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th
Proceeding 8 International Seminar on Industrial Engineering and Management
ISSN : 1978-774X
ROUTE AND TRANSPORTATION COSTS ANALYSIS CONSIDERING THE CITY
LOGISTICS SYSTEM FOR SINGLE DEPOT PROBLEM (CASE STUDY:
JABABEKA INDUSTRIAL AREA COMPANIES)
Yogi Yogaswara
Industrial Engineering Dept., Pasundan University, Bandung, Indonesia
[email protected]
ABSTRACT
Urban freight transport recently faces many challenging problems, including high levels of
traffic congestion, negative environmental impacts,and high energy consumption.
Evaluation measures that can be done is by determining the routing and scheduling. PT.
TMU was that produces various types of paints which are marketed to companies located
in the industrial area of Kabupaten Bekasi and Jakarta. Determination of route by the
company on the basis of the views and considerations vehicle payload capacity and
usability of the vehicle. This study was conducted to develop the determination that can be
done by considering the carrying capacity and time windows, as well as considering
environmental aspects, reducing the impact of congestion, social aspects, and energy
consumption. The model used in the form of concept Capacity Vehicle Routing Problem
with Time Windows (CVRPTW) approach Savings on application Logware 5.0. This method
are used in the case of the VRP by considering the capacity, and the minimum cost. The
result of the calculation affects some aspects include savings generated mileage of
32.48%, efficiency payload capacity ratio of 84.8%, saving transportation costs 27.10,
saving tol revenue 54,24%, emission reduction 3.85%, and then decrease in the number of
citizen complaints as much as 5,22%.
Keywords: CVRPTW, Savings Heuristics Algorhitm, City Logistics, Single Depot
1. INTRODUCTION
Socio-economically, the city is an
environment with economic and the diverse
business and is dominated by non-farm
business activities include services, trade,
transportation and industrial (Daluarti,
2009). The rapid development of urban
areas in Indonesia could not be separated
from the role of logistics. One of the key
activities in logistics is on transport, in this
case is freight transport.
Problem determination of routing and
scheduling are the operational issues in
transportation. Studies conducted in PT.
TMU are transport operations in logistics.
The Company are marketed to companies
located in the industrial area of Kabupaten
Bekasi and an expedition partner company
to be sent to the outer islands of Java are
located in parts of Jakarta
The phenomena that occur in the
company related to the transport logistics
are expenses incurred from transportation
activities undertaken by the company
SCM-56
deemed high enough so that it takes the
reduction of transport costs in order to save
costs incurred by the company. In addition,
the lack of good planning related to
transportation logistics activities is a
phenomenon of the next issue, so the
determination of route and cost analysis of
transportation before the operation deemed
necessary by the company so that the
company can carry out the necessary
assessment of costs in transport logistics
activities to be performed.
So in this case is necessary to make
decisions about who can optimize the
mileage or travel costs, travel time, number
of operated vehicles and other resources are
available by considering environmental
aspects, reducing the impact of traffic
congestion, social aspects, as well as
energy consumption required from the
movement of freight transport.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
According to Ballou (2004), a better
representation of the field may be reflected
Route and Transportation Costs Analysis
(Yogi Yogaswara)
th
Proceeding 8 International Seminar on Industrial Engineering and Management
ISSN : 1978-774X
in the definition promulgated by the Council
of Logistics Managements (CLM), a
professional
organization
of
logistics
managers, educators, and practitioners
formed in 1962 for the purposes of
continuing education and fostering the
interchange of ideas. Its definition: “Logistics
is that part of the supply chain process that
plans, implements, and controls the efficient,
effective flow and storage of goods,
services, and related information from the
point of origin to the point of consumption in
order to meet customers requirements.
Transportation is a key decision area
within the logistics mix. Except for the cost of
purchased goods, transportation absorbs, on
the average, a higher percentage will
represent one-half to two-third of total
logistics cost (Ballou, 2004). Transportation
is essential because no modern firm can
operate without providing for the movement
of its raw materials or its finished products.
Transportation decisions can involve
mode selection, carrier routing, and vehicle
scheduling (Ballou, 2004). Furthermore,
urban freight transport plays a vital role in
the sustainable development of cities
(Taniguchi et al. 2001). a new area of
transport planning has emerged called City
Logistics. According to Taniguchi et al.
