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Control Data 160-A Computer, 1962

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Control Data 160-A Computer, 1962
.
CONTROL DATA"
The CONTROL DATA im-A is a
desk-size computer with the speed
capablllty, and flexibility of many largescaje computers, Internal and external
interrupt, buffered Input/output, expansible magnetic core memory (optional), external multiply /divide unit
(optional), storage cycle time of 6.4
microseconds-these and other outstanding features dkcussdd on the following pages have won a place for the
160-A in applications that run the gamut from commercial data processing
to highly sophlsficated engineeringscientific research. A careiflll review of
160-A capabilities related to cost, nlrt
only initially but also for actual ,@rocessing, will give you a good idea & w e
reason for this acceptence. In addition,
the low Initial cost of thts equipment
combined with its upwards compafTbility to the CONTROL DATA 1606 Computer System makes it an ideal choice,
where budgets end immediate prqcessing requirements are limited but allowances must be made for future growth.
-
SUMMARY OF 160-A FEATURES
Parallel mode of operation
a12-bit word length
.Single address logic:
. . . . . . . . . 6 bits
function code (F) . . . . .
execution code (E). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..6 bits
Low cost
8192 words of magnetic core storage (expansible to
16,384; 24,576; or 32,768 words) :
6.4 microseconds. . . . . . . . . . . . .memory cycle time
12.8 microseconds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .basic add time
15.0 microseconds.. . . . . . . .average execution time
.Buffered input/output
.Internal and external interrupt
.External multiply and divide unit (optional)
.Binary arithmetic (one's complement)
,.Flexible repertoire of 130 instructions
.Completely solid state
.Low-power consumption
.High reliability
.
160-A APPLICATIONS
A general-purpose, digital computer, the 160-A can be
used in numerous apphcations . . . includ~ng:
Real-Time Applications
The 160-A exchanges data with input /out put devices
at any rate up to 70,000 words per second. This transfer
rate, an average instruction execut~ontime of 15 microseconds, and the capability of buffer~ngdata while
computing or whrle the operator manually enters data
(whether the computer program is running or stopped)
make the 160-A ideal for real-time applications.
Off-Line Conversion
The 160-A is able to control a wide selection of per[pheral devices, and thus to operate as an effic~entoffline system for larger computers. Of spec~alnote IS the
Control Data Bin Pak program which allows direct
binary output of large-scale binary machines to be
processed by the 160-A. Additional service routines
include:
.Card-to-magnetic tape
.Magnetic tape-to-printer
.Paper tape-to-card
Magnetic tape-to-paper tape
.Card-to-printer
.Plotter output operations
['[.: General Data Processing
With the capability of fully buffering information to
input/output devices, the 160-A Computer System includes the capability to read up to I6Og cards per minute, print 1000 lines per minute, or file up to 60,008
characters per second.
Data Acquisition and Reducti~n
The inputloutput design of the 160-A permits direct
and high-speed communication with analog-to-digital
conversion equipment. After transmission of data, information can be converted, reduced or formatted by
means of a stored program and then written on magnetic tape for later analysis if desired. .
Peripheral Processing
Because of the high cost involved in operating peripheral devices from large-scale computer systems, the
160-A offers the user a low cost peripheral processor
which can operate magnetic tape units, high-speed
printers and card reader or card punch units.
The 160-A will operate up to four 1000 line-per-minute
line printers at a maximum of 4000 lines per minute
while simultaneously performing card-to-tape operations at the maximum rate of the card reader.
i
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I '
..
A typical maximum 160-A configuration employing the
auxiliary memory and an additional buffered I/O chan. . ' nel, will handle up to 8 simultaneous card /tapelprinter
: . operations at full speed.
.'
Scientific Computing with FORTRAN
A low-cost arithmetic unit especially designed for
high-speed FORTRAN execution and a powerful set of
logic commands which enable the fastest compilation
times of any machine in its class, combine to make the
160-A system exceptionally useful for both engineering
and scientific problems. Using the field-proven [email protected]
FORTRAN (a complete FORTRAN II computer), scientific applications are quickly programmed, checked
out, and in production. A complete subroutine library
(sine, cosine, etc.), and comprehensive diagnostics are
included with the system.
