectly into its
education system.
Tracking to the background of the implementation of public education in pesantren, it
will find at least three answers. The first, it is as a Pesantren’s effort in carrying out
adaptation with the development of national education and the advancement of science and
technology . The second, it is caused by the importance of saving the "life-sustaining" of
Pesantren from “death”. The third, Pesantren offers alternative education by abolishing
dichotomy between the development of intellectual dimension and attitude or personality
dimension in educational process. Therefore, each of educational process or more
specifically called “the teaching and learning process” had better to contain two aspects,
namely substance aspect for each subject and attitude aspects for any knowledge learned.
Nowadays, the equilibration of substance and attitude dimensions has been done for
education in Pesantren by organizing public schools in the form of junior and senior high
school, vocational school and Islamic Senior high school which have skills program.
Because of that, the establishment of vocational school in pesantren environment also
sprouts, where it is a vocational school type oriented on education skills and work
preparation for the graduates. While in Pesantren, there are also the principles and
education values that affect to the curriculum, i.e. theosentric not antroposentric, searching
knowledge is worship , tawassuf ( moderate ). Then how is the implementation of
management functions in the curriculum and learning activities of Islamic education on
vocational school and its implication for educational institutions in pesantren environment?
B.
The Management of Curriculum on Islamic Education in Vocational High School at
Pesantren
The orientation of vocational school establishment in Pesantren is to fulfil society
needs for vocational education that will teach science and technology and also teach
religious education which is balanced between science and religion and the students live in
Pesantren. Thus, based on the existing reality, that existence of vocational students who are
outside of pesantren who are not living at Pesantren and the school uses the national
curriculum without any religion input, they are judged by society that they are still weak in
the field of religion and their behavior are also not good enough. Therefore, vocational
school in pesantren in managing and developing the curriculum considers that the national
curriculum of vocational school published by Dikmenjur (Education for Vocational High
School) is regarded still less if it is used to achieve the vision and mission of vocational
schools in pesantren.
Page 145 of 152
Proceeding International Conference of Islamic Education: Reforms, Prospects and Challenges
Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teaching Training, Maulana Malik Ibrahim State Islamic University, Malang
December 2-3, 2015
ISSN-2477-3638
Research findings by Nur Ali (2007) shows that the curriculum of SMK Telkom Darul
Ulum developed by the principal with a team of pesantren education unit shows that first
and second generation of graduated students of SMK Telkom DU majoring in electro
department by using curriculum from Dikbud (Education and Culture) added with the
subjects of information telecommunications from Telkom adopted on curriculum of SMK
Telkom Sandi Putra Malang and religion education curriculum of Pondok Pesantren Darul
Ulum just precisely most of them are accepted to work in the field of telecommunications
although they are in electro department. This study also found that graduated students of
SMK Telkom DU are much absorbed in the job field because the curriculum is developed by
a representatives team that consists of pesantren, school, PT Telkom, practitioners,
business-industry world, and alumni, by adjusting the needs of business-industry world,
government, and the development of information technology, and strengthen with Islamic
education certificate from Pesantren DU with diniyah program.
Moreover, the research findings by Nur Ali (2007) at SMK Al-Yasini shows that
several factors underlying the existing of management of curriculum development of SMK
Al-Yasini who are scholar leaders of Pesantren Miftahul Ulum Al-Yasini intends to make the
students of SMK Al-Yasini faithful, clever, and having good morals and skills. According to
him, by faithfulness, the students will do something based on the religious values which
they believed. By cleverness, the students do an action based on the sense of thinking. By
good morals, the students have a good character, so that they do not misbehave. By skills,
the students are able to make creation and independent, so that they are not idle after
graduating from school. The scholar leader’s thinking also affects to the orientation of the
graduates of SMK Al-Yasini in order to be excellent in achievement, independent, and
having good morals and pesantren’s cultured. It also causes the curriculum used in some
public schools in pesantren is different, because it is influenced by the thought of each
pesantren’s scholar leaderself.