(2001), City Logistics is the process of totally
optimising urban logistics activities by
considering the social, environmental,
economic, financial and energy impacts of
urban freight movement.
Table 1. Details of Consumer
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Company Name
PT. Astra Daihatsu Motor (Engine Plant)
PT. Akashi Wahana Indonesia
PT. Walsin Lippo Industries
PT. Sanggar Sarana Baja
PT. Fortuna Indah
CV. Multi Teknik Bekasi
PT. Cameron Services International
CV. Super Perdana (Expedition Partner)
PT. Sekawan Maju Bersama (Expedition Partner)
PT. Sekawan Kontrindo (Expedition Partner)
PT. Bintang Anugrah Sehati
PT. Manado Teknik Mandiri (Expedition Partner)
Total Demand (kg)
Demand (kg)
1907,4
53,66
113,42
277,6
60
76,93
51,39
1027,75
261,55
841,2
154,09
268,3
5093,29
Table 2. Data Fixed and Variabel Cost of Vehicle 1
Brand/Type of Vehicle
Pay Load Person (kg)
Pay Load Goods (kg)
Total Fixed Cost/day
Total Variable Cost/km
: Isuzu NHR 55 Year 2006
: 120
: 2000
Rp. 92.674
Rp.
260
Table 3. Data Fixed and Variabel Cost of Vehicle 2
Brand/Type of Vehicle
Pay Load Person (kg)
Pay Load Goods (kg)
Total Fixed Cost/day
Total Variable Cost/km
: Suzuki ST 150 Pickup Year 2013
: 120
: 800
Rp. 96.372
Rp.
61
Source: Data Processing Companies
3. METHODOLOGY
Referring to the journal published by
Taniguchi and Tamagawa (2005) entitled
“Evaluating
City
Logistics
Measures
Considering The Behavior of Several
Stakeholders”, There are five categories
Route and Transportation Costs Analysis
(Yogi Yogaswara)
stakeholders which is in issue in this study
include:
1. Freight carrier with criteria transportation
cost.
2. Shippers with criteria transport travel time.
3. Urban expressway operators with criteria
toll revenue.
SCM-57
th
Proceeding 8 International Seminar on Industrial Engineering and Management
ISSN : 1978-774X
4. Residents with criteria total NOx emissions
in the network. The residents would make
a complaint againts the administrators
whenever the NOx emissions for their
zones exceed 50g per 1km.
5. Administrator with criteria total NO x
emissions in the network and Total
number of compalints from the residents.
City Logistics measures will significantly
affect the energy consumption of freight
vehicles by improving and rationalising urban
freight transport systems. Yamada (1980) was
taken from Taniguchi et al (2001) developed a
model for estimating fuel consumption using
on-road test data. The model equations of the
estimated fuel consumption are:
fe = 6,372 – 0,716rg – 0,193ts – 1,392ga – 1,412a + 0,138V – 0,001V2
(1)
where:
fe : fuel economy (km/litre)
rg : 1 for gravel road, 0 for asphalt pavement
ts : stopped time (min.)
ga : average gradient (%)
a : 1 when AC is on, 0 when AC is off
V : average travel speed (km/jam)
There are numerous undesirable negative
effects from urban goods movement that can
be present a direct risk to human health.
