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Indonesia - REACHOUT consortium
CONTEXT ANALYSIS: CLOSE-TOCOMMUNITY MATERNAL HEALTH
PROVIDERS IN SOUTH WEST SUMBA AND
CIANJUR, INDONESIA
SUDIRMAN NASIR, RUKHSANA AHMED, MILA KURNIASARI, RALALICIA LIMATO, KORRIE DE
KONING, OLIVIA TULLOCH, DIN SYAFRUDDIN
May 2014
Contact Details:
Rukhsana Ahmed
Eijkman Institute For Molecular Biology, Jalan Diponegoro 69, Jakarta, 10430, Indonesia
Telephone: +62 213917131
www.reachoutconsortium.org
www.twitter.com/REACHOUT_Tweet
Consortium members:
James P Grant School of Public Health, BRAC Institute of Global Health, BRAC University
(Bangladesh)
HHA-YAM (Ethiopia)
Eijkman Institute of Molecular Biology (Indonesia)
LVCT Health (Kenya)
REACH Trust (Malawi)
University Eduardo Mondlane (Mozambique)
Royal Tropical Institute (KIT, the Netherlands)
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM, the UK)
Cover photo courtesy of Ikhlasul Amal
https://www.flickr.com/photos/ikhlasulamal/6287494864
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Several individuals, organizations and government officials have contributed to the
compilation of this report. We acknowledge all of them and thank the informants who
participated in the qualitative study.
We thank the Ministry of Health for permitting us to do this work, the District Health
Officials of South West Sumba and Cianjur for their support and guidance, and the Heads
of Puskesmas and midwife coordinators for their assistance.
We also thank Ari Probandari, Endang Sumiwi and Endah Setyaningsih for their
contribution to the literature review while being staff of the REACHOUT team. We also
thank all the data collectors: Christina N. Kleruk, Roswita L. Riada, Theresia Dalta, Daniel
Nani Kii, Euis Latipah, Dian Rahma Ardiyanti, Yuli Hendrika Sugiharti, Asti Wulandari and
Rosi Alfi Aulia for their enthusiasm and diligent work in conducting the interviews; and
Halasan Panggabean, Irene Salim, Theda Lukito, Rita Wulandari, Dr Arthur Mawuntu,
Sp.S, Laysa Aswitama, Dian Rahma Ardiyanti and Nugrahani for their help in translating
the transcripts.
We would like to thank the European Union for its financing and support. This document
reflects only the authors’ views, and the European Union is not liable for any use that
may be made of the information contained herein.
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
INTRODUCTION
REACHOUT ‘Reaching out and linking in health systems and close-to-community
services’ is an eight-country, five-year consortium funded by the European Commission.
Its aim is to maximize the equity, effectiveness and efficiency of close-to-community
(CTC) services in rural and urban slums of six partner countries: Bangladesh, Ethiopia,
Indonesia, Kenya, Malawi and Mozambique, with support provided by its European
partners: the Netherlands and the UK. In Indonesia improvement of maternal health is
a nationwide priority, and REACHOUT focuses on strengthening community maternal
health services.
The health care system in Indonesia emphasizes community empowerment. Three
initiatives — namely, the Community Health Centres known as Puskesmas, communityintegrated village health service called Posyandu and the Village Midwife Programmes
(VMPs) — were started in the latter half of the 20th century to bring health services
closer to the community and to reduce the high maternal mortality rate (MMR). The
initiatives function to provide integrated curative, preventive and health promotion
activities — particularly mother and child health services — to rural communities. In the
initial phase considerable progress in maternal mortality was observed; however, the
poor maternal health outcomes persisted, and drawbacks of the VMPs were evident. At
present the target MMR of 102 deaths per 100,000 live births by 2015 set by the
Millennium Development Goals remains a challenge. The 2013 estimates show an
average MMR of 190, with a lower limit of 120 and an upper limit of 300 per 100,000
live births. Additionally, the decentralization of the health system in 2001, giving
management authority to the districts, further shifted health care delivery closer to the
community.
REACHOUT collaborates with the Eijkman Institute, Jakarta, an institute with experience
in conducting research involving midwives in rural areas. The first phase of the research
was to conduct a country context analysis, which includes a desk review, mapping of
CTC providers and qualitative studies. This report provides findings of these studies,
which will be used to guide interventions for the service quality improvement cycles.
RESEARCH METHODS
Desk review
We reviewed published and unpublished work, mainly government and nongovernment reports and policy documents on CTC providers in Indonesia covering the
period 2003–2013. We then held consultations with the District Health Officers (DHOs)
and other stakeholders to obtain their inputs. Information was synthesized using a predetermined REACHOUT framework of factors affecting the performance of CTC
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providers. These included the types of CTC providers and their roles, the performance
and impact of CTC providers and services, and health system, intervention design and
contextual factors.
Stakeholder mapping
We held a brainstorming session within our team to identify the key maternal health
service stakeholders. They were identified at central, provincial and district level, and
separated into government, non-government and local partners at sub-district and
village level who influence policy and implementation.
Qualitative study
Study sites: Guided by the Ministry of Health and with district selection criteria agreed
across the consortium, we selected South West Sumba and Cianjur, two districts with
poor maternal health indicators but contrasting in population size, socio-cultural
background and district management experience. In each district we selected two subdistricts: one with good maternal health indicators and one with poor indicators. We
further selected four villages per sub-district as follows: one which is close (10km or less)
to the sub-district health centre and performing well, and one performing poorly in
maternal health. Likewise, we chose villages that were far (approximately 10–12km or
more) from the sub-district health centre, with one in each sub-district performing
poorly and one performing well, making a total of eight villages per district.
Ethical approval: A country-specific protocol was developed and ethical approval was
obtained from the Research Ethics Committee of the Eijkman Institute.
Informants: We selected village midwives, Posyandu kaders (village health volunteers)
and Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) working in our selected villages as service
providers, and mothers and husbands as service users. The key management informants
were the heads of Puskesmas and midwife coordinators in the Puskesmas, and
policymakers were section heads of maternal health at DHOs.
Sampling and data collection: We used a purposive sampling. Data were collected
through focus group discussions (FGDs) and semi-structured interviews (SSIs). Topic
guides were developed, and a one-week workshop was held to train the data collectors.
Data management and analysis: We piloted the data tools prior to data collection, and
audio files were transcribed in Bahasa Indonesia and counterchecked and translated
into English. A workshop was held in Jakarta facilitated by senior researchers from the
Royal Tropical Institute (KIT), the Netherlands, and the Liverpool School of Tropical
Medicine (LSTM), the UK, who trained the staff in qualitative data analysis. Data were
imported into Nvivo 10 software and analysed.
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Stakeholder meeting: We presented the preliminary findings to the respective districtand provincial-level stakeholders to discuss the outcomes and their input for
implications of the quality improvement cycle.
MAIN FINDINGS
Human resources
The main CTC providers of maternal health care are the village midwives or nurses, the
Posyandu kaders and TBAs. The village midwives are involved in providing midwifery
care and attending to deliveries at facilities or at home. Since they might be the only
health care provider in the village, in addition to their 24-hour availability for deliveries,
they provide general health care, care for elderly people and health promotion activities
such as family planning and nutrition, which is beyond their training. In Cianjur some
midwives are also involved in female genital cutting. Midwives in rural areas provide a
24-hour service and find that their workload has increased with additional services and
is challenging for their competencies..
Posyandu kaders are non-salaried workers who are chosen by the community to serve
in the Posyandu. The kaders are responsible for arranging the Posyandu, weighing
children, assisting in registration and providing nutritional and health promotion such
as family planning. They receive a financial incentive from the DHO and a week of
training for their Posyandu-based tasks.
TBAs are non-salaried informal workers whose roles and training vary; some inherit the
role. They are involved in providing local traditions such as massage to position the
foetus, attending home deliveries and after-delivery care of bathing mother and child.
Selection and recruitment of CTC maternal health providers
Midwives are recruited on the basis of academy certification and appointed by the
DHOs. Kaders are selected by the community, with a strong influence of village leaders
on the selection, based on literacy capabilities; however, increasingly, village midwives
play a role in their selection. Communities expressed a preference for married, older
midwives. However, this is a challenge. Older, married midwives often have a house,
family and school-aged children and find it difficult to be based in remote villages
without schooling for their children. The desk study shows that assigned midwives who
are not resident spend less than half the number of days on village-based clinical work,
and this differs significantly by location, and remote areas show a high turnover of
midwives.
Supervision
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The desk review and interviews show that the monthly supervisory meetings with
midwife coordinators mainly accounts for the activities in the Posyandu and records of
the number of pregnant women in the village and deliveries that occurred in the
preceding month. A report that looked into service quality states that quality
improvement approaches for the technical supervision of midwives/nurses are lacking.
Since there is no standardized supervisory system, the quality of supervision varies and
does not support capacity strengthening or motivation of midwives/nurses. The few
studies that describe supervisory processes consider them weak.
Community structures and support
Heads of the village and village health committees were allocated a supportive role in
the organization of the Posyandu and support for the midwives and kaders. Comparison
between villages that are performing well and those performing less well shows that
the villages performing well (in terms of utilization of services) have much more
supportive and active village heads and other stakeholders such as the managers of the
Puskesmas than those performing less well. In addition, the attitudes of midwives play
an important role.
Collaboration and coordination
Some collaboration between midwives, kaders and TBAs exists. In Cianjur the
collaboration is more formalized than in Sumba. TBAs accompany women to the
midwife and health facilities and are supported by the midwives in return.
Influences on maternal health-seeking behaviour
Antenatal and postnatal care: Most pregnant women attend the monthly Posyandu to
check whether their pregnancy is normal and whether delivery would have any
complications. The postnatal services are less clearly defined, and many women felt that
postnatal Posyandu attendance was for a check-up for their baby.
Preference for home delivery and TBA attendance: The health-seeking behaviour of
women regarding where to deliver and who is in attendance is influenced by a longstanding tradition of TBA culture. The comfort and familiarity of the home environment
and availability of aftercare according to tradition was also a reason given for preferring
home births. This preference can cause delays in presenting to health facilities when
there are delivery complications.
Access to care and the lack of a referral system: Factors such as transport cost, distance
to health facilities and availability of a village midwife as opposed to the close proximity
and convenience of a TBA to the delivering women all influence the place women
choose to have their delivery. Ambulances are often not available, and payment for
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transport services is expected. These factors contribute to delays for women needing to
reach health facilities during labour.
Perceptions of the health facility: A lack of health worker responsiveness to traditional
beliefs and practices is an important barrier that prevents pregnant women from
delivering in a health facility. One such belief is that hot water baths are needed to
ensure the dirty blood leaves the mother and prevent future back pain, so mothers are
reluctant to deliver at health facilities where hot baths are not available. Another is the
fact that the midwife is not seen to take the mucus out of the baby’s mouth, as the TBA
does.
Decision-making and gender norms: Decision-making related to antenatal care, delivery
and family planning is influenced by gender norms. It is influenced by the husband and
key family members such as parents and parents-in-law, as well as encouragement or
instruction from the village head and midwives.
Health insurance: Indonesia has an insurance scheme, Jampersal, that covers maternal
health services, including delivery. This has improved access to health facilities, but
many communities are not clear how the scheme works, and the bureaucracy and
reimbursement of the scheme remains a problem.
DISCUSSION
Although there is a well-laid-out community maternal health infrastructure, many
challenges persist. Midwives form the core of CTC health providers and are deployed to
serve rural areas. However, they are required to give services additional to their
midwifery practice, beyond their capacity and skills. Similarly, the Posyandu kaders are
also expected to provide services beyond their defined role. The increased workload of
midwives and poor referral systems hamper the quality of care, and the retention of
midwives in rural areas is an ongoing issue.
Many women prefer home delivery and TBA services despite regularly attending the
Posyandu for antenatal services in both districts. The preference for TBAs partly comes
from a deep-rooted tradition of trust in TBAs who practice local traditions. This reveals
a crucial role of TBA services, although some differences exist between the two districts
in their roles. It is also noteworthy that building up tripartite collaboration between
village midwives, the kaders and the TBAs is important in supporting women to deliver
in health facilities by accompanying them to the health facility. Other factors for the
preference for home delivery and the persistence of TBA usage is the poor response to
community cultural practices at facilities, and poor understanding of the benefits of
giving birth at a health facility, coupled with perceived low risk to the mother and baby
with normal antenatal findings during pregnancy.
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Limitations within the existing maternal health system hinder the quality of care
provided at the health facility, which can be compounded by unfriendly attitudes of
health staff. There are several factors relating to accessibility including poor roads, lack
of transport and poor communications system. Although a health insurance scheme
exists, and delivery care is free, there is a perceived indirect cost for accommodation for
family members who accompany the woman, and the transport cost if they use their
own transport. These are costs not covered by the Jampersal health insurance scheme.
In conclusion, despite concerted efforts to improve maternal health and some increase
in the proportion of facility deliveries, many issues contribute to women continuing to
choose home deliveries, the root causes of which will be addressed in the improvement
cycle that targets two of the REACHOUT focal areas: community engagement and
coordination and referral.



Implications for quality improvement cycles and potential areas for
intervention: Coordination/referral to initiate or support the three-way
collaboration between village midwives, Posyandu kaders and TBAs to facilitate
timely referral of women in labour to attend health facility. This intervention is
aimed at addressing preferences for home delivery, and limited communication
of information about delivery from TBAs to midwives. This may be achieved
through regular monthly meetings. This mechanism could then be used to:
o improve TBAs’ willingness and capacity to refer women, inform village
midwives in advance of an upcoming birth and accompany women for
facility delivery, with an emphasis on stimulating birth preparedness;
o follow up the Training Act as a supportive structure that can link to
supervisory support by sharing problems and possible solutions; and
o provide a forum for regularly updating the skills of midwives and
Posyandu kaders.
Health promotion to improve the communication skills of CTC health providers
such as Posyandu kaders and village midwives to explain the benefits of
antenatal care and facility delivery to the mothers. The intervention could,
therefore, train providers to enhance their communication skills and initiate
discussion with women, supported by well-developed health promotion
materials. The aim would be to enable them to more effectively communicate
with women during antenatal care on the benefits of facility delivery, the risks
despite a normal pregnancy and the cost and coverage of the health insurance
scheme.
Improve community support to address traditional practices, decision-making
and preparedness for referral at birth. The intervention would involve the
development of participatory learning and action in community groups with the
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

aim to generate reflection on decision-making and the development of action
plans to overcome barriers to access health facilities for delivery.
Cultural sensitivity: Give consideration to locally practised norms and
acceptable services such as the provision of hot water baths after delivery at
health facilities to improve the responsiveness of health services to local
traditional practices that could encourage women to deliver at a health facility.
Support from strategic stakeholders: Utilizing important stakeholders such as
village authorities, the Family Welfare Movement (PKK) and the National
Programme for Community Empowerment (PNPM) to become involved and
support maternal health services, and action plans developed by the community.
Encourage setting up a village transport network particularly for delivery
emergencies, with the involvement of key figures in the village such as village
chief and family welfare services, and develop a reimbursement system for
transport and family accommodation costs.