Civil Engineering Problems
Using CEPS (the Civil Engineering Programming System), the 160-A applies high-speed solving power to
geometric calculations in highway design, right-ofway, bridge geometry, subdivision and parcel work,
structures, construction layout, photogrammetry, hydraulics and many more.
I
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'
Biomedical Experimentation and Analysis
Today's Biomedical Researcher is confronted with the
need for a small, real-time, inexpensive, powerful,
"handa-on'" dataacquis~tionand data practssing sys*
tern. The 160-A meets these needs and more. By adding a high-speed analog-to-digital and /or a digital-toanalog converter system to an irnpressiv~larray crf
standard peripheral devices, the 160-4can accomplish
these typ~caltasks :
I . On-line processing sf ECG, PCG, and EEG data for
analysis and diagnosis,
2,Averaging of evoked recipense physialogic signals.
3. Closed-laop hybrid cctrnputational analysis of physiologic systems such as in cardiovascular, respi rato~y
control and renal control studies. Hybrid computer
systems employ an a n a l a ~computer ~nterfacedto
the lef0-A.
4. General stat~sticalanalysis of b~ornedicaldata.
5,Real-time on off-line displaymd plottirig in conjunc,
plotters (such as th&
tion with X-Y p l o f t ~ o digital
CONTROL OATA 165-2) and oscilloscople-s.
6.Surveillance storage and logging of v~talsign physiologic data In patlent monitoring applications,
Here, an analog-to-digital converter would scan
signalsfram rnodical ~slectronicinstrumentation and
tranl;ducers available from reputable rnanufacturers.
Carnmunicatians and Talemetry
A high-speed, parallel processor with decision-making
powers, the 160-A can be used as the principal element in cornrnunicatisn and control networks,
far such
Proven reliability of the I @ - A is a prer~4quisit~
applications. In addition, the 160-A can be used to
communicate via microwave link with the large-ecale
CONTROL DATA 1604 Computer at transmission rates
sf approximately 1,000,000 bits per second.
160-A OPERATION
Qperatian of the 160-A Computer is sequenced by an
internally stored program. Along with the data being
processed,this program is stored in the random-access
memory, All psriphewal equiprn~ntson the buffer
channel have direct access to thm memory. ,thus
permitting inputJoutput operations to proceed during
computation.
.
Input/autput operations in the 160-A are carried out
independently of the main computer program. When
transmission of data is required, the main computw
program is used only to injtiate an autamat~ccycle
which buffers data to or from the computer memory,
The main camputm program then continues whrle the
k' .
BUFFER EXIT
ADDRESS
REGISTER
160-A CORE MEMORY I
BUFFER DATA
R E6IOTER
BUFF1
ENTRANCE
ADDRESS
1
TOAdder
I.
"f;~
basic
.
memory C 8 D be e&p&nd6din extarnal.:
,
Buffer
Input/
Outaut
chatinel
160-A Buffered 110
'
Buffered
Inp~tlO~tput
4
Buftered
Input/Output
A
Buffered
Input/Ozltput
4
EXTER NiAL
MEMORY
Ov?$mal Extrrnal nllkmory
Used W m Twa 1@d-,bComputers
Normal program execution may be interrupted by:
\ Line 20
Line 19
Corn letion of
n~
Console Action or ~ u f k r i or
I
L i n e 3.0-49
Commcin~cat~on
from External Devices
Fig. 3
When INTERRUPT Occurs, Control and
Return Address Automatjcally Transferred
ta Fixed Memory Loqatlon
I
In t h e RUATlVE FORWARD ADDRESS MODE, E is
ad&d Sa t h ~~plf~?fifs
~
of the P l'&gl%t~)r.
Thi&.sumthen
b~scarnesthe eflecfivs a~erandaddress in tha relative
~ ~ g ~ lOFl Rl E
m
~ ~~~ ~
TER
The CONTRaL
1
[email protected]@twe-9aaekwgrd Addr
The RELATNE BACKWARD ADDRESS MODE func.