Greenhouse gases produced from exhaust
gases of trucks are a major concern in many
cities. In this case, the emission factors used in
determining the total NOx emissions of
pollutants is to use a reference emission factor
of the Indonesian Ministry of Environment
drawn from scientific journals Srikandi Novianti
dan Driejana (2009) entitled “The Influence of
Factor Emission Characteristics In TransportInduced Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Emission Load
Estimation” as can be seen in Table 4:
Table 4. Emission Factor Data in Indonesia
Category
Motorcycle
Passenger
cars
(gasoline)
Passenger
cars
(diesel fuel)
Passenger cars
Bus
Truck
Public
Transportation
CO (g/km)
HC (g/km)
NOx (g/km)
14
5,9
0,29
PM10
(g/km)
0,24
CO2 (g/kg
BBM)
3180
SO2
(g/km)
0,008
40
4
2
0,01
3180
0,026
2,8
0,2
3,5
0,53
3172
0,44
32,4
11
8,4
3,2
1,3
1,8
2,3
11,9
17,7
0,12
1,4
1,4
3178
3172
3172
0,11
0,93
0,82
43,1
5,08
2,1
0,006
3180
0,029
Source: Suhadi (2008) in Journal Srikandi Novianti, Driejana (2009) and Eben Ramadyan
Hidayatullah (2011)
Then for the decision model of
stakeholders level satisfaction city logistics
system starts from stage calculation
Capacity Vehicle Routing Problem With
Time Windows (CVRPTW) approach Clarke
& Wright Savings Heuristics Algorhitm. This
method is used for the VRP case by
considering the capacity, and the minimum
cost route followed by obstacles in the
distribution system. In general, the savings
equation is:
Sij = Da – Db = ci0 + c0j – cij
SCM-58
(2)
Source: Jens Lysgaard (1997)
Figure 1. Savings Concept Illustration
The steps in detail the methods savings
as follows:
Route and Transportation Costs Analysis
(Yogi Yogaswara)
th
Proceeding 8 International Seminar on Industrial Engineering and Management
ISSN : 1978-774X
1. Set the distance at the beginning of
each route for each node.
2. Calculate each pair using the savings
equation (equation 2).
3. Create a list ranking of each pair are
different.
4. Combine route when possible.
5. Next check back every couple route that
have been generated.
General overview of the steps problem
solving methodology can be seen in Figure 2
below in the form of a flowchart:
Figure 3b. Route Result are Built by
Logware 5.0 (with 1 vehicle)
Total Transportation Cost
Nominal (Rp.)
Rp1,000,000
Rp500,000
Rp-
Case 1
Result Rp800,586
Case 2
Rp578,840
Figure 4. Comparison Chart of Total
Transportation Cost
Transport Travel Time
Minute
1,000
500
Result
Case 1
491
Case 2
610
Figure 2. Methodology
4. RESULTS
Figure 5. Comparison Chart of Transport
Travel Time
Total Toll Revenue
Nominal (Rp.)
Rp100,000
Figure 3a. Route Plot (a) Existing
Condition (with 2 vehicles)
Route and Transportation Costs Analysis
(Yogi Yogaswara)
Rp-
Case
1
Result Rp88,500
Case
2
Rp40,500
Figure 6. Comparison Chart of Total Toll
Revenue
SCM-59
th
Proceeding 8 International Seminar on Industrial Engineering and Management
ISSN : 1978-774X
Total NOx Emissions
Performance Level
6,000
Gram
Mileage
2 1.48
5,500
5,000
Result
Complaints
From The…1.061
Case 1
5611.23
Case 2
5394.96
Figure 7. Comparison Chart of Total NO x
Emissions
Number of Residents Complaint
NOx
Emissions
1.04
Toll
Revenue
Occupance
Rate
1.17
0
0.8
1.84
Transportat
1.38 ion Cost
Case 1
Case 2
Transport
Travel Time
Figure 10. Comparison Chart of
Performance Level
5. CONCLUSION
Times
115
110
105
100
Result
Case 1
115
Case 2
109
Figure 8. Comparison Chart The Number of
Residents Complaint
Figure 9. Illustration of Road Network
Number of Complaints Residents (a) Case 1
and (b) Case 2
SCM-60
Results calculated by Clarke and Wright
Savings
Algorithm
approach
using
application Logware 5.0 obtained 3 route of
distribution that can be done by the
company include:
1. First route with the consumer point 0 – 1
– 2 – 0 by distance 66.9 km hauling total
demand as much as 1961.06 kg,
2. Second route with the consumer point 0
– 3 – 5 – 9 – 12 – 10 – 0 by distance
114 km hauling total demand as much
as 1544,47 kg, and
3. Third route with the consumer point 0 –
7 – 6 – 4 – 11 – 8 – 0 by distance 123,9
km hauling total demand as much as
1587,76 kg.
Where the whole targeted of node
consumers using the vehicle in the form of a
single ankle truck axis configuration with 1-1
(4 wheel). Furthermore, the data processing
is done affects many aspects. These
aspects include:
1. Savings generated mileage of 146.6 km
(32.48%) so that an increase in the level
of performance with the actual
conditions of 1.48.