This study also found that the development of an integrated curriculum in SMK Al Yasini also based on educational trends in the world and the desire of students’ parents as
stakeholders. Since it was built as a response of KH . A Mudjib Imron, SH ( Gus Mudjib ), the
scholar leader of pesantren Al - Yasini for the desire of society , especially in the area of
Pasuruan which wished for vocational school at Pesantren as like the phenomenon of
parents who have difficulty to choose educational institutions for their children,
remembering adolescent misbehavior especially among children in school-age is increasing
, while the activities of parents in their job are also increasing as well.
Associated with the planning of curriculum activities in SMK at Pesantren, this study
found that the planning of curriculum activities of SMK Telkom DU is for productive subject
that is based on national curriculum published by Dikmenjur Diknas and curriculum of PT.
Telkom by adjusting the needs of business and industrial world, especially in
telecommunications through training activities, guest lectures and field industrial practice
in around PT. Telkom. Meanwhile, the planning of curriculum activities for normative and
adaptive subjects are based on national curriculum published by Department of vocational
Education (Dikmenjur Diknas) and integrate the curriculum materials with religious values
and pesantren values through normative and adaptive subjects teacher which are
determined by Pesantren itself. As a consequence of the cooperation between Yayasan
Pesantren Darul Ulum with business and industrial world institution (DU-DI), the study also
Page 146 of 152
Proceeding International Conference of Islamic Education: Reforms, Prospects and Challenges
Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teaching Training, Maulana Malik Ibrahim State Islamic University, Malang
December 2-3, 2015
ISSN-2477-3638
found that the agency of DU-DI especially PT. Telkom participate to be responsible for
organizing education and training in productive subject through providing teachers or
guests instructors and field industrial practice activities.
Islamic Education Curriculum ( PAI ) usually called local-content curriculum, in the
study found that the planning of curriculum activity for diniyah program ( religion ) as the
local-content curriculum of SMK Telkom Darul Ulum is oriented to the ability of reading
classical book and understanding the contents. While the development of curriculum
materials for diniyah program published by a team from unit of Pondok Pesantren Darul
Ulum covers ; ( a) Aqidah using classical book titled Jawahirul Kalamiyah, ( b ) Morals using
classical book titled Ta'limul Mutaalim, ( c ) Fiqih using classical book titled Fathul Qorib, ( d
) Hadits using classical book titled Jawahirul Bukhari, ( e ) Tafsir Al - Quran using classical
book titled Tafsir ayat-ayat pilihan ( integrated ), ( f ) Nahwu - shorof using classical book
titled Imrithi and Kailani.
The findings that relate to the planning of PAI curriculum activities at SMK Telkom DU
Rejoso Jombang can be seen in the following figure:
THE PLANNING OF CURRICULUM ACTIVITY of IE (PAI)
ON SMK AT PESANTREN
The Thinking of
Kyai/ Islamic
Scholar Leader
PT. Telkom and
INDUSTRY with
MoU
The underlying
establishment
of SMK
In corporation
Historical aspects
on Organization
of SMK
Curriculum
Team of
Regular
Curriculum
and PT
Telkom
National
Curriculum of
SMK
Team of
Curriculum
AGAMA
Consultation
Coordination
Developing The Integrated Curriculum
Material. REGULAR and Industry
with the Islamic Education
INTEGRATED CURRICULUM
(RELIGION, REGULAR, INDUSTRY)
SMK AT PESANTRAN
Page 147 of 152
The Alumni
of Outside
Pesantren
MAJLIS
Pesantren
Composing
religion
curriculum
(DINIYAH
PROGRAM)
Proceeding International Conference of Islamic Education: Reforms, Prospects and Challenges
Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teaching Training, Maulana Malik Ibrahim State Islamic University, Malang
December 2-3, 2015
ISSN-2477-3638
Organizing and directing the activity of curriculum development for vocational high
school (SMK) Telkom Darul Ulum Rejoso Jombang follow the applicable procedures in
pesantren Darul Ulum. The procedures are education unit of pesantren DU defines and
develops the curriculum components which consist of normative, adaptive and diniyah
programc (Islamic Education). While PT. Telkom together with SMK Telkom DU define and
develop curriculum components which relate to productive subject and field industrial
practice activities. Therefore, the education unit of pesantren DU has the authority to
determine the teachers who will teach normative subject, adaptive subject, and diniyah
program (Islamic education). While SMK Telkom DU and PT. Telkom have the authority to
determine the teachers who will teach productive subject and guide for field industrial
practice activities. The vice principal of curriculum in SMK Telkom DU has the authority to
determine the placement of teachers who handle the subject of productive, normative, and
adaptive to the classes, and the vice principal of diniyah in SMK Telkom DU has the
authority to determine the placement of teacher for diniyah program (Islamic education).