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CONTENTS
Acknowledgements ..................................................................................................................................... 3
Executive Summary ..................................................................................................................................... 4
contents ..................................................................................................................................................... 11
Abbreviations and acronyms ..................................................................................................................... 13
Chapter 1 – Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 14
Background, Concept and Objectives .................................................................................................... 14
Context Analysis .................................................................................................................................... 16
Report sections ...................................................................................................................................... 18
Chapter 2 – Desk review ............................................................................................................................ 19
Country Profile ....................................................................................................................................... 19
Methods ................................................................................................................................................ 22
FINDINGS ............................................................................................................................................... 24
Programme and Health Services ........................................................................................................... 30
Health Expenditure and Health Insurance ............................................................................................. 35
Effect of Decentralization ...................................................................................................................... 36
Discussion .............................................................................................................................................. 37
Chapter 3 – Stakeholder mapping ............................................................................................................. 39
CTC stakeholder mapping ...................................................................................................................... 39
Chapter 4 – Qualitative research methodology ........................................................................................ 42
METHODOLOGY ..................................................................................................................................... 42
Recruitment of research informants ..................................................................................................... 46
Recruitment of study informants .............................................................................................................. 46
data analysis .......................................................................................................................................... 49
Quality assurance .................................................................................................................................. 49
Study limitations .................................................................................................................................... 50
Chapter 5 – Qualitative research findings ................................................................................................. 51
Overview ................................................................................................................................................ 51
Intervention design factors.................................................................................................................... 52
Health-seeking behaviours for Antenatal care, delivery and Postnatal care ........................................ 64
Decision-making and gender norms, values and roles .......................................................................... 70
Collaboration between village midwives, kaders and TBAs .................................................................. 73
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ....................................................................................................................... 75
Chapter 6 – Discussion............................................................................................................................... 81
Barriers to accessing maternal health services ..................................................................................... 81
Facilitators to access maternal health services ..................................................................................... 83
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Plural health-seeking behaviours and collaboration between TBAs, kaders and vMWs....................... 85
Differences between SW Sumba and Cianjur ........................................................................................ 86
CHAPTER 7 – IMPLICATIONS ...................................................................................................................... 88
FOR THE DRAFT FRAMEWORK ............................................................................................................... 88
the quality improvement cycle .............................................................................................................. 88
Potential areas for intervention ............................................................................................................ 89
References ................................................................................................................................................. 91
Annexes ..................................................................................................................................................... 95
Annex 1. Definition of CTC Provider ...................................................................................................... 95
Annex 2. Draft framework .............................................................................................................. 99
Annex 3. Search strategy .............................................................................................................. 101
Annex 4. Data collection tools .................................................................................................... 104
Consent form ................................................................................................................................... 104
Participant information sheet ..................................................................................................... 109
Interview guidelines Indonesian ................................................................................................. 122
Interview guideline English .......................................................................................................... 147
Annex 5. Root cause analysis and problem statement ......................................................... 169
Annex 6.Nvivo coding framework ............................................................................................... 174
Annex 7.Ethical approval letter .................................................................................................. 177
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ABBREVIATIONS AND AC RONYMS
ANC
BEONC
CEONC
CHW
CTC
DHO
FGD
IDHS
KIT
LSTM
M&E
MoH
MMR
NGO
PHO
PKK
PNC
PNPM
SSI
TBA
VMP
WHO
Antenatal care
Basic emergency obstetric and neonatal care
Comprehensive emergency obstetric and neonatal care
Community Health Worker
Close-to-community
District Health Office
Focus group discussion
Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey
Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine
Monitoring and evaluation
Ministry of Health
Maternal mortality rate
Non-government organization
Provincial Health Office
Family Welfare Guidance
Postnatal care
National Programme for Community Empowerment
Semi-structured interview
Traditional Birth Attendant
Village Midwife Programme
World Health Organization
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CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND, CONCEPT AND OBJECTIVES
The health care system in Indonesia emphasizes community empowerment. Three initiatives
— namely, the Community Health Centres known as Puskesmas, community integrated
village health posts called Posyandu and the Village Midwife Programmes (VMPs) — were
started in the latter half of the 20th century to bring health services closer to the community
and to improve the high maternal mortality. The initiatives function to provide curative,
preventive and health promotion activities particularly mother and child health services to
the rural communities. Maternal health services are at the core of the outreach initiative, with
midwives as the front-line health worker. This initiative makes Indonesia one of the few
countries that have brought midwifery services into the community. At the initial phase
considerable progress in maternal mortality was observed; however, the problem persisted,
and drawbacks of the VMP were evident [1].
Maternal health remains a major public health problem in Indonesia. At present the target
maternal mortality rate (MMR) of 102 deaths per 100,000 live births by 2015 set by the
Millennium Development Goals remains a challenge. The 2013 estimates show an average
MMR of 190, with a lower limit of 120 and an upper limit of 300 per 100,000 live births [2].
Additionally, the decentralization of the health system in 2001, giving management authority
to the districts, further shifted health care closer to the community. In Indonesia, as in many
public health systems, there is a divide between the close-to-community (CTC) providers and
policymakers. Research is needed to understand the interactions between CTC providers and
health systems to avoid repetition of the factors that led to the decline of the VMP.
THE REACHOUT PROJECT
REACHOUT ‘Reaching out and linking in: health systems and close-to-community services’ is
a five-year research project that started in February 2013 funded by the European
Commission FP7. The primary aim of the research is to maximize the equity, effectiveness and
efficiency of CTC services in rural areas and urban slums of the six partner countries:
Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Indonesia, Kenya, Malawi and Mozambique, together with expertise
from partner institutes in the Netherlands and UK.
The REACHOUT research in Indonesia concentrates on identifying ways to improve maternal
health using the existing system of CTC providers in rural areas. REACHOUT collaborates with
the Eijkman Institute, Jakarta, an institute with experience in conducting research involving
midwives in rural areas. The first phase of the research was to conduct a country context
analysis which includes a desk review, mapping of CTC providers and qualitative studies. This
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report presents the findings of these studies, which will be used to guide interventions for the
service quality improvement cycles.
OBJECTIVES OF REACHO UT
The objectives of REACHOUT are:
 to identify how community context, health policy and interactions with the rest of the
health system influence the equity, effectiveness and efficiency of CTC services;
 to develop and assess interventions that have potential to make improvements to CTC
services;
 to inform evidence-based and context-appropriate policymaking for CTC services; and
 to build capacity to conduct and use health systems research to improve CTC services.
KEY PRINCIPLES OF RE ACHOUT
The key principles of REACHOUT are:
 to include input from CTC providers, the community, policymakers and other
stakeholders;
 to assess the evidence for or deficiency of impact of the interventions;
 to ensure that lessons learned are able to influence future programming at national
level;
 to develop a common methodology so that inter-country comparison is possible;
 to ensure synergistic working with similar research studies funded by the European
Commission; and
 to include capacity-building as an integral component at all levels.
PHASES OF REACHOUT
The objectives of REACHOUT will be achieved in two phases:
Phase 1: Conducting a context analysis through an international literature review, six national
desk studies and six qualitative studies to identify contextual factors that influence the
performance of CTC providers and services.
Phase 2: Implementation of two improvement cycles in six countries to test interventions for
improving CTC providers’ performance and their contribution to CTC services.
The findings of the country context analysis, which include a desk review, a mapping of
providers and qualitative studies, are used to guide the interventions for the service
improvement cycles. The context analysis of the various countries will assist the adaptation
and further development of an analytical framework that identifies facilitators of and barriers
to CTC services and forms the basis for the development of logical pathways for interventions.
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To conduct the research stated above, each partner country has chosen a health theme which
is a priority in their country. The theme chosen by Indonesia for the REACHOUT research is
‘strengthening community-level maternal health provision’. The activities related to the
chosen research will be developed into a country-specific work package covering the overall
objectives of REACHOUT.
DEFINITION OF CTC HEALTH SERVICE PROVIDERS
The REACHOUT definition of CTC providers covers a broad variety of health workers in both
government and non-government bodies. It was derived based on the definition of Lewin et
al (2010)[3] for lay health workers and the World Health Organization (WHO) definition for
auxiliary health workers (WHO, 2012).
“A CTC provider is a health worker who carries out promotional, preventive and/or curative
health services and who is first point of contact at community level. A CTC provider can be
based in the community or in a basic primary facility. A CTC provider has at least a minimum
level of training in the context of the intervention that they carry out and not more than two
or three years of para-professional training.”
In the Indonesian context CTC providers are formal or informal front-line health workers who
function as first point of contact at community level. Maternal health front-line workers in
Indonesia are the village midwives and nurses. Although they have undergone formal
midwifery/nursing education, for the purposes of REACHOUT they are included as CTC
providers. We also include trained or untrained Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs), since they
have a strong influence and are like the gatekeepers of maternal health at community level.
CONTEXT ANALYSIS
This report presents the results of the phase 1 context analysis outlined above. The purpose
of the context analysis is to develop an analytical framework that will be used to design and
analyse the improvement cycles in phase 2.
OBJECTIVES OF THE CONTEXT ANALYSIS
The objectives of the context analysis are:
 to identify evidence for interventions which have an impact on the contribution of CTC
providers to the delivery of effective, efficient and equitable maternal health care;
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


to map the types of CTC providers;
to assess structures and policies of the health system for strengths and weaknesses
regarding the organization of CTC services and management of CTC providers;
to identify and assess contextual factors and conditions that form barriers to or
facilitators of the performance of CTC maternal health care providers and services;
and
to synthesize evidence on key barriers and facilitators to be built on in future CTC
interventions and identify knowledge gaps to be filled regarding CTC services.
COMPONENTS OF CONTEXT ANALYSIS
The following tasks were carried out to complete the context analysis:
Desk review: we undertook a review of existing reports, records and literature on CTC services
and providers to identify gaps in knowledge.
Qualitative research: we conducted research consisting of semi-structured interviews (SSIs)
and focus group discussions (FGDs) involving four types of CTC providers and key informants
such as village heads, heads of local organizations, health managers and policymakers in the
two selected districts: SW Sumba and Cianjur. In each district, two sub-districts and four
villages per sub-district was chosen for this component.
Stakeholder meeting: a meeting was held with the district health officials in each study
district to map the type and function of maternal health CTC providers and to identify their
training and support provided within the health service. Later a meeting was conducted
involving the full spectrum of stakeholders, including policymakers, administrative and
programme implementers and non-government organizations (NGO), to discuss their interest
in and alignment with REACHOUT activities and to explain the REACHOUT project.
ROLE OF PARTNER INSTITUTE
The consortium partner institute in Indonesia is the Eijkman Institute in Jakarta. It is an
established research institute under the Ministry of Research and Technology. The institute
contributes to advancing evidence-based policy through its laboratory and field research. This
role is reflected by the recognition given to its research by the Ministry of Health (MoH), and
its membership of the ASEAN Expert Committee on Infectious Diseases and the Roll Back
Malaria in Pregnancy working group. The Eijkman Institute also has long-standing
collaborations with many reputable international research institutes and organizations.
Through its past field research engaging Community Health Workers (CHWs), midwives, rural
communities and District Health Offices (DHOs), it has considerable knowledge of the health
system infrastructure in the target districts. The Eijkman Institute takes the lead in carrying
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out the activities of the country work package and is responsible for liaison with local
authorities, policymakers and other stakeholders in Indonesia. It will also be responsible to
disseminate the outcomes of this work to the relevant policymakers.
REPORT SECTIONS
The report describes the context analysis and its findings. The first section provides an
executive summary of the report. The next part consists of the chapters outlined below, and
the last section provides relevant annexes.
Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the REACHOUT consortium, the country work package
and the role of the partner institute, together with an overview of the context analysis.
Chapter 2 presents a desk review on the situation analysis, identifying the types of maternal
health CTC providers and policies relating to their services, with a description of the major
issues and barriers to the performance of CTC providers.
Chapter 3 describes the content and outcomes of discussions in the stakeholder meeting on
the type and tasks of CTC providers, and stakeholders’ alignment with and interest in
supporting REACHOUT.
Chapter 4 provides an overview of the qualitative research method, covering the study design,
study areas and population, study tools, data collection and analysis.
Chapter 5 highlights the research findings, with a description of the characteristics of the CTC
providers and narratives on facilitators and barriers on major themes based on the draft
framework. Limitations of research are also discussed.
Chapter 6 discusses the major findings, with triangulation of Chapters 3 and 4 linking with the
desk review.
Chapter 7 provides the implications for the draft framework in the country context and for
the quality improvement cycle.
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CHAPTER 2 – DESK REVIEW
COUNTRY PROFILE
Indonesia is a diverse country with a population of 237.5 million people spread over 17,500
islands divided into 34 provinces, 465 districts and 95 municipalities [4]. Administratively the
districts are further divided into 6093 sub-districts and 65,189 villages. The diversity is also
evident both within and between provinces, districts and sub-districts in ethnicity, religion,
culture, beliefs and dialects. The large population is growing at a rate of 1.03% and a fertility
rate of 2.2 [5].
Providing health services to the widespread and diverse population is challenging. One
strategy the country has put in place is outreach care. Under this initiative midwives and
nurses are placed in the community so that they can attend to the health needs of village
populations.
COMMUNITY HEALTH CAR E DELIVERY SYSTEM
The health care system in Indonesia emphasizes community empowerment; with the
decentralization of the health system, the administration and programme implementation is
passed to the district health authorities (Table 1). The main facility responsible for delivering
health care to the community is the Puskesmas (community health centre)
The Puskesmas system was started in accordance with the concept of the health promotion
and prevention approach set out in the 1951 Bandung Plan [6]. Based on this concept, the
function of the Puskesmas is to provide comprehensive health care to individuals and to carry
out health promotion and prevention activities for the community. There is one Puskesmas
per sub-district or part of a sub-district. In 2010 there were 9005 of them, with each one
serving about 30,000 people.
At the sub-district level, under the umbrella of the Puskesmas, health care delivery is further
broken down into Pustu, Polindes and Posyandu to serve village populations as shown in
Figure 1.
A Pustu is a simple health service unit serving two or three villages with a nurse or midwife in
place. Polindes is a village midwife clinic with obstetric care serving one or two villages and a
building allowing midwives to stay. Posyandu is a community integrated health post that
provides antenatal care (ANC), health promotion and prevention activities, child growth
monitoring and immunization. The activities are held monthly and take place in the village.
19 | P a g e
The village community is responsible for organizing the Posyandu, and activities are carried
out with assistance from the Puskesmas staff.
Table 1. Administration of the Indonesian health system
Position
Central: Ministry of Health
Minister — national policy
Provincial: Provincial Health Office
(Dinas Kesehatan Propinsi)
District: District Health Office
(Dinas Kesehatan kabupaten)
Sub-district: Community Health Centre
(Puskesmas)
Head of Provincial Health Office
(Kepala Dinas Kesahatan Propinsi)
Head of District Health Office
(Kepala Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten)
Head of Puskesmas
(Kepala Puskesmas)
PUSKESMAS
Level
Pustu
(sub-health centre)
Polindes
(village midwife clinic)
Posyandu
(community integrated health
service)
provides primary health care
serves 2–3 villages
manned by nurse or midwife
provides obstetric care
serves 1–2 villages
staffed by midwife
organized by the community with
village health volunteer
assisted by midwife
serves 1 village, held monthly
Figure 1. Organization of Puskesmas
DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMMUNITY MATERNAL HEALTH PROGR AMME
The primary focus of the community-empowered health care system is on maternal and child
health [1]. The second half of the 20th century saw several initiatives put in place to improve
maternal health. Most noteworthy of these were the Safe Motherhood Programme
introduced in 1988 and the Village Midwife Programme (VMP) which started in 1989. The
objective of the VMP was to place one trained midwife in each village (particularly in
underserved and rural areas) to provide ANC and postnatal care (PNC) and conduct childbirth
20 | P a g e
by skilled health care providers. The deployment of 60,000 village midwives in the 1980s saw
dramatic improvements in maternal health indicators.
However, despite over two decades of concerted government effort, the maternal mortality
issues persisted, and drawbacks of the VMP were evident[1]. This brought revisions to the
Minimum Service Standard which included: practice of ANC; treatment of obstetric
complications; delivery by skilled providers; PNC; family planning; and coverage of costs for
poor people. The guidelines for these measures were not clear and were not applied by many
districts. The current maternal health activities stems from the WHO Making Pregnancy Safer
programme and the government policy of Healthy Indonesia 2010 with a focus on community
empowerment.
CURRENT MATERNAL HEA LTH SITUATION IN INDONESIA
In the five years preceding the 2012 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS),
coverage in several aspects of maternal health had improved. Out of every 25 pregnant
women surveyed, 22 reported to have made four or more ANC visits, and 90% received ANC
by a skilled health provider, defined as an obstetrician or gynaecologist, doctor, nurse or
midwife. The proportion of births assisted by a skilled provider increased to 83% in 2007, with
nearly two thirds (63%) taking place in a health facility and 80% receiving PNC within two days
of delivery. These are promising improvements from the figures found in the 2007 IDHS.
Nevertheless the high MMR suggests poor maternal health compared to other East Asian
countries with similar GDP per capita, and action is needed to achieve the objectives of MDG5
and the Indonesian strategic health plans [7].
OBJECTIVES OF DESK REVIEW
The Puskesmas health care system has shaped Indonesian maternal health services. As part
of the REACHOUT consortium activities we performed a country desk review with a focus on
the contribution of CTC providers to the provision of effective, efficient, and equitable health
care in Indonesia, and identification of health system factors, intervention design factors and
contextual factors and conditions that form barriers to or facilitators of the performance of
CTC providers and services.
Specific objectives were to:
 identify the type of CTC providers and their role in the maternal health programme;
 identify existing evidence and knowledge gaps on what works and does not work for
CTC providers, and use it for planning the qualitative component of the country
context analysis;
 identify health system, intervention design and contextual factors that form barriers
to or facilitators of the performance of CTC providers and services; and
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
synthesize evidence on key barriers and facilitators to be built on in future
improvement cycles of CTC services.