"CB the RELATIVE FORWARD
A Registar-A is the principal arithmetic register; for
ma& arithmetic apeMllions, A operates as a a u b t n ~
tive %ccumul&x-,T he quantrty zero ic reprascnt~dby
all ~ T B *
- SprcJfic Addrcssrs Mode-J
In the SPECIFIC AD WESS MODE, the ~f4ective
d~essi 8 always &ora g location 7377 ~nstorage b
z q r a t h e E portia~,
frra~ti6nword is always
equal to zero,
Memory Adclres~Made-M
All MEMORY ADDRESS MODE cammafiefs occupy
two sequential storage Iscatior'is where the G parkion
of the 24-bit instruction word contains the addrcs ;%of
Z Wegi~tw-As a bufkr register Z remive# %k
rmd cut 9f &orage and holds t44 ward to .be
J,
inta starage, For additim and
the eontents a#Z-are added to
conkpk
1
o-f A.
-
-
CONTRQL DPrTABuftercd lihe Ptlntars
The 16%-2Une Printer ha9 a 120+char%etcsrwide Wint drum with a 64-cflamcter [email protected]&eaf&na tho drum. It can be
oprnfed on-line as well aa &Iinr?jn five
different m~d#s.fha! C O W L DATA
ipm speed. The CONTROL
DATA 1612P r i n k , which is a high-speed
periQheral device, provides 8 maximum
output 07 1080 tpm.
CONTROL DATA 4 N Cartl Rgadqr
The 405 Card Reader W s punched cards
photoelectrically at the fate of lzOO C 8 3
column) and 1.600 (517001ui%n)per minute.
W ~ t han optional feature added, ~t can
hput e i t h r columnar data Or Holigrith
data (canvsrted ta E D ) dirptly to the
CONTROL BATA 166 Llne Frlmter for effIme ,card-to-printw or card-to-tape conversion.
GONTRfn BATA MI.
TranrprhP
The BBB Seriw Tape Tra~sportsprovide
fast, ,t,li&big. Gtonge and manipulati
digital infamation in computing and
prsosssinq sy&m.
WNfRDL RATA Q! : 37.5"
200 or KSB bits pep lnfh, 7.3
trrandr rate,
CONTROL DATA m:75" per plecond. 206
armbit$ p e r 1 r r ~ h , l ~ s r 4 I . t b m i & e r
m#e.
CONTROL DATA W :79" Per
or 6 s tilt8 gw inch, 16,41,7 ur 60 kc
trans?&rpJtB.
CONTROL DATA BOfi: 9%' psr second,
X'#J or [email protected] per inch, 38 or D . 4 kc
trm&r rate.
FONTROL RATA 1 I Auxiliary
MBm~lyunit
T h CONTROL DATA
option Of @p.&V&Tflg
I&C-A ComputBtotoq~ther,shatlng a common memory and a buffer channel. Available as an optiqnai device, the lb ~rovtdes
ex~ansibility in modules of 81% 12-bit
words up to a maxlmum of 24.576 words,
providing a total system of 32.768 words.
Provides the option of expanding the inherent flexibility of the IBD-A Computer.
Addition, subtraction, rnultlply, and divide
are performed in 27-btt precision. The
168-2 performs operations in the followtng
speeds: Addition and subtraction-205
usec: multiplication-280 usec: division350 to 420 usec. Times Include obtainina
results in memgryr.
CONTROL DATA Plottars
The incremental plotter permits direct online communic&ion from the IB(hA, The
CONTROL DATA 165-2 is a high-speed,
two-axis recorder for plotting one variabte
aqainstqnbther. fhe 1 6 2 hasadrum and
carriage speed of 306 steps per second,
and a pen speed of 10 ogarponrs (6 up
and 5 down) per second mqxrmum.
eONTR8L DATA 415 Card Punch
The CONTROL DATA 41%~unchetlEiQ column ear& at the rate of 250 cards per minute. A DO&-punchread station is ineluBed
to facilitate complete card cheskfng.