Another finding of this study is the procedure of organizing and directing the
development of curriculum applied in SMK Telkom DU, it is implicated on the person who
takes the responsibility for the activity in the school. Education unit of pesantren is
responsible for both good and bad quality of the teachers in diniyah program and teachers
who handle adaptive and normative subject. Meanwhile, the person who takes
responsibility for productive subject and field industrial practice is the vice principal of
curriculum in SMK Telkom DU, and for determining the location of field industrial practice,
the school makes cooperation with PT Telkom and alumni.
Organizing and directing the development of curriculum in SMK Telkom DU
integrated with pesantren education system is very effective and excellent in academic
development and students’ personality establishment by imitating exemplary behavior and
habituation. In addition, vocational education integrating model among Pesantren
education system, business and industrial world in SMK Telkom DU considered as good
thing in teaching students, how to work and always do worship, honest and believable,
where it is very needed in working environment.
ORGANIZING THE IMPLEMENTATION
OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM
PRINCIPAL
SMK TELKOM DU
VICE PRINCIPAL
AGAMA CUR
(PROGRAM DINIYAH)
VICE PRINCIPAL
REGULER CUR
Responsible for the quality of
instruction and learning process and
the competences of Islamic education
teachers
Responsible for the quality of
instruction and learning process and
the teacher professionalism.
Page 148 of 152
Proceeding International Conference of Islamic Education: Reforms, Prospects and Challenges
Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teaching Training, Maulana Malik Ibrahim State Islamic University, Malang
December 2-3, 2015
ISSN-2477-3638
C.
The Management of curriculum development at SMK TELKOM DARUL ULUM and the
implication for school image
The Implementation of curriculum development management activity both national
curriculum and Islamic education curriculum ( local-content ) called Diniyah program and
English morning program involves the scholar leaders of Pesantren and educational unit of
Pondok Pesantren ,the teachers, PT. Telkom, and the business and industrial community.
The curriculum development management activities have implication for the image of SMK
Telkom institution to be better.