METHODS
Database searches: The information for this review was gathered using a PRISMA statement
as a guide and through searches in PUBMED, ISI Web of Knowledge and GOOGLE. In addition,
theses, books and individual references identified from publications were also used. We also
searched the UNCIEF, UNFPA, USAID, WHO and World Bank websites for reports and collected
grey literature including official reports from government and non-government organizations
through personal contact.
Search terms: A broad search was undertaken initially, applying sub-headings and
truncations. The search was refined later using MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms in
various combinations and Boolean operators such as ‘AND’ and ‘OR’ and key words such as
‘allied health personnel’, ‘paramedical personnel’, ‘community health worker/s’, ‘community
health aide’, ‘village health worker/s’, ‘TBA’, ‘village midwives’ ‘kaders’ ‘Puskesmas’ and
‘Posyandu’ combined with ‘Indonesia’.
Selection criteria: Titles were scanned, and abstracts of titles considered relevant to the
objectives were reviewed and retrieved to obtain the full text. All electronically selected
references were downloaded and managed for citation in Endnote-X3. Both English-language
and Bahasa Indonesia articles and documents from 2003 to 2013 were used. This period was
chosen to limit the large amount of literature on the broad topic and assuming that systemic
reviews would cover information prior to 2003.
Search results and topics included for information synthesis: The initial online search yielded
2047 articles. After removing duplicates and screening for title and abstract, we finally
narrowed it down to 26 published articles. In addition, we used relevant reports and other
grey literature. To synthesize information, we used the following topic guides in the
framework developed by REACHOUT:
 the type of CTC users and their role;
 the performance and impact of CTC providers and services; and
 health system, intervention and contextual factors.
MAPPING OF CTC PROVIDERS
In addition to the literature searches, in each study district we also had a face-to-face meeting
with the maternal health section of the DHO and obtained their input in identifying the
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maternal health CTC providers and their responsibilities. The main CTC providers of maternal
health are shown in Table 2.
Village midwives (bidan desa) are salaried health workers, responsible for providing services
at village level. Their role involves carrying out ANC, outreach care and providing safe delivery
within a health facility and at home, postnatal checks, immunization and other tasks as
assigned by the DHO. As village midwives may be the only health provider in a village, their
roles expand to other tasks including providing general medical care to adults and elderly
people, visiting schools for public health programmes, visiting houses for environmental
public health programmes and providing family planning. Two grades of midwives exist at
village and community health centre level. Permanent government employees are formal civil
servants (bidan desa pegawai negri sipil) who mainly work in the Puskesmas and provide
assistance in the Posyandus. These workers undergo three years of formal training at a
nursing academy, along with additional training from the district where they are posted
(although this is not uniform and does not happen in some districts). The other category is
contracted midwives (bidan desa pegawai tidak tetap), mostly based at village level and
employed on a contractual basis. They are responsible for providing outreach care and home
births. They were trained in the 1980s with a one-year training, and some are still in post
today. There are also unpaid apprentice midwives. Unlike CHWs in many settings, village
midwives are not expected to come from the community in which they work.
Midwife coordinators manage and supervise village midwives at the Puskesmas. They ensure
the effectiveness of the midwife programme and that it is carried out according to the
minimal service standards, which includes the provision of at least four ANC visits for pregnant
women, management of obstetric complications by a trained midwife, coverage of pregnant
women assisted by a skilled attendant, coverage of three PNC visits for each woman, and
management of neonatal complications.
Community health volunteers, known locally as kaders, are non-salaried and work closely
with the village midwives guided by the midwife coordinator. They are responsible for
covering a village of 200–1500 people, although some villages may have more than one kader.
Their primary role is to organize the monthly Posyandu and assist village midwives with
Posyandu activities. Posyandu activities are community-driven and held in the village to
provide maternal and child health care, family planning, immunization, nutrition education
and, in some areas, distribution of supplementary food to babies. Services for elderly people
have recently been integrated. The kaders’ role in the Posyandu is to conduct registration,
weigh children under five years of age and pregnant women and fill in the record book,
provide health and nutritional counselling and give additional food supplementation and help
the midwives with family planning services [8]. They are also expected to identify and report
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pregnant women in their village, informing them of the Posyandu day and reporting
malnourished children. Recently they have also taken on a role in referring women to health
facilities for delivery.
Traditional birth attendants (TBAs) are informal workers, and it is accepted that they provide
an important service to pregnant women. Their roles and integration with public services vary
according to geographical location and the extent of traditional practices. They attend home
deliveries, partner with midwives to increase coverage of skilled birth attendance, and
provide massage and psychological support to pregnant and labouring women. The role is
typically an inherited one, with community acceptance being important. Training of TBAs is
variable, depending on the district programme. They do not receive a salary, but are typically
given gifts in kind (such as rice or chicken) by the community. They receive incentives from
the DHO when pregnant woman are referred or brought to deliver in a health facility. They
typically cover one village.
FINDINGS
I NTERVENTION AND DESI GN FACTORS: HUMAN RE SOURCES
Education and training of midwives and kaders
Midwifery training: In 1989, with the initiation of the VMP, the government started the basic
nursing plus one year of midwifery training programme (D1 midwifery). This programme was
changed to the three-year midwifery diploma (D3 midwifery) in 1998. The full syllabus
includes a range of theoretical and practical work. Prior to these programmes there used to
be a one-year midwifery programme after completing junior high school. In 2009 across the
country there were 93,889 midwives trained under all the three programmes, and a ratio of
13.8 midwives/nurses per 10,000 population [9, 10].
Permission to practice/licensing: Midwifery is recognized as an autonomous profession, and
a licence is required to practise midwifery. Under government regulations, once licensed,
midwives are authorized to prescribe life-saving medications, and private practice is
permitted. The Provincial Health Office (PHO) issues a licence to nurses or midwives on the
basis of their graduation certificate. There is no licence renewal system and no compulsory
continuing education that could assure standards for licence renewal. In addition, there is no
central register of all the registered midwives/nurses; thus, accounting for the total licensed
workforce is difficult.
Table 2. Types of CTC provider, work location and role in community
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CTC provider
Midwife coordinator
Employment
type
Government civil
service
Midwife (bidan di desa
pagawati negeri sipil)
Government
employee,
permanent
Midwife (bidan desa
pegawai tidak tetap)
Contract-based
Nurse
Posyandu kader
Family planning kader
TBA (dukun/paraji
terlatih/trained)
TBA (untrained)
Place of work
Puskesmas
Mostly in
Puskesmas,
sometimes in
village clinic or
Posyandu
Village-based,
often in Polindes
Role in community
Coordinates work in
Puskesmas;
supervisory role of
village midwives
Assists in homebirths,
ANC and PNC
Midwifery care;
general health care;
organizes Posyandu
Government
Pustu sometimes General health care;
employee
village-based
may provide
midwifery care in
emergencies
Health volunteer Posyandu
Posyandu activities;
weighing of infants;
health promotion:
nutrition advice and
diarrhoea control
Active in the 1980s, no longer separated from Posyandu kader
-Attends home births;
provides referrals;
culture-based care
Attends home births;
culture-based care
Continuing education and training: The DHO holds several refresher/in-service training
courses. These include a 10-day training on Basic Emergency Maternal Obstetrics and
Neonatal Care (BEMONC) and a five-day training on normal delivery management and how
to identify risky deliveries. In addition, midwives also receive five days of training on child
health asphyxia and a follow-up visit from trainers after three months. These training courses
are held infrequently, vary between districts and are not required for promotion. There are
no available studies on the content or gaps in the training curricula or associated deficiencies
in the skills and competencies of midwives.
Kader orientation and training: The Puskesmas is responsible for orienting kaders to the
activities carried out in the Posyandu. A week of training is held on the tasks they perform,
such as weighing babies and mothers and keeping records. No formal training or supervisory
25 | P a g e
system is in place, and there is no formal curriculum for kaders; rather, it is just orientation,
and village midwives are expected to check their work. There is no specific training on
communication about the benefits of ANC, calculating last menstrual period or identifying
risky delivery. The kaders attend the monthly meeting at the Puskesmas to present the
registry records, which are checked by the midwife coordinator and sometimes used to assess
their performance.
RECRUITMENT OF MIDWI VES AND KADERS
Midwives: Once their licence is issued, midwives can work in the Puskesmas or in health posts
on contract or as permanent civil servants. Following the decentralization process, the DHO
is responsible for recruiting nurses and midwives in their district. Village midwives are
recruited mainly on contracts of one to three years (PTT). These contracts can be renewed
twice, after which the midwife is eligible to become a civil servant or continue with private
practice. Permanent civil service positions are announced by the central government, and
staff are recruited if they pass the special civil service examination. Whether midwives are
recruited on a contract basis or as civil servants, there is no clear job description provided at
the start of their employment. There is also no clear-cut job differentiation based on whether
they follow the D1 or the D3 programme, which limits performance assessment.
Kaders: Typically a kader is expected to have basic literacy and school certification to function
as a health volunteer. Their selection is conducted during a special meeting that invited
community leaders and elected community members attend. The invitation is prepared by
the Puskesmas and signed by the head of the village. The selection is conducted according to
consensus agreement of the meeting attendees [8]. Names suggested by the community
leaders and village midwives are considered during selection.
An earlier study that examined the role of family planning volunteers in three districts (West
Java, Central Java and Yogyakarta) described that elite women with social status in the
community, such as teachers and wives of government officials, were often identified to
become family planning volunteers [11]. The selection of women with social recognition
might have had important implications to make the programme effective in a traditional
society which required behaviour change. However, social hierarchies may also hinder
community participation and effectiveness. In India it was reported that volunteers from a
very different social status from the target group may hinder the communication and
effectiveness of a CHW programme [12]. The influence of social hierarchies is complex and
needs to be placed in a specific context to allow for feasible interventions, as a study in
northern Nigeria showed[13].
WORKLOAD
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At the outset village midwives (VMWs) were placed to provide midwifery care to the village
community. Several project-based studies indicate that VMW delivery services might be
underutilized and vary across the country. For example, on average a midwife could attend
fewer than four deliveries a month outside Java and Bali and approximately double that in
Java and Bali [14]. Another study indicated that utilization of midwife services increased
proportionately with the length of time they lived in a village: a significant increase was found
if a woman lived in a village for more than five years compared to one year, reflecting that
community trust in the midwife influenced the use of their services.
Midwives spend on average 10 days per month doing village-based clinical work in their
assigned village. In remote areas they spend seven days per month — significantly fewer than
the 20 days spent in urban areas. An assigned provider who is resident in her village of
responsibility spends a median of 20 days of clinical work there, irrespective of the location
of the village [15]. Assigned midwives who are not resident spend less than half the number
of days on village-based clinical work, although this differs significantly by location.
Their services have expanded over time outside midwifery, particularly in situations where
they are the only health provider in the village. They now provide childhood immunization,
family planning services and general curative care including care of elderly people [15]. There
is no system to measure the overall utilization of the VMW service.
DISTRIBUTION AND RETENTION OF VILLAGE MI DWIVES
The government policy is to place one midwife in each village, although sometimes one
midwife could be responsible for more than one village. The midwife assigned to a village
might be village-based or could be a health centre midwife assigned to a village to take
responsibility for Posyandu activities. Although great progress has been made in the
deployment of the midwife workforce, disparity exists between urban and rural areas in the
distribution of midwives, with a wide variation between districts and provinces. In 2005,
nationally 40% villages had a midwife, yet in some districts the figure was less than 10% [16].
A recent study in two districts in eastern Indonesia found that nearly a third of the villages
had a resident midwife, and half had a visiting midwife. Reports have also indicated
differences between the distribution of public- and private-sector midwives, although the
distinction between public and private is not clear in Indonesia, since a midwife employed in
a health centre could also have a private practice. The World Bank showed that the number
of health centre midwives decreased to 3.7 per 10,000 population in 2007 from 5.8 in 1997,
and attributes this shift to a 158% increase in midwives going into private practice in that
period [17].
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The midwife density is associated with the level of skilled birth attendance. The density of
midwife distribution varied across the country, with the lowest ratio of 8.9 per 100,000
population in Banten province and the highest ratio of 74 per 100,000 population in Papua. A
study conducted in Serang and Pandelang districts in Banten province found that in a village
with 2–4 midwives per 10,000 population one in three women gave birth with a health
professional, and this increased to two out of three women in villages with 6 or more resident
midwives per 10,000 population [18]. Once adjusted for confounding factors such as distance
to facility, midwife density was not significant, but, interestingly, there was an association
between midwife density and uptake of caesarean sections. The explanation for this was that
midwives recognized complications and the necessity for referral and transfer to hospital,
thus improving access to emergency obstetric care.
Retaining midwives in their assigned villages and placing them in rural and remote areas is
one of the biggest challenges faced by the government. A study conducted by Ensor et al. in
Banten province highlighted that midwives were reluctant to move from their family village
and demanded high pay to move to remote places. For example, if they were to move to a
village one hour away, they demanded double their public salary, or triple salary for a distance
of five hours from their place of residence. One of the common reasons for midwives’
reluctance to move to remote places was family. The same study stated that more established
midwives were reluctant to move, whereas younger midwives were more likely to move.
Another study done in 2008 in Ciamis, Garut and Sukbumi districts in West Java found that
30% of midwives had moved to another location within 12 months, although 40% of them
stayed within the public health system. Some characteristics found in those who moved were
younger age, qualification with D3 midwifery and the length of time in the village being less
than five years. Makowiecka et al. suggested that the demands of the job and professional
isolation lead to the high turnover rate in more remote areas.
SALARY AND INCENTIVES
Midwives in Indonesia commonly supplement their salaries through private practices, even if
they are on salaried civil service. One study conducted in Banten province found that
midwives obtained almost two thirds of their income from private clinical practice [19]. The
1998 Indonesian Midwifes Association recommendation allowed only D3-trained midwives to
have a private practice. This policy was relaxed, and, as an incentive to retain midwives in
remote areas, private practice is permitted even during contract years. Income varies
between districts and between rural and urban locations. Even though in remote areas the
income of the population is low, midwives capture a sufficient number of women to generate
an adequate income.
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The World Bank (2010b) stated the difficulty of accurately quantifying the income generated
by midwives. In 2007, under the MoH Regulation No. 508.2007 a midwife could earn IDR2.5
million (US$208) per month in remote areas. The basic salary varied depending on contract
status, whereas the income generated privately is closely related to the years of experience
since certification. The income generated from private practice for the more experience
midwives could account for more than two thirds of their salary. There is also a difference in
annual salary between central-level contracts (US$1179) and local-level contracts (US$1072)
[20]. The base salary comprises 79% of total earnings, while the rest is earned through
bonuses and reimbursement from insurance schemes such as Askeskin and Jamkesmas.
Studies that looked into the VMW incentive schemes showed that allowing private practice
as an incentive to retain midwives in remote areas could restrict access to skilled birth
attendance for rural women who cannot afford midwives’ fees [21].
The kaders receive IDR50,000 (just over US$4) every three months as an incentive provided
by the DHO for their voluntary work, together with a uniform T-shirt (personal communication
with the Section Head for Maternal Health, DHO, SW Sumba). In addition they also receive
financial incentives from the village office.
SUPERVISION
An adequate supervisory scheme is important to ensure the quality of care and work output.
Information on the VMW programme’s supervisory system was limited, although we
managed to obtain information from the Section Head for Maternal Health at DHO, SW
Sumba, on the supervisory system (verbal communication). Overall supervision not specific
to VMW is conducted twice a year by a five-member team using a checklist. The members of
the team are the Head of the DHO or a designate, Head of Family Health, Head of Public
Health and Head of Maternal and Neonatal Health. The midwife coordinators directly
supervise the VMW, and they in turn supervise the Posyandu kaders. A coordination meeting
is held three times a year with all the VMW coordinators at district level and each month in
each sub-district at the Puskesmas with VMWs and attended by kaders. The monthly meeting
mainly covers the activities in the Posyandu and records of the number of pregnant women
in the village and deliveries that occurred in the preceding month. A report that looked into
service quality states that a quality improvement approach for the technical supervision of
midwives/nurses is lacking. Since there is no standardized supervisory system, the quality of
supervision varies, and it does not support capacity strengthening or motivation of
midwives/nurses. The few studies that described the supervisory process reported it as weak
[16, 17, 22]. One report stated that this weakness is recognized by the government and that
efforts are ongoing to formulate a better structured supervisory process.
MONITORING AND EVALU ATION
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Similar to supervision, information on monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is limited. The reports
that are available suggest that M&E is poorly structured. The World Bank (2010b) states that
in the Making Pregnancy Safer programme the MoH outlines a renewed emphasis on M&E
and collecting data for planning purposes. Currently at district level the data presented in the
monthly meetings at the Puskesmas described above are sent as an activity report to the DHO
and are used for M&E purposes. However, this does not encompass an M&E and feedback
mechanism on the coverage and performance of the roles and tasks of the health care
providers.