CONTROL DATA 1Elf Tyaswriter
The 1Gl.aecepts input information at norand printsoutput data
r a t a rate of 10 to 12
characters oer bwxnd. The 161 has a
standard keyboard and a control panel
containin0 IWO lever switches (Operating
Mode and lnout Disconnect)and two li~ht.8
(Ready and input R9qu%st),
8
160-A INSTRUCTION LIST F
E
6
MNEMonk
Name
Timing
F
E
STOP COMMANDS
00
77
77
00
00
77
ERR
HLT
HLT
O
00
XXXX
01
01
01
05
XXXX
01
06
XXXX
01
01
01
01
07
30
5X
6X
Error Stop.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Halt.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Halt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
76
XX
HWI
XXXX
XXXX
XXXX
XXXX
XXXX
Timing
Block Store.. . . . . . . . . . .(no jump) 1
2
(jump)
PTA Transfer P to A.. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 1
ATE A to Buffer Entrance Register
(no jump) 1
W~P) 2
ATX A to Buffer Exit Register
(no jump) 1
(iump)
ETA Buffer Entrance Register to A,.
CTA Bank Controls to A . . . . . . . . . . . .
ST P Store P at Location 5X.. . . . . . . .
STE Store Buffer Entrance Register
at Location 6X and Transfer'A
to Buffer Entrance Register.. . .
LDN Load No Address.. . . . . . . . . . . . .
LDD Load Direct.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LDM Load Memory.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Load Indirect.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LDI
LDC Load Constant.. . . . . . . . . . . . .. .
LDF Load Forward.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LDS Load Specific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LDB Load Backward.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LCN Load Complement No Address
d omplement Direct.. . . . .
LCD L ~ a C
LCM Load Complement Memory.. . .
Load Complement Indirect. . . .
LCI
LCC Load Complement Constant.. .
LCF Load Complement Forward. . . .
LCS Load Complement Specific.,. . .
LCB Load Complement Backward. .
STD Store Direct. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STM Store Memory.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Store Indirect.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ST I
STC Store Constant.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STF Store Forward. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STS Store Specific.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STB Store Backward.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Half Write Indirect . . .. .
4
.
ARlTH METIC COMMANDS
BLS
XXXX
XXXX
A
XXXX
Name
DATA TRANSMISSION COMMANDS (Cont.)
DATA TRANSMISSION COMMANDS
01
MNEMonic
XXXX
XXXX
XXXX
XXXX
XXXX
XXXX
MUT
MUH
SBN
SBD
SBM
SBI
SBC
SBF
SBS
SBB
ADN
ADD
ADM
AD1
ADC
ADF
ADS
ADB
RAD
RAM
RAI
RAC
RAF
RAS
RAB
AOD
AOM
AOI
AOC
AOF
AOS
AOB
Multiply A by 10
Multiply A by One Hundred
Subtract No Address
Subtract Direct
Subtract Memary
Subtract Indirect
Subtract Constant
Subtract Forward
Subtract Specific
Subtract Backward
Add No Address
Add Direct
Add Memory
Add Indirect
Add Constant .
Add Forward
Add Specific
Add Backward
Replace Add Direct
Replace Add Memory
Replace Add Indirect
Replace Add Constant
Replace Add Forward
Replace Add Specific
Replace Add Backward
Replace Add One Dtrect
Replace Add One Memory .
Replace Add One Indirect
Replace Add One Constant
Replace Add One Forward
Replace Add One Specific
Replace Add One Backward
1
1
1
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
1
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
3
4
4
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
3
3
3
3
SHIFT COMMANDS
01
01
01
01
02
03
10
11
LS1
LS2
LS3
LS6
Left Shift One.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Left Shift Two.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 1
Left Shift Three.. ... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 1
Left Shift Six. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .
F
E
G
-
MNEMonk
Name
Timing
F
SHIFT COMMANDS (Cont.)
0
01
01
44
45
45
46
46
14
15
XX
00
XX
00
XX
XXXX
XXXX
RS1
RS2
SRD
SRM
SRI
SRC
SRF
SRS
SRB
Right Shift One.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Right Shift Two.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shift Replace Direct.. . . . . . . . . . . .
Shift Replace Memory.. . . . . . . . . .
Shift Replace Indirect.. . . . . . . . . .
Shift Replace Constant.. . . . . . . . .