This study found that working culture based on performance which usually exists in
the companies may affect the working culture at SMK Telkom DU which is in the
environment of Pondok pesantren Darul Ulum. So, it also creates a working culture based on
performance at SMK Telkom DU. Meanwhile, the involvement of PT Telkom and the
business and industrial world community encourages working ethos of teachers and
employees to be better. While the usage of the name Telkom, the name of Darul Ulum at
SMK Telkom DU and the involvement of PT Telkom as well as DU-DI community gives
impact on waiting period for graduates of SMK Telkom DU to get a job become faster. In
addition, this study also found that the involvement of Pesantren, PT Tekom, and the
business and industrial world community has impacts on the trusty of stakeholders to the
skill competence in their fields (Science and Technology ) and religious competence (
IMTAQ ) of graduates at SMK Telkom DU increased. As it can be seen in the following
picture:
THE IMPLICATION OF INTEGRATED CURRICULUM MANAGEMENT
(ISLAMIC EDUCATION, REGULAR, INDUSTRY)
SMK AT PESANTREN
PT. Telkom
and Trade In coordination
Industry
that have
MoU
Team of
REGULAR
CURRICULUM
and PT Telkom
Team of
RELIGION
CURRICULUM
Consultation
MAJLIS
Pesantren
INTEGRATED CURRICULUM SMK
(RELIGION, REGULAR, INDUSTRY)
AT PESANTREN
IMPLICATIONS
Working Culture to
be performance
based as found in
milieu of TradeIndustry
Work Ethos of
Teachers and
staff to be
Better
Interval of
Graduated for
getting a job to be
faster
Stakeholder
trust to be
increased
D. The implication of curriculum development management activity for the institution
of SMK at Pesantren
Theoretically, in developing a curriculum, there are many parties who can be
involved to participate. The parties are often called as stakeholders. Educational
stakeholders can be identified as follows, they are : education administrators, teachers,
Page 149 of 152
Proceeding International Conference of Islamic Education: Reforms, Prospects and Challenges
Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teaching Training, Maulana Malik Ibrahim State Islamic University, Malang
December 2-3, 2015
ISSN-2477-3638
educational experts, curriculum experts, students’ parents, society figure, business industrial world as the user of graduates, and so on.
In practicing, not all of schools in developing a curriculum involve all parties
concerned on education in their school, especially outside of school, such as parents and the
business - industrial world. Whereas in the management, it has revealed that, by involving
some parties to plan an activity, it will increase the sense of responsibility for the parties
involved in implementing activity to achieve the goals that have been decided previously.
Thus, the involvement of component of various stakeholders will take the various
implications too. The findings of this study indicates that the vocational high school (SMK)
Telkom DU Rejoso Jombang involves all parties in the activity of curriculum development
control covered stakeholders from outside of the school, such as PT Telkom, the industrial
and business world as well as alumni, beside of internal parties of SMK itself, including
pesantren education unit. The implication of the involvement of all components of the
stakeholders, especially for the parties in business and industrial world, and alumni who
makes curriculum in SMK are more responsive to the changes happen in the world of
working, so that the adjustment to the curriculum is more easily implemented which in
turn, it will hasten the waiting period for graduates to get jobs. This is appropriate with the
activity of organizing the quality which has been done by Vocational High School of
Engineering Region 3 in Lincoln Maine. This activity is done in order to improve the quality
of its graduates through needs analysis activity and compatibility between the skills taught
in school and skills needed in working world by engaging the alumni and the DUDI in these
activities (Arcaro, 2005). Meanwhile, the certainty of th eimprovement internalization of
Islamic values is maintained through extracurricular activities and diniyah programs (local
curriculum for religious education) because internal parties of pesantren are always
involved in the process of curriculum development.
Another implication is that, by involving the business and industrial world and
alumni in the implementation of curriculum, especially in learning process, finally it is also
has advantageous for the students to acquire science and technology knowledge associated
with productive subject which is always up- to-date. In addition, it also can facilitate
students in finding a place for work training or apprenticeship, or even get a job afterwards.
Thus, as assumed by Sukmadinata (2005 ) that school must serve the aspirations comes
from society. One of the strengths in the society is the business world. Business
development in the society influences curriculum development, because the school not only
prepares students to live, but also to work and endeavour. The type of jobs and companies
in society requires the preparation from school.
The implication of the involvement of stakeholders in the activity of curriculum
development management at SMK provides the appropriate result with the position of
stakeholders. For SMK Telkom DU which involves stakeholders from the business and
industrial world outside of Pondok pesantren, the implication is the image of an institution
to be better, it is characterized by; (1) a working culture based on performance, as applied
in the DU-DI, (2 ) working ethos of teachers and employees to be better, (3) the waiting
period for graduates to obtain job to be shorter, and (4) the trusty of stakeholders being
increased. This is because the establishment of education in SMK around pesantren is an
offer of alternative education by abolishing the dichotomy between intellectual dimension
development and the dimension of attitude or personality in educational process.