A satisfactory health information system is yet to be developed and is being planned. Data
collected at health facilities are poorly collated, and private providers do not participate in
the system, which means that nearly 50% of providers’ information is not collated. At
Puskesmas level, although data are collected, they are poorly integrated.
PROGRAMME AND HEALTH SERVICES
UTILIZATION OF ANTENATAL SERVICES
ANC is a strategy which aims to improve maternal health through the early identification of
risky pregnancies. WHO recommends a minimum of four ANC visits during pregnancy. The
IDHS 2012–2013 reported that 80% of women made four or more ANC visits during their
pregnancy [5]. A mother’s educational level and economic status was positively associated
with ANC attendance and the components of services received. The MoH recommends that
ANC services include: height and weight measurement, blood pressure assessment, provision
of iron tablets, tetanus toxoid, abdominal examination, blood and urine testing, and providing
information on signs of pregnancy complications. Women who were pregnant for the first
time were informed more often of preparations for delivery and complications related to
pregnancy, and this decreased as the number of pregnancies increased. One study identified
distance to health facility, mothers reporting no obstetric complications during pregnancy,
residents of rural areas, low household wealth index and low maternal educational level as
factors for under-utilization of ANC services [23, 24] .
TYPE OF HEALTH PROVI DER USED FOR ANTENATAL CARE
The VMWs are at the forefront of the maternal health programme in Indonesia. This is clearly
evident by the fact that 75% of ANC services are provided by a midwife, nurse or VMW,
whereas 19% are provided by an obstetrician (IDHS, 2012). As expected, the type of service
provider differed between rural and urban areas and based on the mother’s level of education
and wealth. Overall the number of instances of a physician/doctor providing ANC is low.
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UTILIZATION OF SKILLED HEALTH PRO VIDERS AT DELIVERY
Indonesia has made progress in increasing the proportion of deliveries attended by skilled
providers. The IDHS 2012–2013 reported that 83% of deliveries nationally were attended by
skilled providers. The numbers are lower in the two provinces of our study districts: East Nusa
Tenggara and West Java (see Figure 2). The increase in the proportion of deliveries attended
by skilled providers indicates the success in shifting TBA care to skilled providers. However,
there is huge difference in the use of skilled providers between districts, between remote
rural and urban areas, and by distance to a health facility. For example, the IMMPACT analysis
showed that 66% women delivered with a skilled attendant when their village of residence
was close to the hospital (<5km), whereas only 9% of deliveries were attended by a skilled
provider when the village was more than 60km from a hospital [25].
The ongoing use of TBAs is considered to contribute to the high MMR. A study conducted in
2009 in Cianjur district in West Java showed that out of 85 maternal deaths reported for 2008,
the majority occurred in women assisted by a TBA.
doctor/obstetrician
TBA
VMW/nurse
national
West Java
ENTT
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
percentage deliveries
date source: IDHS 2012-2013
Figure 2. Percentage of deliveries assisted by skilled providers and TBAs in West Java and
ENTT province
A study in six districts of West Java found that many women thought that skilled attendants
and health facility deliveries were for women with complications in pregnancy. The other
reasons cited were physical distance, financial constraints and limited availability of health
care providers in the village. A UNICEF report indicates that cultural comfort provided by the
TBA, including the traditional massage, is the main factor for preferring TBAs. There are
differences between districts in the use of TBAs; as expected, their use is higher in areas
where there are fewer skilled providers. Some of the other factors that predispose home
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births are older and higher gravidity status, and Muslim religion. However, not all older
women prefer home births; some older mothers had a preference for trained providers [26].
Several approaches have been tried to reduce the use of TBAs. One approach was to build a
partnership between TBAs and midwives after a pilot programme in Sulawesi by UNICEF.
Under this approach the cultural importance of TBAs is accepted, and TBAs are given the
chance to assist with traditional practices and be present at delivery to give the women
psychological support, while delivery was conducted by the midwife. The TBAs also receive a
financial incentive when they refer a pregnant woman to the midwife or health facility. A
second approach that was initiated was to get children of TBAs to join the midwife
programme. The evaluation of the pilot programme in Bogor, West Java, by UNICEF found
that children of TBAs did not have the basic qualification to join the programme, and it was
discontinued. In the efforts to make the transition from TBAs to deliveries attended by skilled
providers a success, the government has ended the skills training provided to the TBAs. The
success of the transition from TBAs to skilled birth attendants is evident in West Java, where
over 80% of deliveries were reported as being attended by TBAs in the IDHS 2007, and only
17% in the IDHS 2013 report. This might be a reflection that the national policy of the TBA–
midwife partnership is working.
PLACE OF CHILDBIRTH
The government encourages facility deliveries and defines a Puskesmas with beds, private
midwifery clinics and any hospital (private or public) as a health facility appropriate for
delivery. Yet there is no formal policy on where women should deliver. Accessing health
facilities, particularly in rural areas, is difficult in Indonesia. To overcome this difficulty and to
provide suitable birthing facilities to rural women, Polindes (birthing huts) were developed at
the time of the Puskesmas initiative. The Polindes is provided with basic equipment to
conduct normal deliveries and with the facility for the midwife to reside there. This scheme
has declined in recent decades, and may be taken over by maternal ‘waiting homes’. The
Maternal Health Director was quoted in the Lancet (2012) as stating that the government was
planning to open 2800 waiting homes where rural women can stay under the supervision of
midwives near medical clinics [27].
It is common for women to deliver at home despite various efforts to discourage it. The
difficulty to change this practice was indicated in a quote by the Director of Programming for
the Indonesian Midwives Association: “many rural women saw birth as a natural process that
family members could handle with assistance from the traditional healer” [27, 28].
Nonetheless, the proportion of home-based deliveries is decreasing, as reflected by the IDHS
2012 figure of 36% compared to 53% in the IDHS 2007 report .
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SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES OF MIDWIVES DURING DELIVERY AT HOME
Not all home deliveries are attended by TBAs, and the quantification of home deliveries
should be approached with caution (some home deliveries are assisted by VMWs). The VMP
allows midwives to attend deliveries in the home and is based on the concept that birth with
a skilled health provider would reduce mortality. Despite high ANC attendance and the
increasing proportion of births with skilled providers, the national MMR remains tenaciously
high (IDHS, 2012). Interestingly, a study that analysed IDHS data between 1991 and 2002/3
found no significant differences in the first-day or early neonatal death rates when comparing
home births with or without professional midwives. Its findings suggested a need for training
in immediate newborn care and emergency referral [20].
Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT) is one of the provinces with a high MMR (306 per 100,000 live
births) (IDHS, 2012). To address the issue, the government of NTT, supported by AUSAID,
introduced the Revolusi KIA programme (Revolution of Mother and Child Health) in 2010.
Figure 3. Billboard displaying the points of Revolusi KIA in Waitabula, SW Sumba
The programme stresses four points:

a minimum of four ANC visits;

mothers to give birth at a health facility;

delivery is assisted by a skilled health care provider; and

follow-up after delivery (PNC).
The motto seen on the Revolusi KIA billboard put up in SW Sumba (Figure 3) states “cannot
go home only one or none; the mother is healthy, and the baby is safe”, stressing the
importance given to improving maternal and newborn health. Facility-based delivery is
33 | P a g e
strongly emphasized in the programme, and to implement it, VMWs are no longer allowed to
assist home births. In a community where women were used to seeking a midwife’s assistance
during home births and where home birth is common, the impact of Revolusi KIA is yet to be
seen.
Preference for a TBA and place of birth all play a role in the delay in seeking professional care.
A study conducted in Serang and Pandeglang, two districts in West Java, showed that delay
in seeking professional help contributed to the high MMR, even though women were
attended by skilled providers, and maternal mortality was more common in women in the
lower wealth quintile [18, 29]. Midwives and nurses are deployed to serve rural communities,
but many lack the experience and skills needed for the work required of them [10].
Attendance by a skilled birth attendant may still cause a delay in referral when complications
occur.
REFERRAL SYSTEM
According to government policy, the first point of referral by a VMW is to the Puskesmas,
which could provide basic emergency obstetric and neonatal care (BEONC). Ideally, services
provided by a BEONC Puskesmas include vaginal delivery assisted with vacuum extraction,
equipment for handling incomplete abortion and or manual removal of placenta and a supply
of drugs for BEONC. The next level of referral after Puskesmas is to the district hospital, where
comprehensive emergency obstetric and neonatal care (CEONC), including blood transfusion
and surgical care, is available. At village level the first referral for obstetric care is from a TBA
or kader to the VMW.
Several studies have highlighted shortcomings in the referral system. Only 30% of all the
Puskesmas nationally have in-patient beds, and of these only 22% are equipped to provide
BEONC. The CEONC services are irregular in the hospitals, although the majority have had
CEONC. Other limitations of the system were comprehensively outlined by the World Bank
[14] as follows:
 delays in making referral;
 referral to a facility that is not equipped to deal with BEONC;
 multiple referrals;
 refusal to act on the referral on the part of the family;
 the accepting provider hospital does not have the necessary skill level to determine
the nature of the emergency;
 midwives are not usually present in the hospital emergency rooms;
 Puskesmas doctors have not implemented the appropriate procedures for
stabilization; and
 standard protocols for dealing with maternal emergencies are scarce.
34 | P a g e
A 2012 publication that assessed the quality of and access to emergency obstetric care
through critical incident audits conducted in two rural districts in Java found that families
were often unprepared and uninformed of obstetric complications, and when it occurred,
often care was unaffordable and unavailable [30, 31]. VMWs facilitated referrals, but they
were not always present in remote and rural villages, emergency transport was frequently
unavailable, and private transport was unreliable and incurred costs.
PNC is important, as most maternal and neonatal deaths occur in the first two days after
delivery. Yet management of peri-partum emergency care is less well defined, and literature
from Indonesia is scarce. The current postpartum policy expects midwives to observe a
woman for two to six hours following delivery. A study that analysed deaths in the antepartum
and postpartum period found that two out five women died in the first 24 hours of delivery .
It is clear that two areas that need to be addressed to improve maternal health are emergency
obstetric care and a practical, affordable and timely referral system.
HEALTH EXPENDITURE AND HEALTH INSURANCE
The spending on health through the national budget is low in Indonesia. UNICEF (2012) and
the World Bank (2010) showed that 2–2.6% of GDP is allocated to health, which is low in
comparison to other East Asian countries and globally. Another shortcoming cited by the
reports were the delay in receiving the funds at district level and that the Special Allocation
Fund (DAK) for health constitute less than 1% of the total local government budget. The low
budgetary allocation has been suggested to contribute to the poor quality of care at public
health facilities. The World Bank report showed that excessive reliance on a central budget
for maternal and newborn programme implementation, inefficient channelling of allocated
funds, low absorption of funds into the provincial and district budget and limited ownership
at district level were some of the issues that contributed to poor programme structures [14].
Indonesia has made great progress in its commitment to provide universal health insurance
coverage. In recent years several schemes have been put in place, including the Universal
Coverage of Social Health Insurance in Indonesia which started on 1 January 2014. Other
schemes are Jamkesmas, an insurance scheme for poor people at central level, Jamkesda, a
scheme for poor people at provincial and district level, and Jampersal, which covers universal
delivery care. The Jampersal scheme, which uses a direct payment method, started in early
2011 and covers delivery care, including ANC and PNC consultations. The total delivery
package includes IDR420,000, including IDR350,000 for delivery, IDR40,000 for four ANC visits
and IDR30,000 for three PNC visits.
There is a fee for the maternal health scheme, and it varies between provinces and the class
of service. Indonesia classes its hospitals, and the allocated cost for a normal delivery is US$70
35 | P a g e
in Class C hospitals and US$154 in Class A hospitals. The average cost of a normal delivery in
a Class C hospital was found to be US111, which is more than the cost allocated by the local
government for a normal delivery.
The effect of health insurance on the use of skilled birth attendants was evaluated and cited
by the World Bank (2010b). It found that, among households in the lower three deciles, 67%
with Jamkesmas used a skilled birth attendant, compared to 71% among households without
any health insurance. Although the Jamkesmas scheme was introduced to ensure that poor
women had access to maternal health care, many barriers exist [14, 20, 22, 32]. First, women
are unaware of the eligibility and benefits of the scheme. Second, reimbursement is
insufficient, and the scheme does not cover the cost of transport to attend the health facility.
Third, midwives are uncertain about reimbursement for their services, particularly for
referring women to hospital and when the referred woman delivers in the hospital. This has
negative repercussions for referral and transfer of women for obstetric complications. The
uncertainties behind the insurance package, therefore, discourage women from seeking care
at a health facility using the insurance scheme.
EFFECT OF DECENTRALIZATION
With the decentralization of the public sector in 2001, Indonesia shifted the management of
maternal health care to the district level. Among the challenges and disarray that came with
it, one of the programmes that suffered was the family planning programme. The BKKBN was
previously responsible for the family planning fieldworkers. With the merging of their offices
with other sectors, several of the family planning workers were moved, and the quality of the
programme activities deteriorated.
The central-level support for the VMP ended in 2007 with a new policy that midwives should
be transferred to the local district staff or stay in their assigned villages but earn income from
private practice. A study by Heywood (2010) states that salaries and conditions of hiring and
firing were under the control of the central government, although public-sector staff were
transferred to district level[1]. Their work also evaluated changes in the utilization of maternal
and child health services in 10 districts since decentralization and found no marked
improvement in the services between 2003 and 2007. However, what was evident was a
dominance of the private sector in providing ANC and delivery services. Another study that
looked into the quality of health services since decentralization highlighted that there was a
lower level of accountability and that the district level was poorly prepared for planning and
implementation, with a lack of skills and trained staff [1]. The decentralization also negatively
impacted the health information system due to a lack of coordination and integration of
district and central data.
36 | P a g e
DISCUSSION
Our review of the literature on CTC providers in Indonesia found that the majority of studies
were on VMWs and the VMP. An explanation for this could be that Indonesia gave high
priority to the programme, with a target of one midwife per village to improve maternal
health. However, this emphasis overlooked the work of other functional personnel in the
maternal health programme. There were commendable achievements in the contribution of
VMWs to the increased use of skilled birth attendance and as the main providers of ANC. It
also highlighted that the health-seeking behaviour of this society was changing.
The placement of midwives in the villages benefited the poorest quintile, with a higher
proportion of women receiving skilled care; however, not all women received skilled care, as
the majority of women delivering at home without the attendance of a skilled provider were
also from the lower income quintile. The factors that influenced the uptake of skilled provider
assistance in rural areas were education, distance to health facility, and the midwife’s
experience and years of residence in the village.
The community health structure is based on the Puskesmas-Posyandu system, with its
emphasis on health promotion and prevention. One of the most prominent CTC providers in
the community are the Posyandu kaders, who play an active role in propagating the Posyandu.
They are the front-line CTC providers who make an important link between the community
and the health system. Surprisingly, their function has not been fully explored. Few past
studies provided information on the family planning kaders, whose activities have declined in
recent times.
Home births and the influence of TBAs are dominant in the local culture. A general notion was
that the high MMR was related to the use of TBAs. Deliveries assisted by the TBA are on the
decline, reflecting that the transition efforts from TBAs to births assisted by skilled providers
are working. One of the leading issues why TBAs are preferred is that midwives are not always
available in their assigned village. The partnership between midwives and TBAs shows
potential for addressing the TBAs’ preference for a combined use of TBAs and midwives.
While great attention is paid to decreasing maternal mortality, the limited training of
midwives and limitations in emergency obstetric care stand out as important factors that
need to be addressed. Other influencing factors have been studied and identified. At national
level, it is important to understand the dynamic of human resources and financial policy, and
its effect on the delivery of services, as well as the insurance system and the dominance of
private practice. At district level, with decentralization, it is important to ensure that the
broadened authority is used to increase the quality of services, rather than the opposite. At
community level, barriers were identified.
37 | P a g e
Although the health infrastructure is well laid out for mother and child health, and the
community strategy well documented, many challenges persist. There is a lack of
management skills and central data collection as well as interruptions in services at the
community health facilities. Since decentralization, the division of responsibilities has been
unclear. Together with poor referral systems, poor M&E and unclear job descriptions hamper
the quality of care [16]. Incentives for VMWs need a more coordinated approach[19].