2. Efficiency payload capacity ratio
(occupance rate) of 84.8% where there
is a difference in the numbers with the
existing conditions in the company
amounted to 9.44% so that an increase
in performance level of 1.17.
3. Savings transportation costs Rp.
221.746 (27.10%) so that an increase in
performance level of 1.38 and savings
toll revenue Rp. 48.000 (54,24%) with
Route and Transportation Costs Analysis
(Yogi Yogaswara)
th
Proceeding 8 International Seminar on Industrial Engineering and Management
ISSN : 1978-774X
the increase in performance level of
1.84.
4. Transport travel time during 610
minutes
with
the
decrease
in
performance level of 0.80, where the
difference of time with the actual
conditions which produced for 119
minutes. Although there is a resulting
decrease in the level of performance,
but it does not happen constraints
exceeds a predetermined of time
windows.
5. Reduction of NOx emission 216,27 gram
(3,85%)
with
the
increase
in
performance level of 1.04,
6. Decrease in the number of complaints
residents as much as 6 times (5,22%)
with the increase in performance level of
1.06.
6. REFERENCES
(a) Ballou,
R.H.,
2004.,
Business
Logistic/Supply Chain Management,
Fifth Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall,
USA.
(b) Ballou, R.H., 2004., Logware: Selected
Computer
Programs
for
Logistics/Supply Chain Planning Version
5.0,
Weatherhead
School
of
Management, Case Western Reserve
University, USA.
(c) Bowersox, D.J., 2006., Manajemen
Logistik 1 : Integrasi Sistem-sistem
Manajemen
Distribusi
Fisik
dan
Manajemen Material. Edisi Terjemahan,
Bumi Aksara, Jakarta.
(d) Daluarti, M.H.C. 2009. Perencanaan
Kota,
(Online),
(http://file.upi.edu/Direktori/FPIPS/LAINN
YA/MEITRI_HENING/Bahan_Presentasi/
9%2610_Perencanaan_Kota.pdf,
Accessed October, 30th 2014 10:47am
WIB)
(e) Hidayatullah, E.R. 2011. Estimasi Beban
Emisi Dan Konsentrasi SO2 Dari Sektor
Transportasi Dengan Model DFLS Studi
Kasus Surabaya Selatan (Jl. Gayungsari
Barat),
(Online),
(http://digilib.its.ac.id/public/ITSUndergraduate-17381-3307100041Paper-pdf.pdf, diakses 6 Oktober 2014
pkl. 10:30 WIB)
Route and Transportation Costs Analysis
(Yogi Yogaswara)
(f) Lysgaard, J., 1997. Clarke & Wright’s
Savings Algorithm, Department of
Management Science and Logistics, The
Aarhus School of Business, Denmark.
(g) Novianti, S. & Driejana. 2009. Pengaruh
Karakteristik Faktor Emisi Terhadap
Estimasi Beban Emisi Oksida Nitrogen
(NOX) Dari Sektor Transportasi (Studi
Kasus: Wilayah Karees, Bandung),
(Online),
(http://www.ftsl.itb.ac.id/kk/air_waste/wpcontent/uploads/2010/10/PI-AP4Srikandi-Novianti-15305065.pdf, diakses
6 Oktober 2014 pkl. 04:57 WIB)
(h) Salaki, D.T. 2009. Penyelesaian Vehicle
Routing
Problem
Menggunakan
Beberapa Metode Heuristik Konstruktif.
Unpublished dissertation. Sekolah Pasca
Sarjana IPB, Bogor.
(i) Salipadang, J.C. 2011. Analisis Sistem
Pengangkutan Sampah Kota Makassar
Dengan Metode Penyelesaian Vehicle
Routing Problem (VRP). Unpublished
thesis. Program Studi Teknik Indutri
Jurusan Mesin Fakultas Teknik Unhas,
Makassar.
(j) Taniguchi, E., & Tamagawa, D., 2005.
Evaluating City Logitics Measures
Considering The Behaviour of Several
Stakeholders, Journal of The Eastern
Asia Society for Transportation Studies,
Vol. 6, pp. 3062-3076.
(k) Taniguchi, E., Thompson R.G., Yamada,
T. & Duin R.v., 2001., City Logistic:
Network Modelling and Intelligent
Transport
Systems,
Pergamon,
Amsterdam.
SCM-61
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