Page 150 of 152
Proceeding International Conference of Islamic Education: Reforms, Prospects and Challenges
Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teaching Training, Maulana Malik Ibrahim State Islamic University, Malang
December 2-3, 2015
ISSN-2477-3638
Therefore, every educational process, or more specifically named teaching and learning
process should contains two aspects, they are the substance aspect of each subject and
attitude aspect of any knowledge learned.
By this substance aspect, the students are directed to master the concepts in every
field of science. By mastery of this substance, they can understand and apply the knowledge
in their life or to be developed for further education. By attitude aspect of any knowledge
learned, education required developing students' attitude regarding to the knowledge
concepts learned. For example , through the knowledge, students can increase their faithful
and devotion to Allah, much love, respect to other people, love the environment, have a
stronger national knowledge, be more creative and innovative, be more spirit to achieve, be
more honest and courteous in association. But, uunfortunately, the educational process
occurred in schools nowadays is more emphasized on the first aspect, while the second
aspect is just following impact of the learning process.
According to the research of Turmudi (2003 ), the modernization of education in
pesantren not only produces the conditions enabled the existence of modern Moslem
students, but also distort the character of pesantren itself. The Characteristic of sincerity,
which has been long time become a basic education of pesantren is replaced by a more
advantagous character. Modern school system built in pesantren is substantially different
from the traditional pesantren education system. Firstly, it emphasizes the transfer of skills
based on knowledge. Secondly, it emphasizes the character building. The relationship
between teachers and students in traditional pesantren is marked by excessive reverence.
However, in modern schools, the pattern of such relationships begin rare, the situation
which allows teachers can be criticized by their students.
Beside of the research findings above, it seems that the scholar leader of pesantren
who has activists background on the activities of religious organizations and practitioners
of political parties has considerable influence in the activity of curriculum development
management and the direction of development in SMK at pesantren and the
implementation of cooperation with the institution of government, private and DUDI. This
is similar to what is said by Sonhadji (2006 ; 26 );
"Education is closely linked with politics. There is a reciprocal relationship
between education and politics. Education policies are made based on the political
condition. On the contrast, education through curriculum content (curriculum
oriented) and learning activities can be used as a vehicle for the formation of a
political format in the future " .
Furthermore, the geographical position of SMK and the location of business and
industrial world as well as the work partner from outside parties also have influence in the
curriculum development management of SMK at pesantren.
References
Arcaro, JS. 2005. Pendidikan Berbasis Mutu: Prinsip-prinsip Perumusan dan Tata Langkah
Penerapan. Yogjakarta: Pustaka Pelajar
Nur Ali, 2006. Inovasi Manajemen Sekolah Umum Unggulan di Lingkungan Pesantren: Studi
Kasus pada SMK Telkom Darul Ulum di Pesantren Darul Ulum Rejoso Jombang.
Malang: Lemlitbang UIN Malang.
Page 151 of 152
Proceeding International Conference of Islamic Education: Reforms, Prospects and Challenges
Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teaching Training, Maulana Malik Ibrahim State Islamic University, Malang
December 2-3, 2015
ISSN-2477-3638
……….., 2007. Manajemen Kurikulum Integratif Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan di Lingkungan
Pesantren: Studi Kasus Pada Smkn Al-Yasini Areng-Areng Pasuruan. Malang:
Lemlitbang UIN Malang.
Muhadjir. 2000, Ilmu Pendidikan dan Perubahan Sosial Teori Pendidikan Pelaku Sosial Kreatif.
Yogyakarta: Rake Sarasin.
Sonhadji, A., 2006, Politik dan Pendidikan. Pena Pendidikan, 6(1):26.
Sukmadinata, NS. 2005. Pengendalian Mutu Pendidikan Sekolah Menengah; Konsep, Prinsip dan
Instrumen. Bandung: PT Refika Aditama.
Turmudi, E., 2003, Perselingkuhan Kiai dan Kekuasaan. Yogjakarta: LKiS
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