38 | P a g e
CHAPTER 3 – STAKEHOLDER MAPPING
CTC STAKEHOLDER MAPPING
The MoH is a key player and an important focus for REACHOUT to generate ownership of
findings and support for implications. Communication through formal presentations and
informal meetings are considered the best type of approach. Face-to-face communication
provides the opportunity to seek clarification, validate findings, discuss implications and
develop solutions. This approach has led to interactions between REACHOUT staff and the
district-level Maternal Health Department, which is enthusiastic and supportive about the
research project.
There are a number of health- and non-health-related stakeholders which influence the
development of policy within Indonesia. In addition, there are many donor agencies which
set agendas, such as WHO, UNFPA, JHEIPIGO, AUSAID and NGOs. The media also plays an
important role. Stakeholders within the formal government structures include the MoH (and
the Health Minister), PHOs and DHOs. The Director of Maternal Health at the Maternal Health
sub-directorate of the MoH is a key figure in formulating maternal health policies nationally.
At PHOs and DHOs the heads of the Division of Maternal Health plan and implement health
policy. At the sub-district level, influential people and bodies for maternal health include the
Puskesmas, the heads of the primary health centres and the midwife coordinators. Across all
levels the Indonesian Midwife Association exerts influence on midwives’ work.
Outside the health sector, non-health-related influencers include: the heads of districts
(Bupati), district secretaries (Sekda) and heads of sub-districts. The heads of villages (elected)
and the heads of Family Welfare Guidance (PKK) and the National Programme for Community
Empowerment (PNPM) at district, sub-district and village level are influential particularly in
the village integrated health activities (Posyandu) and with village health volunteers
(Posyandu kaders). The regional development body (BAPPEDA) at the district level and the
national family planning coordinating body (BKKBN) are also organizations with which
REACHOUT should engage. At sub-district and village level, the village elders, traditional
healers and religious leaders play a role in influencing maternal health. Some local religious
NGOs at sub-district level are active bodies that could align with REACHOUT.
INTEREST AND ALIGNME NT OF STAKEHOLDERS
The assessment of stakeholder interest and alignment was carried out using the grid matrix
shown in Figure 4. The coloured grids show each stakeholder’s level of interest according to
their respective roles and responsibilities. The MoH at national level is engaged in policy
development and budget allocation. It also makse decisions regarding the provision of
services and allocation of budget and staff salaries. The PHO supports the health system and
39 | P a g e
policy implementation and the employment of staff for the VWP. The DHOs work closely with
the PHOs in carrying out programmes and the recruitment of staff and functioning of the
Puskesmas and related health sub-facilities. The PKK and the PNPM are responsible for the
health volunteers (kaders) and the functioning of Posyandus. The village office and the
community are influential in the Posyandu function and activities. The United Nations bodies
support the government in policy development and programme implementation. The District
Planning Board is responsible for the construction of facilities.
Figure 4. Interest and alignment matrix
High  Heads of village s
 Custom leaders
 Community leaders
 Community health centres
 Local NGOs
Alignment with the project
Low









Religious leaders
Caregivers
Traditional healers
Head of Sub-district
Head of District
District
Planning
Board
(BAPPEDA)
Head of Province
Midwives’ private practices
House of Representative at
district level (DPRD)
Low
Interest in the project




Family Welfare Guidance (PKK)
Provincial Health Office (PHO)
Ministry of Health (MoH)
District Health Office, Maternal
Health (DHO)




UNICEF
WHO
PNPM
Other NGOs
High
OUTCOME AND STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT
High interest and alignment (green quadrant): The organizations in this quandrant are those
whose roles have a high level of alignment with and interest in our project. We should
advocate with the MoH in Indonesia by involving it from the beginning of the research, so
that results can be adopted as part of the existing national programme. Once the MoH adopts
policy, it is implemented by PHOs and DHOs.
Low interest, high alignment (blue quadrant): Village, community and custom leaders are
influential in the community but are less engaged in maternal health. Their interest is sought
to strengthen community-level maternal health care. The village head has the authority to
provide appropriate facilities to CTC providers for holding Posyandus. The Puskesmas play an
40 | P a g e
important role as a technical advisor and should become a leading actor in supporting and
empowering CTC providers to overcome maternal health issues.
High interest, low alignment (pink quadrant): United Nations agencies are interested in
supporting the Indonesian government to develop programmes for improving maternal
health care and as such interested are in the performance of CTC providers and the factors
that influence it. They can play an important role in sharing information and lessons learned
and assist in influencing policy based on the findings of the study.
Low interest, low alignment (grey quadrant): Religious leaders are useful in raising the
community’s awareness of the importance of CTC providers at the community level in
strengthening maternal health care. They are important, together with community leaders,
to disseminate the results of the research. Heads of District, Province and District Planning
Boards are willing to allocate some budget into regional budgets, to improve the skills and
capacity of CTC providers; produce local regulation to support their sustainability; incorporate
some activities related to CTC providers into regional medium-term development plans
(RPJMD); and improve awareness at the House of Representatives at district level as a
policymaker that development is not merely infrastructure but also building the capacity of
human resources that have direct interaction with and an impact on the community.
Implications
Communicating with stakeholders is a priority and has strong implications for the success of
REACHOUT activities. We identified strategically placed persons such as MoH officials and
United Nations agencies and selected them to be members of the Country Advisory Group.
District health officials who falls into the high interest and high alignment category have been
approached in each district, and regular meetings are planned with them. NGOs with good
alignment with REACHOUT will be invited to stakeholder meetings to discuss collaboration
and coordination. For the community members with high and low interest a review of their
engagement is planned, and they will be invited to monthly meetings during the quality
improvement cycle. For the stakeholders with low levels of interest and alignment we plan a
review to improve their awareness and encourage their engagement.
41 | P a g e
CHAPTER 4 – QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
METHODOLOGY
A qualitative design was used to explore the perceptions and experiences of the informants
on the structure and policies of the maternal health system and the functions of CTC maternal
health service providers. We further obtained the views of community members and mothers
(women who had delivered in the past year) on the accessibility and responsiveness of health
facilities to community needs and the quality of services provided at the health facilities and
by the CTC providers.
Objectives
The objectives of the research were:
 to identify the contribution of CTC providers to the delivery of effective, efficient and
equitable care;
 to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the health structure and policies on CTC
services and the management of CTC providers; and
 to identify the contextual conditions that form barriers to and facilitators of the
performance of CTC providers and services.
Data were collected using semi-structured interviews (SSIs) and focus group discussions
(FGDs) to explore perceptions and experiences. Data were collected through SSIs with CTC
providers (the heads of Puskesmas, midwife coordinatorsVMWs, village nurses,
volunteers/kaders and TBAs), as well as with mothers, village heads, policymakers and
managers (maternal health coordinators in DHOs). In addition, FGDs were conducted with
VMWs and with mothers’ support groups — i.e. husbands.
STUDY SITE SELECTION
We selected East Nusa Tenggara and Cianjur, two provinces with poor maternal health
indicators and high MMR, following suggestions from the stakeholders and Country Advisory
Group members. These two provinces are among five provinces which contribute to 50% of
maternal deaths in Indonesia. In East Nusa Tenggara, SW Sumba was the district selected
because of its high maternal death rate and the availability of infrastructure due to another
ongoing research project. Cianjur in West Java was selected because of its poor coverage of
basic health services and easier access from Jakarta, where the coordinating institute is based.
Both are rural districts; however, rural settings in Java and outside Java vary widely in terms
of socio-economic level, education and other indicators that are likely to reveal different
factors influencing the performance of CTC providers. There other notable differences
between the two districts are a predominantly Christian population in SW Sumba, a less dense
42 | P a g e
population and lower socio-economic level, whereas in Cianjur the population density is
higher, and the population is largely Muslim. We describe the site and informant
characteristics separately for the two districts.
SOUTH WEST SUMBA
Selection of sub-districts and study villages
In SW Sumba we selected two sub-districts, Radamata and Palla, and their respective
Puskesmas. The selection of the sub-districts was based on health facility deliveries,
geographical distance to Weetabula, the district capital where the referral hospital is located,
and the ability of all the study informants to speak Bahasa Indonesia. Based on these criteria
and the distance to the Puskesmas, we chose four villages for each Puskesmas, which is the
first referral centre (see Table 3). A village between 1km and 10km away from the Puskesmas
was considered near, and a village over 10km away (12–20 km) was considered far. In both
Puskesmas areas, the near villages have a tarmac road up to the main road, with non-tarmac
road access in some hamlets. In the far villages, the road and access conditions were more
difficult. Puskesmas Radamata has better maternal indicators in terms of ANC attendance and
facility deliveries and is nearer to Weetabula, while Palla has poorer maternal health
indicators and is further away from Weetabula. The data on maternal health indicators for
2011–2012 were obtained from the Mother and Child Health section of the DHO.
Description of the study villages in SW Sumba
SW Sumba is a largely rural population (85%), and the villagers are engaged in subsistence
farming. The characteristics of the study villages are provided in Table 4. The population of
the villages ranged from 1300 to 4000, with the villages of Palla sub-district having a higher
population density than those in Radamata. Palla has better access to clean water than
Radamata. More schools with classes available from kindergarten up to senior high were
found in the villages closer to Puskesmas than in far villages.
Table 3. Criteria for sub-district and village selection
Criteria for villages
Puskesmas Radamata
Puskesmas Palla
43 | P a g e
Good, close to
Puskesmas
Good, far from
Puskesmas
Poor, close to
Puskesmas
Poor, far from
Puskesmas
Close to the district capital
Far from the district capital
Ramadana
Health facility delivery: 63%
1km, tarmac road
Bondo Boghila
Health facility delivery: 65%
20km, tarmac and non-tarmac road
Letekonda
Health facility delivery: 41%
10 km, tarmac road
Totok
Health facility delivery: 48%
15km, tarmac and non-tarmac road
Weepaboba
Health facility delivery: 90%
1km, tarmac road
Wanotalla
Health facility delivery: 89%
12km, non-tarmac road
Puupoto
Health facility delivery: 53%
7km, tarmac and non-tarmac
Weenamba
Health facility delivery: 37%
~10km, tarmac and non-tarmac
road
Village
Number of families
Main source of
income
Population density
(people/km2)
kinder garten
elementary
school
junior high
school
senior high
school
Market
Schools available
Population number
Palla
Radamata
Puskemas area
Table 4. Descriptive characteristics of the selected villages in SW Sumba
Ramadana
2049
449
agriculture
146
2
2
2
0
0
Bondo Boghila
1332
278
agriculture
39
0
3
1
0
0
Letekonda
3595
839
agriculture
143
1
3
2
1
0
Totok
2046
506
agriculture
140
1
1
1
0
1
Weepaboba
4017
657
agriculture
344
1
2
1
0
1
Wanotalla
2026
414
agriculture
189
0
3
0
0
0
Puupotto
1888
456
agriculture
203
1
2
1
0
1
Weenamba
2100
384
agriculture
235
0
3
1
0
0
Source of population data : Village chief, based on the latest village survey
Source of area data: Sumba dalamangka 2012
Selection of study sites in Cianjur
44 | P a g e
The process to select study sites in Cianjur was similar to that described above for SW Sumba.
We selected Ciranjang and Sindangbarang sub-districts, taking into consideration health
facility deliveries and skilled birth attendants in the villages and distance to the district referral
hospital. Based on maternal health data obtained from the DHO for 2011–2012, Puskesmas
Ciranjang performed better and is located nearer to Cianjur, while Puskemas Sindangbarang
had poorer indicators and was far from Cianjur. The selected villages with the proportion of
health facility deliveries and distance to Puskesmas are shown in Table 5.
Table 5. Villages selected in Cianjur district and selection criteria
Criteria for villages
Good, close to Puskesmas
Good, far from
Puskesmas
Poor, close to Puskesmas
Poor, far from Puskesmas
Puskesmas Ciranjang
Puskesmas Sindangbarang
Close to the district capital
Far from the district capital
Ciranjang
Health facility delivery: 80.1%
1km, tarmac and non-tarmac road
Karangwangi
Health facility delivery: 77.4%
5km, tarmac and non-tarmac road
Mekargalih
Health facility delivery: 57.7%
2km, tarmac and non-tarmac road
Sindangsari
Health facility delivery: 53.3%
6km, tarmac and non-tarmac road
Saganten
Health facility delivery: 74.25%
300m, tarmac and non-tarmac road
Jatisari
Health facility delivery: 56.6%
20km tarmac and non-tarmac road
Sirnagalih
Health facility delivery: 51.0%
1.3km tarmac and non-tarmac road
Girimukti
Health facility delivery: 48.9%
8km, tarmac and non-tarmac road
Description of the villages chosen as the study sites in Cianjur
The population in the eight villages selected in Cianjur ranged from 5000 to 16,000 people,
and the main source of income is agriculture (see Table 6). All villages had kindergarten and
elementary schools, whereas senior high schools was less common in the remote villages
which were far from the health centre. In the Puskesmas Ciranjang area, the availability of
health care professionals is better than in Sindangbarang. For instance, three out of the four
villages had medical doctor and private midwife practices, whereas in Sindangbarang there
was only one village, Saganten, that had a medical doctor in the village.
Table 6. Description of study villages in Cianjur
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Kindergarten
Elementary
school
Junior high
school
16,689
agriculture
3
13
4
0
1
Karangwangi
1332
agriculture
1
2
0
0
0
Mekargalih
3595
agriculture
1
2
1
1
0
Sindangsari
2046
agriculture
1
4
1
1
0
Saganten
6054
agriculture
1
5
1
1
1
Jatisari
5802
agriculture
3
4
1
0
1
Sirnagalih
6909
agriculture
3
4
1
0
0
Girimukti
6146
agriculture
5
5
1
0
0
Market
Main source of
income
Ciranjang
Senior high
school
Village
Population
number
Puskemas area
Ciranjang
Sindangbarang
Schools available
Data source: village survey of 2012 from Village Chief Office
RECRUITMENT OF RESEARCH INFORMANTS
In both districts we chose four categories of informants for the study:
 CTC providers;
 clients and their support groups;
 village heads; and
 health managers at district level and district health officials.
Recruitment of study informants
The study was introduced to the heads of Puskesmas and midwife coordinators, and they
were invited to participate. With their help, VMWs gave their consent to participate. Since
the midwives were familiar with the village, we sought their assistance to invite the kaders,
TBAs, mothers and men to participate in the study.
SELECTION OF STUDY INFORMANTS
All respondents were selected from the villages that were chosen based on the performance
of their maternal health indicators. The mothers selected were women who had delivered in
the previous 12 months.
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The selection criteria for CTC providers were: midwives assigned to the selected villages,
kaders based in the villages and TBAs who resided in the villages. The health managers and
implementers were the head of the Puskesmas and midwife coordinators.
Key informants were selected from all villages, and included village heads and other
influential committee members based on information provided by the village and district
heads. At the district level the Maternal and Family Health section heads were selected.
For the FGDs the respondents selected in each village were husbands of women who had
delivered. In addition FGDs were held with the midwives in each sub-district and with TBAs in
Cianjur.
DATA COLLECTION
We collected data using SSIs and FGDs. Tables 7 and 8 provide the number of SSIs and FGDs
and the number of informants from whom information was obtained in each district. In total
we had 65 SSIs and three FGDs in SW Sumba and 45 SSIs and four FGDs in Cianjur.
SSIs were conducted by trained data collectors overseen by the Research Assistants. A fiveday workshop was held in each district to train the data collectors in obtaining consent,
interviewing and transcribing data. The Senior Researchers trained the staff. New graduates
with a health education background from the district of SW Sumba were chosen and consisted
of one male and three females. In Cianjur the data collectors consisted of four females with a
health background and one female from a non-health education background. FGDs were
conducted by the Research Assistants, but due to the language barrier presented by the local
dialect, FGDs for TBAs in Cianjur were conducted by a trained field supervisor whose mother
tongue is Sundanese, the dialect used in Cianjur.