Shift Replace Forward.. .. . . . . . . .
Shift Replace Specific. . . . . . . . . .
Shift Replace Backward. . . . . . . . .
11
00
XXXX
15
00
XXXX
16
00
XXXX
LPF
LPS
LPB
SCN
Logical Product Forward . . . . . . . .
Logical Product Specific. . . . . . . . .
Logical Product Backward.. . . . . .
Selective Complement
No Address.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selective Complement Direct. . . .
Selective Complement Memory..
Selective Complement Indirect..
Selective Complement Constant.
Selective Complement Forward..
SCD
SCM
SCI
SCC
SCF
Product
Product
Product
Product
Name
Timing
01
4X
SBU
Set Buffer Bank Control. . . . . . . . .
1
3
4
4
3
3
3
3
No Address.. . . . 1
Direct.. . . . . . . . . 2
Memory.. . . . . . . 3
Indirect.. . . . . . . . 3
Logical
Logical
Logical
Logical
MNEMonic
G
STORAGE BANK CONTROL COMMANDS (Cont.)
1
1
LOGICAL COMMANDS
LPN
LPD
LPM
LPI
E
JUMP COMMANDS
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
70
71
71
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
00
XX
2
2
2
ZJ F
NZF
PJ F
NJF
ZJB
NZB
PJ B
NJB
J PI
J PR
J FI
XXXX
Zero Jump Forward.. . . . . . . . .
Non-Zero Jump Forward.. . . .
Positive Jump Forward. . . . . .
Negative Jump Forward.. . . .
Zero Jump Backward.. . . . . . .
Non-Zero Jump Backward.. .
Positive Jump Backward. . . .
Negative Jump Backward.. . .
Jump Indirect.. . . . . . . . . . . .
Return J u m p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jump Forward Indirect ... . . . .
INPUT-OUTPUT COMMANDS
XXXX
CBC
CIL
IBI
XXXX
IBO
YYYY
YYYY
INP
OUT
OTN
I NA
OTA
EXC
EX F
1
2
3
3
2
2
XXXX
Clear Buffer Controls. . . . . . . . . . . .
Clear Interrupt Lockout.. . . . . . . . .
lnitiate Buffer I n p u t . . .(no jump)
(jump>
lnitiate Buffer Output. .(no jump)
(iump)
Normal I n p u t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Normal O u t p u t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Output No Address.. . . . . . . . . . . .
Inputto A . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .
Output from A , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
External Function Constant.. . . . .
External Function Forward.. . . . .
1
1
1
2
1
2
*
*
*
*
*
2
MISCELLANEOUS COMMANDS
SDC
DRJ
SID
ACJ
Set Direct Bank Control.. . . . . . .
Set Direct and Relative Bank
Control and J u m p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Indirect and Direct Bank
Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Direct, Indirect, and
Relative Bank Control and
1
1
-
00
77
77
OX
OX
XO
YYYY
NOP
SLS
SLJ
77
XX
YYYY
SJS
No Operation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Selective Stop.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Selective J u m p . . . . . . . . (no jump) 1
2
(jump>
Selective Stop and Jump
(no jump) 1
(jump)
OONTROLDATA w
s omoEs
Alamogordo ~ l b u ~ u e i ~Atlanta
ue
Billings
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Los Angeles Madison, Wisconsin Minneapolis
Newark New Orleans New York City Oakland
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Pittsburgh Sacramento Salt Lake C ~ t y
San Bernardino San Diego Seattle
Washington, D.C.
-
INTERNATIONAL OFFIE8
Athens Canberra Frankfurt Geneva
The Hague Hamburg Johannesburg London
Melbourne Mexico City (Regal Electron~caDe
Mexico, S.A.) Munich Oslo Ottawa (Computing
Devices of Canada, Limited) Paris Stockholm
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Computing Service Co., Ltd.) Zurich
-
CONTROL DATA CORPORATION
505 N. Arrowhead Ave.
SanBernardino, California 92401
(714)889-3628
CORPORATION
m
(
8100 34. IVENUE SOUTH
MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA 55440
55-0091 LlTHO U.S.A.
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