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Table 7. Number of informants, SSIs and FGDs in SW Sumba
Type of informants
Village midwives
Metho
d
SSI
Frequency of data
collection/Puskesmas area
Radamata
Palla
4
3
FGD
Village nurse
Total
7
1
1
SSI
2
-
2
FGD
-
-
-
SSI
4
4
8
FGD
-
-
-
SSI
5
6
11
FGD
-
-
-
SSI
5
4
9
SSI
14
9
23
Husbands
FGD
1
1
2
Head of PHCs, midwife coordinator
SSI
2
2
4
Head of district MCH section
SSI
TBAs
Kaders
Village stakeholders (head of village,
head of PKK)
Mothers
Total
1
SSI
37
FGD
3
1
28
65
3
Table 8. Number of informants, SSIs and FGDs in Cianjur
Type of informants
Frequency of data
collection/Puskesmas area
Total
Ciranjang
Sindangbarang
SSI
4
4
8
TBAs
FGD
1
1
2
Kaders
SSI
4
4
8
SSI
4
4
8
SSI
FGD
SSI
SSI
SSI
SSI
FGD
8
1
1
1
8
1
1
1
16
2
2
2
1
Village midwives
Village stakeholders (head of
village)
Mothers
Husbands
Head of Puskesmas
Midwife coordinator
Head of district MCH section
Total
Method
1
45
4
49
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DATA ANALYSIS
A combination of ‘grounded theory’[33], which means a reading of the transcripts and noting
issues emerging from the text and a ‘framework approach’ [34], which uses the objectives and
the issues explored in the topic guides, formed a lead for the development of a coding
framework. The transcripts were entered in an electronic qualitative data management and
analysis software (Nvivo) and coded. Data were further analysed by themes and sub-themes
and summarized in narratives for each theme and sub-theme. The narrative led to further
questions and associations between the themes.
We conducted the data analysis in the country and identified contextual factors that need to
be taken into account for the development of the first improvement cycle. Inter-country
analysis will take place during workshops with all countries present, to develop a common
analytical framework of similar and context-specific factors that influence the implementation
of CTC provider programmes.
QUALITY ASSURANCE
To ensure that the data collected are of an acceptable quality, the following measures were
taken:
 To ensure data quality, the ability of the interviewers and FGD facilitators is vital.
Training workshops were conducted by senior qualitative researchers. During the
researchers’ training, key terms were translated into the local language and translated
back by others to confirm that terms were understood in the same way. The creation
of a safe environment, respect and sensitivity were emphasized, and the interviewers’
probing ability was central to the training.
 Oversight for field-testing and supervision during fieldwork was conducted by the
Research Assistants. Quality assurance procedures were applied, such as checking
recordings, keeping field notes etc., as well as debriefing sessions.
 All FGDs and interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and checked with original
recordings of a particular transcriber by the Research Assistant.
 Data validity was judged via triangulation (comparing and contrasting results from
FGDs and SSIs and answers from different groups of respondents) and the mixedmethods approach (comparing and contrasting results from desk review and primary
data).
 Due to language difficulties (translating from Bahasa Indonesia into English), the
Research Assistants and Senior Research Fellow as well as a scientist from LSTM and
one from KIT with expertise on qualitative data analysis in social science, health and
gender contributed differing perspectives. A field visit during or prior to the analysis
workshop assisted in understanding the specific local context.
49 | P a g e

All field staff were trained in data collection by senior qualitative researchers, common
terminology was identified for specific terms during the training, and instruments
were adapted during the training and the field-testing.
STUDY LIMITATIONS
The study had the following limitations:
 We were constrained by funds and the geography to limit the sites to two sub-districts
per province and eight villages in each sub-district. This is limiting the generalization
to the whole district. To optimize the identification of influencing factors, we have
chosen extreme sampling and included villages that are performing well and villages
that are not performing so well.

It was challenging to identify data collectors experienced in qualitative research. The
training and field supervision assisted in generating skills, but during the first
interviews probing was still difficult. Extra interviews were conducted to overcome
the initial learning process.

Data quality was subject to the ability of the interviewers and FGD facilitators’ fluency
in the local dialect of the region and the respondents’ fluency in Bahasa Indonesia. We
had to translate the interviews from Bahasa Indonesia to English, and some
expressions might have been affected by the translator’s interpretation. Again, due to
cost and time constraints, a back translation was not possible to verify the quality of
translation. Instead, transcripts of each transcriber were checked by the researchers
comparing them with the oral recordings until they were satisfied with the quality.

Indonesia is a diverse country, and the findings of this study could only be applied to
the site of the study and to areas with similar situations.
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CHAPTER 5 – QUALITATIVE RESEARCH FINDINGS
OVERVIEW
The qualitative study consisting of SSIs and FGDs was conducted in SW Sumba district in
August and September 2013 and in Cianjur in October and November 2013. We show how
common a response is by using terms such as ‘a few’ or ‘some’ for less than half, ‘many’ or ‘a
majority’ for more than half, and ‘all or almost all’. Quotations are presented along with the
type of technique used, type of informant and the area recorded between brackets. Other
specific identifiers have not been reported, to ensure the anonymity of the informants.
CTC PROVIDERS IN THE STUDY VILLAGES IN SW SUMBA
In SW Sumba we found that the assigned midwives resided in only two of the eight villages;
in the other six villages they were residing elsewhere (see Table 9). In three villages in
Radamata there were nurses available, whereas a resident nurse was not present in any of
the Palla villages. There were five kaders per village Posyandu, and all resided in their villages.
In SW Sumba there are two two categories of TBA: those trained in the previous system and
untrained TBAs. It is noteworthy that sometimes family members such as mothers, fathers or
parents-in-law can assist the delivery of the daughter or daughter-in-law and act in a similar
way to an untrained TBA.
The health infrastructure and the physical conditions of the facilities in Radamata were poorer
than in Palla. In both sub-districts there were more Pustus than Polindes. These sub-level
facilities were not present in the two villages, Ramadana and Weepaboba, which were close
to the Puskesmas, on the expectation that residents could access the Puskesmas easily. Since
most health staff were not resident in their assigned villages, these facilities did not provide
24-hour services. The nurses carry out general consultations in Pustus during their working
hours (morning to afternoon, four or five days a week). Sometimes the Pustus or Polindes are
used for the monthly Posyandu activities. The Posyandu activities were held in all the villages.
CTC PROVIDERS IN THE STUDY VILLAGES IN CIANJUR
The situation in Cianjur was different from that in SW Sumba, with all the study villages having
a minimum of one resident VMW. The Sindangbarang Puskesmas was located close to the
villages of Saganten and Girimukti and had no Pustu, while all the other villages had a Pustu.
The Posyandu is available in each village and is held monthly. Each Posyandu is run by at least
five kaders. All kaders resided in their villages. As in SW Sumba, there are both trained and
untrained TBAs in Cianjur. In Sindangbarang there were 5–12 TBAs available per village, while
in Ciranjang this number dropped by half, between one and six TBAs per village.
Table 9. Number and distribution of CTC providers in the study villages in SW Sumba
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Puskesmas
Village
Village midwife
Resident
Radamata
Palla
Ramadana
Bondo
Boghila
Letekonda
Totok
Weepaboba
Wanatalla
Puupotto
Weenamba
Nonresident
1
CTC providers
Village nurse
Number
of kaders
per
NonResident
village
resident
Posyandu
none
5
TBAs
Trained
Untrained
4
6
1
1
1
5
3
4
1
1
1
1
1
5
5
5
5
5
5
4
1
1
1
1
1
6
5
5
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
Table 10. Number and distribution of CTC providers in the study villages in Cianjur
Puskesmas
Village
CTC providers
Resident
Nonresident
Private practice
midwife
Number of
kaders per
village Posyandu
Trained
Untrained
Sindangbarang
Nonresident
Ciranjang
Resident
Village
midwife
Ciranjang
2
-
0
0
0
5
6
-
Mekargalih
2
-
0
0
3
5
1
-
Karangwangi
1
-
2
1
5
2
-
Sindangsari
1
-
0
1
5
4
-
Saganten
3
-
1
2
5
5
-
Sirnagalih
2
-
0
0
0
5
12
-
Jatisari
2
-
0
0
1
5
5
-
Girimukti
2
-
2
0
5
6
-
Village nurse
0
TBAs
INTERVENTION DESIGN FACTORS
HUMAN RESOURCES
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CHARACTERISTICS, ROLES, TASKS AND WORKLOAD OF CTC PROVIDERS
The main CTC providers engaged in maternal health are VMWs and kaders (community
volunteers) of the village integrated health service (Posyandu) and TBAs.
Responsibilities and workload
VMWs: The main responsibility of the VMWs is to provide ANC and PNC in the Posyandu and
to attend to childbirth and family planning, providing 24-hour care. Midwives provide care in
health facilities, and recently times their workload has expanded beyond midwifery care. In
SW Sumba and Cianjur the midwives are expected to perform several other tasks, including
child health care, immunization and nutrition, and treatment of ailments. Almost all the
midwives mentioned the increase in their workload and the multiple activities they are
performing outside midwifery. In Cianjur midwives are also performing piercing and female
circumcision. This is not practiced in SW Sumba.
“My primary jobs as midwife are examining pregnant women, organizing antenatal
care, home visiting...” (SSI, VMW, SW Sumba).
The round-the-clock work of VMWs was described by one midwife in Cianjur:
“A midwife’s working hours are actually 24 hours. We must be ready at any time for
24 hours. People give birth at any time; we cannot predict precisely. I also don’t put a
specific hour for my practice. They can come as they want; even at midnight I still
receive patients.” (SSI, VMW, Cianjur)
Their additional tasks and roles were described by many midwives:
“I mostly do midwifery activities, though occasionally I also deal with general health
problems like upper respiratory tract infection and also skin infection.” (FGD, VMW,
SW Sumba)
Some midwives mentioned their new task of caring for elderly people in the Posyandu:
“There is also a Posyandu for old people. [I said to the old people] ‘you can come. I will
weigh you; I will give you drugs.” (SSI, VMW, SW Sumba).
The additional workload was confirmed in Cianjur:
“Integrated Management of Young Children [MTBM], this is not their [the midwives’]
responsibility. It is their additional duty, and they usually do it with nurses. However,
in the field, I found out that MTBM was still a burden to the midwives. They even have
to guide the elderly programme, the immunization and nutrition. …The point is they
usually become the bearer of every programme in the village.” (SSI, Manager, Cianjur)
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The role of midwives in female circumcision and the type of circumcision was not
systematically explored, but from the information given by a mother it seems that the clitoris
is not always cut. A kader in Cianjur also mentioned:
“Now, circumcision is done by the midwife. Before, it was done by the paraji [TBA], but
paraji rarely do it now.” (SSI, Kader, Cianjur)
According to a mother in Cianjur:
“The paraji [TBA] did the circumcision, but the midwife said the clitoris was just being
cleaned with alcohol.” (SSI, Mother, Cianjur)
Posyandu kaders: The respondents suggested that the main role for the kaders is the same
in SW Sumba and Cianjur. They assist the VMW in organizing the monthly Posyandu,
registration of mothers and children, weighing children and providing health promotion and
education. They also do home visits to encourage pregnant women to attend the Posyandu.
While describing their work, many kaders emphasized the importance of their health
education activities in family planning, sanitation and the distribution of vitamin A to anaemic
mothers and children:
“We organize counselling about pregnancy like how to prevent anaemia or give
counselling about child health such as the importance of vitamin A supplementation
for the children.” (SSI, Kader, SW Sumba)
Another kader described the importance of home visits to persuade pregnant women to
attend the Posyandu:
“To visit young mothers in their second month of pregnancy, for the newly birthing
mother, we advise them to do the family planning programme and also visit the
newborn baby and toddler.” (SSI, Kader, SW Sumba).
The kaders are also engaged in referring women to the midwife and to the health facility:
“I usually remind them. Like for those women who want to deliver, I said, ‘please do
not seek the paraji’s service but the midwife; here is the [phone] number.’ Then I give
them the midwife’s phone number.” (SSI, Kader, Cianjur)
TBAs: There is no formal role for the TBAs (dukun in Sumba and paraji in Cianjur) in the health
system. Yet TBAs are generally the first point of call in the village and play an important role
during pregnancy and delivery. This important role of the TBAs during pregnancy was
mentioned by almost all informant groups in both SW Sumba and Cianjur; its most important
aspect is the traditional massaging of the abdomen of the mother early in pregnancy and
positioning of the baby late in pregnancy. They also help during delivery and provide care
after delivery:
54 | P a g e
“I give massage and help at delivery.” (SSI, TBA, SW Sumba)
“From what I know of the TBA, they help the mother do ‘muku’ [pushing the baby] and
also touching the belly so it’ll help to give birth quickly.” (SSI, Kader, SW Sumba)
SELECTION AND RECRUI TMENT
VMWs: Recruitment of midwives is by the health service on the basis of graduation
certificates and the appointment letter awarded by the district government (DHO), but the
community can indicate the need for a village midwife, as explained by a midwife:
“If there’s a village without a midwife, the village [community] will ask for a midwife,
and the village will ask the District Health Office.” (SSI, VMW, SW Sumba)
Kaders: In both SW Sumba and Cianjur the community are engaged in kader selection, while
the village chief makes the final decision. Their selection criteria are school graduation and
literacy capabilities. Often VMWs play an increasing role in their selection. In both districts
the wider community is involved in the selection of kaders at village meetings. The VMW also
has a say. The process was explained by the head of a community health centre (Puskesmas):
“The [kaders’] recruitment is done through the village chief, the village midwife and
with the head of Puskesmas. If there’s a kader who’s going to be replaced, we will come
to the community, ask them [the elders] who they want. We only require that a kader
has to be graduated from school and is a literate person.” (SSI, Manager, SW Sumba)
TBAs: TBAs in both SW Sumba and Cianjur are not recruited formally and come to the job at
the request of the community, and in response to a call from their ancestors according to
tradition.
PLACEMENT OF MIDWIVES IN VILLAGES
The midwives are placed in villages to work in the Puskesmas, village health post (Pustu),
birthing hut (Polindes) and in the village Posyandu. The midwives assigned to a village do not
necessarily come from that village, which makes it challenging, and not all midwives reside in
their assigned village. Reasons given for difficulties in placing midwives in the village were:
married women who have their own houses away from the village, partner’s willingness and
ability to move to the village, security and housing conditions or schooling options for
children.
One midwife in a village in SW Sumba explained:
“I stayed in a health post in my assigned village for three years. But when my child was
ready to enter kindergarten I didn’t have any other choice, so I moved to Tanggolo
Village, which is closer to the kindergarten.” (SSI, VMW, SW Sumba)
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Another informant highlighted the fear and isolation of the birthing huts, and the lack of
infrastructure and supplies:
“Some of the village birthing huts or the village health posts are far from
neighbourhood areas. They fear they will be disturbed; the neighbourhood isn’t always
safe.” (SSI, Manager, SW Sumba)
He added that the limited basic facilities such as water and electricity are also a hindering
factor:
“The house isn’t a permanent one; it’s an emergency shelter. How can a woman live
there? The solar panel can’t be used to charge a cell phone, can’t play music maybe,
TV, to entertain them. And the water is hard to get; the water source is far.”
However, he emphasized that:
“Even if they [VMWs] don’t live in the village, they have to be present every day in the
village, as if it’s their office.”
EDUCATION AND CAREER ADVANCEMENT
VMWs: In both SW Sumba and Cianjur, the DHO organized training for midwives relating to
their tasks such as the management of normal deliveries, newborn care and asphyxia
management, and on health promotion activities related to nutrition, family planning and
vaccination. However, the VMWs in both districts mentioned problems with continuing
education and challenges to keep their skills up to date. The main challenges mentioned were
a lack of funds for training, and insufficient supplies and equipment to apply their skills. In
addition, midwives did not always adhere to the guidelines. As a midwife coordinator
explained:
“In the emergency situations when our aid is needed, many of them don’t use the
masks, caps. They’d just wear the apron used to help with deliveries. I think it’s because
of their habits.” (SSI, Manager, SW Sumba)
In Cianjur the managers emphasized the insufficient application by the midwives of what was
taught:
“Every midwife has been taught about PPWS [Local Area Surveillance] before they go
to do their work in the village. However, when I did technical coaching of the midwives
who have already been taught about PPWS at the health service level, the algorithm
that we expected to be applied in the field was not shown.” (SSI, Manager, Cianjur)
Another challenge mentioned was the lack of supplies hindering the application of what was
learned:
56 | P a g e
“When I participated in the asphyxia training, I wanted to disseminate it to village
midwives, but we don’t have ambubag [breathing aids] up until now. So when I wanted
to disseminate it, I did’t have any related materials, which made it useless.” (SSI,
Midwife Coordinator, SW Sumba)
COMPETENCIES OF CTC PROVIDERS
VMWs: Differences in the levels of self-confidence to respond quickly and creativity were
reported between those midwives who hold a one-year diploma and those with a three-year
diploma:
“There is a big difference. From my point of view those who hold a three-year diploma
and above have more creativity. They who are not from midwifery school, they don’t
know what to put on. Those three-year diploma graduates have different knowledge.”
(SSI, Manager, SW Sumba)
One midwife who had not yet completed the three-year midwifery education felt that she
lacked competencies to deal with various elements:
“When there’s a pregnant woman who had haemorrhage, I felt my skill was lacking,
that’s what made me want to study again. ...There’s once a baby who died in my own
lap; I cried because the asphyxia handling for the baby was not accurate.” (SSI, Midwife
Coordinator, SW Sumba)
However, the absence of scholarships for further study and challenges for women to study
far from home also deter lower-qualified midwives from further study:
“I do not want to study in a place far away such as Java.” (SSI, Midwife Coordinator,
SW Sumba)
“In this programme [D4 Midwifery] that I follow, there is none [no scholarship]. Before,
there was a government programme.” (SSI, Midwife Coordinator, Cianjur)
In addition, though VMWs in SW Sumba and Cianjur had participated in several training
courses, including in health promotion, they still addressed the need to improve midwives’
capacity in health promotion to further increase ANC and facility delivery.
Kaders and TBAs: In both SW Sumba and Cianjur informants addressed the need for more
training to increase competencies of kaders in areas such as reporting skills and health
education. In Cianjur informants mentioned in particular the wider range of skills and
competencies of the neonatus caregiving kaders:
“The neonatus caregiving kaders generally have more competencies. They had more
training.” (SSI, Manager, Cianjur)
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In Cianjur some training of TBAs was recalled:
“I attended a training for paraji [TBAs]. We practised washing hands using soap. It has
to be flushed. And then if there’s a home birth I need to check the opening. ...The signs
are the face gets pale, the opening is 2cm to 10cm long. We practised at the graduation
[of the training].” (FGD, TBA, Cianjur)
CAREER PROSPECTS
There are rules in place for career advancement; however, some midwives, in both districts,
reported the difficulties they face, particularly among civil service employees. They
emphasized the complicated nature of the process they have to face in their efforts to be
promoted. Some informants were irritated by promotions being awarded based on aspects
other than merit:
“The grading in civil servant [employment rule], the rule is not being applied correctly.
Even if a person works badly, he or she still get promoted.” (SSI, Manager, SW Sumba)
In addition, in Cianjur informants mentioned the lack of access to further study when a
midwife is on a contract:
“I want to have continued education, but if I am PTT [contract-based employee
midwife], the village midwife is the PTT one, so it is hard to continue the study, and the
service will be abandoned. That’s why I want to be a civil servant.” (SSI, VMW, Cianjur)
FINANCIAL INCENTIVES
VMWs: Financial incentives for VMWs consist of their salary and incentives from the National
Insurance for Delivery (Jampersal) and the Health Operational Fund (BOK). Deductions and
sharing of the incentives take place in SW Sumba and Cianjur; although the details differ
somewhat, the principle is similar. In SW Sumba, if deliveries occurred outside the health
facility, the incentives cannot be claimed. In Cianjur the midwife can claim from the insurance.
In SW Sumba the lack of incentives for home deliveries was stated as one reason for
disappointment.
“The pregnant women who wanted to deliver in the health facility sometimes ended
up delivering in the middle of her way to the health facility, or have already delivered
at home when we picked her up. Like she already has complete openings and strained,
and in that case it can’t be claimed and paid anymore. To be able to claim the money,
the woman must really deliver the baby in the health facility. We helped the mother to
deliver in the Pustu. In that case too, it can’t be claimed.” (SSI, Midwife Coordinator,
SW Sumba)
Informants also reported problems with disbursement of the insurance money:
58 | P a g e
“I wish that in the future, the claim and verification for the disbursement [of the
Jampersal fee] could be counted on for our needs. Every month there are claims, but
the disbursement took months.” (SSI, Midwife, Cianjur)
However, managers also claimed improved home visiting for ANC:
“There’s an incentive for every time they work, like doing home visits, ANC. The
incentive affects their coverage, which improves with the incentive.” (SSI, Manager, SW
Sumba)
It is noteworthy that these financial incentives sometimes cause misunderstandings, as
mentioned by VMWs in the FGDs. The community has the impression that the midwives
receive all money and, as will be reported under perceptions of health workers, some
community members resent the money health workers receive.
Posyandu kaders: The kaders are non-salaried health volunteers. Yet they receive financial
incentives from three different sources: the DHO, the village office and for referral of
pregnant women to the health facility. A kader reported what they receive from the DHO:
“Since 2012, it is 50,000 rupiah per month, given every three months.”
And then added the amount they get from the village office:
“It’s from the village administrative. There is allocation for 20 kaders per village:
125,000 rupiah per volunteer per year. We already got it for two years.”
The amount kaders receive for referral is based on the distance:
“We also need to pay attention to the distance. If the place is too far, we give
Rp.25,000; as for nearer places, we give them Rp.20,000 or Rp.15,000. It all depends
on the distance.” (SSI, Midwife Coordinator, SW Sumba)
TBAs: In both SW Sumba and Cianjur the financial incentives for TBAs come from the
community, and the money received ranges from substantial to nothing, depending on the
social and economic position of the clients. The payment is for services during pregnancy until
the umbilical cord falls off:
“I don’t want to ask [for a certain amount of money]. They are all clients ranging from
government employees to farmers. I only helped; the rest is based on their conscience.
I don’t determine [the fee].” (SSI, TBA, SW Sumba)
In one community in Cianjur the men felt that TBAs need to be given good money; otherwise,
the family may be shamed by the community, and they fear that she may not help them for
the next delivery:
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“If we give her a small amount of money, she will tell other people. I dislike it. If
someone ever gave her small money, she won’t come if we call her to assist for a
second delivery.” (FGD, Men, Cianjur)
Similar to kaders, there are financial incentives for TBAs when they bring a pregnant woman
to deliver in a health facility:
“Usually by using the Health Operational Fund, every TBA as well as kader who brings
[women to deliver] will get Rp.20,000 as an incentive. If they inform by short message
or phone, we’ll give them the credit money for Rp.7,000, which we transfer directly to
their phones by electronic top-up.” (SSI, Midwife Coordinator, SW Sumba)
NON-FINANCIAL INCENTIVES AND INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
VMWs: Besides financial incentives, VMWs in SW Sumba and Cianjur also mentioned nonfinancial incentives such as gifts that they occasionally receive from the villagers after
assisting childbirth:
“It’s like a culture in this place. If they have money, they will give us some money, but
if they don’t have money, they will give us a chicken.” (SSI, VMW, SW Sumba)
A midwife in Cianjur mentioned similar things:
“Sometimes they give me things like bananas or any other fruits that they have.” (SSI,
VMW, Cianjur)
The desire to help other people and to serve the community are also important intrinsic
motivation mentioned by many VMWs:
“Since in primary school I always have a dream to help people. So I dream to be a
doctor. I cannot be a doctor because going to medical school is expensive. So I became
a midwife. I like to serve the people around me.” (SSI, VMW, Cianjur)
In addition, the status of being a midwife is also very attractive in the community. Wearing a
uniform is part of that:
“If you’re a midwife, it looks good. I like seeing people using white clothes. It’s nice,
cool.” (SSI, Kader, SW Sumba)
Posyandu kaders: Many kaders emphasized the voluntary nature of their work and
mentioned that other things than money form an incentive. Incentives are the intrinsic value
of being a volunteer, the effect of their work on others, the respect received from the
community, the knowledge and respect they gain and the health services they receive for
free. One kader emphasized that the work is not about the financial incentives:
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“We work voluntarily. Even when there is no money, like what we experienced in the
past, we still do our job.” (SSI, Kader, Cianjur)
A kader in SW Sumba emphasized the meaningfulness of being a kader:
“Those who support me are myself, my husband and my children. They said, ‘it is good
for you [to be a kader] so that you’re happy.’ ...So it’s not because of the money. My
children and husband advised me like that.” (SSI, Kader, SW Sumba)
She added that kaders receive free health care in Puskesmas:
“The head of Puskesmas also serve us if we’re sick without any charges.”
The kaders are motivated when the community responds well to their work and shows
appreciation:
“If they respond that they would join it [family planning] without making any comment,
…we feel happy; we feel satisfied. Even though we are wasting our time, leaving our
duties at home, but if they respond to it positively, we’re also satisfied, happy.” (SSI,
Kader, SW Sumba)
According to another kader:
“When I do health promotion in the Posyandu I joke around with the people so that we
have a good spirit and laugh. If we see the community understand [the health
promotion] that we do, we are happy.” (SSI, Kader, SW Sumba)
The kaders reported the added knowledge and learning that comes with the job as a
motivating factor:
“I feel happy because, first, I have so many friends, so much knowledge. I didn’t know
about immunization; I didn’t know about BCG. Now, I know about that, a little bit. I
have more knowledge, so I share my experience with friends, give them advice to the
mothers, what is the importance of immunization, the importance of child health.” (SSI,
Kader, Cianjur)
However, several kaders in SW Sumba and Cianjur expressed their disappointment when
mothers do not adhere to their health promotion programmes in Posyandu:
"It is disappointing when they [mothers] do not follow our advice to come to Posyandu
or to give birth in Puskesmas. ...It’s like we have told them many times to come, but
they don’t listen, and when we asked them why they don’t come, they made many
reasons.” (SSI, Kader, SW Sumba)
A kader in Cianjur shared a similar experience:
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"As a kader I’m sad and feel discouraged when I have told them [pregnant women]
about the importance of giving birth assisted by midwives but they still prefer to be
assisted by paraji. ...In fact I keep repeating the same message, but some of them are
stubborn." (SSI, Kader, Cianjur)
TBAs: TBAs in both SW Sumba and Cianjur mentioned that they receive non-financial
incentives such as chicken, sarongs or fruits for the care they provide:
“There was someone who gave me a chicken or a sarong. But most of them didn’t give
me anything.” (SSI, TBA, SW Sumba)
A TBA in Cianjur mentioned that self-fulfilment as a TBA is another form of non-financial
incentive:
“I’m happy to help the women to deliver their babies and to clean them and their
children. I like to see the mothers who delivered who are also happy, since I’ve cleaned
them and their children.” (SSI, TBA, Cianjur)
A similar feeling of being happy to serve and proud of what they can offer was expressed by
another TBA in SW Sumba:
“I’m happy because in my village I’ve been helping those who’re pregnant and
delivering babies. Like when there’s no transportation at midnight, it becomes my
happiness if I can help them in times of need.” (SSI, TBA, SW Sumba)
MEDICAL SUPPLIES AND LOGISTICS
Issues related to logistics and supplies emerged among VMWs in SW Sumba. Many of them
complained about the lack of availability of instruments such as for measuring blood pressure
and listening to the foetal heart rate. A midwife coordinator in SW Sumba said:
“Many pregnant mothers like to come to Posyandu because they want to have their
blood pressure measured or they want to listen to baby’s heart rate. They really like
these, but not all village midwives have these instruments. Or some of them have them
but then they are broken and cannot immediately be replaced.” (SSI, Midwife
Coordinator, SW Sumba)
Similar problems of a lack of facilities were mentioned in Cianjur:
“Here, we don’t have laboratory tests. ...Sometimes they go to [Puskesmas]
Sindangbarang to check their pregnancy. Sindangbarang has USG, so they also get a
USG examination.” (SSI, VMW, Cianjur)
A VMW mentioned the lack of health promotion materials:
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“The people in the village like our health education if we can show them pictures. In
the past we have had some posters and pictures, but we don’t have that now.” (SSI,
VMW, SW Sumba)
The lack of availability or deteriorating conditions of some village birthing huts that prevent
some VMWs from living in their assigned village was also an important issue in SW Sumba.
Moreover, some VMWs complained about the lack of availability or the deteriorating
conditions of the motorcycles that are supposed to enable them to do home visits:
“Not all village midwives have a motorbike. I have a motorbike, but it is already very
old and frequently broken. This motorbike was given by the government, but I often
have to spend my own money to fix it.” (SSI, VMW, SW Sumba)
In addition, the main concern among kaders in SW Sumba regarding supplies and logistics is
the lack of availability of chairs and tables in several Posyandu. As we explained in the desk
review, there are five table programmes in Posyandu (from registration to health education).
However, some Posyandu have no chairs and tables available:
“Our Posynadu is under the tree. The method will be five thighs, not five tables; we can
say the five tables is only the theory, but the practice is the five thighs. I suggested the
health office or any stakeholders not to use the five-thigh method anymore.” (SSI,
Kader, SW Sumba)
SUPERVISION
In SW Sumba and Cianjur informants mentioned the monthly meeting in Puskesmas as a form
of supervision by the head of Puskesmas and midwife coordinators of the performance and
activities of VMWs. During the meeting they share their experiences and discuss the problems
they face. Most VMWs acknowledged the benefits of this supervision, but in SW Sumba some
complained about the lack of supportive supervision, particularly related to supplies and
logistics:
“I have informed the head of Puskesmas several times about my motorbike, and she
just said, ‘be patient and wait.’ I have waited for quite a long time.” (SSI, VMW, SW
Sumba)
Another midwife in SW Sumba emphasized to tendency to simply blame the midwives when
a maternal death happened:
“The downside of the maternal and child health revolution in this province is we
[midwives] are always blamed, especially when a mother dies. What we want actually
is more support in like trainings and instruments so we can work better.” (SSI, VMW,
SW Sumba)
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Additionally, many informants in SW Sumba and Cianjur addressed the need for more
supervision of the kaders by VMWs. More frequent and structured supervision of kaders by
VMWs will increase the motivation of the kaders to encourage pregnant women to attend
the Posyandu and to delivery at a health facility, as can be seen in several villages with higher
levels of ANC and facility delivery.
HEALTH-SEEKING BEHAVIOURS FOR ANTENATAL CARE, DELIVERY AND POSTNATAL
CARE
BROAD CONTEXTUAL FEATURES
SERVICES PROVIDED
ANC, PNC, family planning and child health services are provided through the Posyandu and
are described in the desk review. The next level of services is provided by the health post
(Pustu), mainly for delivery, and at sub-district level services are provided in the Puskesmas
(health centre). Referral from the village could be to the Puskesmas for deliveries and from
there to the district hospital for complicated cases. It is common for women to use the
services of both the midwife and a TBA.
UTILIZATION OF ANC AND DELIVERY SERVICES
Almost all informants stated that most pregnant women used the Posyandu for ANC. Women
and their husbands often recognize signs of pregnancy due to ways in which women change
their behaviour. A husband in SW Sumba said:
“When my wife had her ‘injak bulan’ [missing period], she was ill and asked many
things, just like a child. She asked for a banana cake. That is how I knew [that she was
pregnant]. She then went to Posyandu to get checked.” (FGD, Men, SW Sumba)
Another husband in SW Sumba emphasized the importance of Posyandu for ensuring safety
of the mother and the baby:
“My wife went to Posyandu so she and the baby would be safe. So the baby would be
healthy and have normal birth.” (FGD, Men, SW Sumba)
In Cianjur a husband explained the benefits of attending ANC in Posyandu:
“My wife went to Posyandu to confirm her pregnancy. Going to Posyandu makes her
and myself feel safe. There are midwives there. If there’s something not good they have
the drugs.” (FGD, Men, Cianjur)
There are several factors that were described by respondents as encouraging pregnant
women’s access to ANC and delivery services. These include the belief that by having the
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mother and baby checked, the baby will be safe and healthy and the delivery normal; to get
vitamins, medicinse, injections, bed nets and check-ups; that the services are free; the friendly
attitude of VMWs; and also the risk of facing a penalty from the village office if they do not
attend the ANC and delivery services (e.g. the threat of withdrawing their incentive from PKK).
Some women start visiting the Posyandu from three to five months onwards and attend ANC
four times or more before delivery:
“ANC starts from the age of four months. They start to check on pregnancies until four
times, until they delivered.” (SSI, Kader, SW Sumba)
There are some differences in Cianjur; to avoid the waiting time in the Posyandu, many
mothers prefer to pay go to the private midwife:
“I guess they want the easiest way, and it only costs the 5000 [Rupiah] for those who
have no insurance, but there are other consequences that they have to take the long
queue. For others they said that they are willing to go to the Puskesmas but could not
stand the queue, and if they brought their children, they have to provide snacks while
waiting. That cost more at the end in comparison to the clinic’s fee. So they prefer to
come to the private [midwife] practice that does not need to wait for long.” (SSI, VMW,
Cianjur)
BARRIERS TO ANC AND DELIVERY SERVICES
It is noteworthy there are still several import cultural or socio-economic barriers in both SW
Sumba and Cianjur that contribute to pregnant women choosing not to access ANC. These
include traditional beliefs and the lack of mothers’ motivation such as:
“Our ancestors won’t allow it.” (SSI, Village Head, SW Sumba)
The daily activities of the pregnant women that need attention as well as disillusionment with
the services were also described as a hindrance to ANC services:
“Sometimes, they [pregnant women] were busy in their houses. Sometimes when they
want to go to the Posyandu, a guest shows up at their house. Or perhaps there was
another urgent thing that they needed to do.” (SSI, Kader, SW Sumba)
“Sometimes when we heard the announcement of Posyandu activity in the pengajian
[prayer meeting], some of us said, ‘ah, only weighing; we get nothing.’ What we mean
is we get nothing after weighing.” (SSI, Mother, Cianjur)
REASONS FOR USING TBA SERVICES AND HOME DELIVERIES
In some villages and households in both SW Sumba and Cianjur, traditional beliefs are also a
reason for not going for ANC or not delivering at a health facility and leading to the use of TBA
services. One head of a village in SW Sumba mentioned the taboo of being exposed to modern
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equipment and practices that are unacceptable for the ancestors. Not listening to the
ancestor may cause a miscarriage and/or be a reason for not becoming pregnant again:
“It’s like this: the equipment you’re using, they [the ancestors] don’t want it. The
grandmother, or we call it here ‘Merapu’ [Sumba’s traditional religion], but that’s what
they don’t want. …The ancestors or Merapu, they don’t want it, and it can cause
miscarriage or they can’t get pregnant.” (SSI, Village Head, SW Sumba)
Moreover, a VMW in Cianjur stated that among some pregnant women, particularly those
with a low level of educational attainment, the taboo of leaving the house, especially in the
early months of pregnancy, contribute to choosing TBA services over other providers:
“Pregnant mothers with a low level of educational attainment usually still have many
taboos, like the taboo of going out of the house [during pregnancy]. Because of this,
they prefer to use TBA services. The paraji [TBA] usually lives close to their house, and
she can be called to come to the pregnant mother’s house any time.” (SSI, VMW,
Cianjur)
However, a more common practice is that pregnant women actively attend the Posyandu for
ANC and also use TBA services, particularly massage. Most mothers mentioned the
importance of TBAs’ massage during pregnancy:
“I felt nauseous and wanted to vomit when I was pregnant. I also lost my appetite.
After getting the massage from a TBA, I felt better and getting my appetite again, not
really nauseous. I loved being massaged. The TBA always gave me a massage on my
belly. Because I felt really comfortable like that. After I got the massage I felt more
relaxed.” (SSI, Mother, SW Sumba)
If pregnant women found out through their ANC at Posyandu that they have no discernible
problems with the pregnancy, many of them then choose to deliver at home with a TBA in
attendance:
“I went to the Posyandu, and we found out that I am OK. ...When my delivery time
came, I didn’t feel much pain, so we decided to call a TBA, and I delivered my baby at
home.” (SSI, Mother, SW Sumba)
Previous experience of smooth delivery at home was also mentioned by a kader as a reason
for women to choose to deliver at home:
“Well, when we interviewed them in Posyandu after they’ve delivered, some said that
because it was for the third or fourth child. In their experience in giving birth at home
with a TBA for the first child, it was fine. Moreover, there was no [negative] symptom
found by the midwife in the examination during the pregnancy. So they just delivered
at home.” (SSI, Kader, SW Sumba)
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The promptness and proximity of the TBAs is also a reason why there is still a strong
preference for home delivery assisted by TBAs. According to a mother in Cianjur:
“They serve us quickly when we need them. When we are about to deliver, they will
come and serve us immediately after we call them.” (SSI, Mother, Cianjur)
The perception of TBAs’ quality of care, their sensitivity and the issue of privacy are also
influential:
“She [TBA] is good. She helps the labour in the pregnant woman’s house, so it could be
in their own room; the room’s door is closed. She lets the pregnant woman wear a
sarong, then when the woman is about to push the baby out, she receives the baby
with her hands, then she cuts the umbilical cord.” (SSI, Mother, SW Sumba)
In addition, the perception in communities that TBAs are more important and experienced
than midwives may also contribute to home delivery assisted by TBAs:
“In my village, though it [delivery] is free, many are still assisted by a TBA and deliver
at home. Maybe this is because they think a midwife is less important than a TBA. For
them a TBA is most important and a midwife is just a kid.” (FGD, VMW, SW Sumba)
TBAs are also considered by some as role models in society who are trusted by the
community, particularly by the many who hold strong traditional beliefs:
“They [TBAs] are like role models too. We cannot ignore the fact that they have more
trust from the society. That’s why we have to approach and persuade them to refer the
delivery to us.” (SSI, Midwife Coordinator, Cianjur)
“Paraji [TBAs] are figures who are considered elders here. The community already trust
the paraji and won’t go anywhere else. Paraji stay there continuously, while the
midwives do not. The community tends to consider the paraji like a mother.” (SSI,
VMW, Cianjur)
“The community still believes strongly in paraji. Paraji sends the prayers for the safety
of both the mother and the baby. She is believed that she can also protect them from
the bad influence from outside, especially when the baby just gets delivered.” (SSI,
Village Head, Cianjur)
A lack of facilities and a lack of responsiveness to traditional beliefs and practices is, therefore,
an important factor that contributes to the preference to deliver at home assisted by a TBA:
“My wife gave birth at home, not in the Puskesmas. The Puskesmas was limited. No
hot water. While in here we believe that it is a custom for mothers to have a bath with
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warm water after delivery. ...They frequently cannot do that in the Puskesmas. That is
the unpleasant experience, and we are not happy with the deliveries in the
Puskesmas.” (FGD, Men, SW Sumba)
OTHER BARRIERS TO FACILITY DELIVERY
It is worth noting that there are numerous barriers that hinder pregnant women from
delivering at a health facility besides traditional beliefs, such as distance to the facility, the
poor road infrastructure, lack of transport including the cost of transportation, the costs and
lack of means to contact the midwife, the difficulty of being away from home for a longer
time, the health facility’s lack of responsiveness to local beliefs, and the cost of food and
accommodation for the family members who accompany the parturient. These barriers
contribute to the high level of preference for home delivery assisted by TBAs.
Cost
Though the cost for delivery at a health facility is free due to the availability of delivery health
insurance (Jampersal), there are other barriers to facility delivery such as distance to the
facility, the poor road infrastructure, the lack of transport and the cost of transportation:
“If the mother’s house is far, it takes time to get a motorbike taxi, and it is not rare I
arrive at the mother’s house when the opening is already complete, and I have to assist
the delivery in her house.” (FGD, VMW, SW Sumba)
“Because she [his wife] gave birth in the night and the midwife was not there at night,
and there was no transportation, she finally gave birth at home assisted by the paraji
[TBA].” (FGD, Men, Cianjur)
Besides the cost of transportation, indirect costs such as for accommodation and food for the
family members who accompany the pregnant woman to deliver at a health facility is also a
hindering factor:
“For mothers who live in a remote village, even if the mother wants to deliver in
Puskesmas, the family is usually concerned about the cost of accommodation and food
for their family. Even if they have a relative close to the Puskesmas, people here are
reluctant to come to the house of somebody else without carrying stuff like rice,
bananas or chicken. They feel ashamed if they give a burden to other people. ...This
frequently become a reason that prevents them from going to Puskesmas to give
birth.” (SSI, VMW, SW Sumba)
Accessibility
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The Puskesmas is supposed to provide an ambulance to take the parturient woman to deliver
at a health facility, but this is not always achievable due to the limited availability of drivers
or fuel:
“Sometime we face difficulties like the ambulance had no fuel and the driver refused
to come. I tried to ask the driver to find another vehicle, but no money for that. If I ask
the villagers to hire a vehicle, many cannot do this because the cost is high.” (FGD,
VMW, SW Sumba)
Stigma
Stigma may also cause pregnant women to be reluctant to deliver in a health facility,
particularly those who are not yet married and are, therefore, reluctant to notify health
workers or other community members of their pregnancy:
“The mother didn’t have a legal husband. So she was scared to show up.” (SSI,
Manager, SW Sumba)
“In my village, a woman who is pregnant without a husband is ostracized. They usually
deliver the baby at home.” (SSI, VMW, Cianjur)
USE OF PNC
A preference for using a TBA is again a common reason that prevents mothers from accessing
formal PNC services. The root causes for this are similar to the reasons for preferring home
delivery, and include practical and cultural reasons:
“Sometimes it’s hard [for midwives] to go to the village to conduct postnatal and
neonatal visits. Sometimes she did so, but if the place is too far, she can’t do so. So
that’s one of the factors: the distance and the bad road, where even motorcycles can’t
get in.” (SSI, Manager, Cianjur)
“The reason was they still believe in traditional beliefs. Like believing that after giving
birth the TBA will provide a bath.” (SSI, VMW, SW Sumba)
USE OF FAMILY PLANNING
Respondents suggested that some of these facilitators that influence the uptake of family
planning are similar to facilitators for ANC and facility delivery, such as the services being free,
and the skills and friendly attitudes of the midwives and kaders. In addition, using
contraception to enhance their lives, reduce the burden on the family and space childbirth
was also addressed:
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“The reason my wife uses the sterile method is to lighten the family burden. Many
children, lots of burden, many risks. During the old time there is a saying ‘many
children, many fortunes’, but now ‘many children, many risks’. We have to enable the
two or three children we have to get better education.” (FGD, Men, Cianjur)
The combined social, cultural and economic barriers all have a contributory role in the low
numbers of facility deliveries and delayed management of services related to delivery in both
SW Sumba and Cianjur.
DECISION-MAKING AND GENDER NORMS, VALUES AND ROLES
Decision-making related to ANC, delivery and family planning is influenced by gender norms,
including the role of the husband and key family members such as parents and parents-inlaw, as well as by other factors such as encouragement or instruction from the village head
and midwives.
DECISION-MAKING RELATED TO AN C
In both SW Sumba and Cianjur, husbands and members of the family such as parents and
parents-in-law play an important role in decision-making about whether or not to access
services in health facilities such as ANC in Posyandu:
“Most women are dependent on their husband’s decision, or at least the women tell
their husband.” (SSI, Village Head, SW Sumba)
“The husband is not too supportive, not encouraging her to go to Posyandu to get
checked.” (SSI, Kader, SW Sumba)
“The husband was the one who usually made the decision. The mother could not decide
in every aspect. It was the same with family planning.” (SSI, Manager, Cianjur)
There was some variation between respondents, however, and some women felt able to
make their own decision:
“Well, my husband is giving me freedom, but for precautions it would be better if I
check, so if anything happened, it could be handled earlier.” (SSI, Mother, Cianjur)
In both districts some pregnant women showed they contributed to the decision to check
their pregnancy in Posyandu. When asked about who made the decision to go to Posyandu, a
pregnant woman in Cianjur said:
“Me, my husband and my mother-in-law.” (SSI, Mother, Cianjur)
Additionally, a different mother in this area described in greater detail how she talked with
her husband about going to Posyandu:
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“I already know at what date the Posyandu is — for example, on the 10th. The night
before I told my husband, ‘there will be Posyandu tomorrow. I will go there to be
checked.’ I said it like that. My husband said then, ‘go so that you know how your
pregnancy is and you can also get vitamins.’ That’s it. We both agreed. Then the next
day I went to Posyandu.” (SSI, Mother, Cianjur)
In SW Sumba, pregnant women’s decision-making to access ANC services is influenced to
some extent by instruction or pressure from village heads and midwives in relation to the
Maternal and Child Health Revolution in East Nusa Tenggara Province:
“At first there was a pressure from the village government and midwife. After that they
realizedthe importance of health.” (SSI, Village Head, SW Sumba)
The influence of the village head can also be found in Cianjur:
“The village head frequently tells the mothers to go to Posyandu. He likes to say, ‘go
[to Posyandu] to get medicine, vitamins and weight measurement for your children.”
(SSI, Midwife Coordinator, Cianjur)
DECISION-MAKING RELATED TO DE LIVERY
As with ANC, the role of the husband in decision-making related to delivery such as the place
of delivery and who assists delivery is also crucial. When asked about the decision to call a
TBA to assist her delivery in her house, a mother in a village in SW Sumba said:
“It was my husband’s decision. If my husband has already called the TBA, I don’t
[refuse].” (SSI, Mother, SW Sumba)
However, this mother also added that, though she preferred to be assisted by a midwife, she
was pleased that a TBA came to help her, as she felt the time left to go to the hospital was
too short:
“Calling the TBA is already helpful for me because I felt really painful. It seems that
there is no time anymore to go to the hospital. ...My feeling: full of relief after I could
give birth.” (SSI, Mother, SW Sumba)
In Cianjur a similar pattern emerged:
“Of course he [the husband] also decides where to go to get the treatment for the
delivery. If the husbands insist to have it with the Paraji’s service, so the wives will just
follow and obey.” (SSI, Village Head, Cianjur)
“The midwife made a delivery date prediction, and assignment about who will assist
the delivery. The mother obeyed. But on the due date, she was not the one who made
the decision, but her husband, parents-in-law or parents.” (SSI, Manager, Cianjur)
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A different experience was shown by another mother in SW Sumba who also gave birth at
home, but, unlike the above mother, she was visited by the midwife, and the decision to call
the midwife indicated the agreement within her family to call her. A key informant explained
the variation in terms of place to give birth and the importance of the husband’s role in
deciding the location to deliver. He added that the role of other people in decision-making
related to delivery usually increases if there are any risks:
“Sometimes there is contradiction; it can be the mother’s decision, but if there’s any
risk usually there is another person who gives advice to give birth by another means. If
faced with a risk, well... We encourage them so that the decision is not solely on the
mother herself but also on other people.” (SSI, Village Head , SW Sumba)
Respondents also indicated that some women make their own decisions with regards to
delivery:
“Well, from the beginning I’ve already told the midwife that I wanted to deliver my
baby with her assistant. I asked for her phone number. So that night when I felt like the
water came out and I was having contractions, I woke up my parents and asked them
to call the midwife. ” (SSI, Mother, Cianjur)
“It’s me [who decided to deliver the baby with a paraji]. My husband was about to call
a midwife, but I told him not to.” (SSI, Mother, Cianjur)
When there is a need for referral, the situation becomes more complicated. Delays during
referral occur because of discussions about who should go with the woman, finding
transportation etc. These can require extensive family gatherings:
“Many obstacles, different areas, different situations and conditions. If I wanted to
refer them, they did ‘riungan’ [gather with their family] first. They would discuss who
would accompany the patient to hospital, and then where to find transportation and
more discussions.” (SSI, VMW, Cianjur)
Moreover, some husbands are indifferent:
“Most husbands think pregnancy and taking care of the children are entirely the
mother’s responsibility. They only think that their role is only to provide money. ...The
husbands are never there during delivery; only neighbours, mother-in-law and kader.”
(SSI, VMW, Cianjur)
DECISION-MAKING RELATED TO FAMILY PLANNING
As in the cases of ANC and delivery, the role of the husband is also important in decisionmaking related to family planning. Occasionally this was cited as problematic, and one case
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was found in which a mother in a village in SW Sumba had to lie to her husband due to his
refusal to allow her to use contraception although they already had six children. The
experience of this mother also demonstrated her agency to act in a way that she is thinks is
better for herself:
“My husband didn’t agree [with her to use contraception] because at that time he
wanted to have more children, but I looked for any reason to make him agree. I told
him a lie. I said that if we use a sterile method we can still get more children. He then
agreed.” (SSI, Mother, SW Sumba)
Another mother in a village in SW Sumba showed a more consensual process with her
husband related to the decision to use contraception:
“Me and my husband [decided]. Actually, I’ve been wanting to join ever since I was
having my first child, but he said, ‘not yet until we have two children: a boy and a girl.”
(SSI, Mother, SW Sumba)
In Cianjur, sometimes the whole family is involved:
“My father-in-law said that we were not ready to have children. My husband should
have a job first, find the money, save the money. We worried that if we had children
then we cannot take care of them.” (SSI, Mother, Cianjur)
It is noteworthy that there are several barriers for mothers to access family planning,
including traditional beliefs, aspiring to complete a family by having both a boy and a girl and
a lack of support from the husband:
“The same thing with family planning. There’s the traditional taboo, so people are very
careful to do it, whether it’s the device or everything about contraception. It’s just the
same with this, to get examined [using medical equipment], the ancestors or Merapu,
they don’t want it, and it can cause miscarriage, or they can’t get pregnant.” (SSI,
Village Head, SW Sumba)
“Many reasons. For example, they have several children, but all are males. In here, we
usually wait until we have a girl or a boy to use contraceptives. That’s the reason.
Because they do not have a complete set of male and female children, they don’t want
to use contraceptives yet.” (SSI, VMW, Cianjur)
“My husband still has traditional views. He believes that having many children will
bring more fortune. ...He does not allow me to use contraception.” (SSI, Mother,
Cianjur)
COLLABORATION BETWEEN VILLAGE MIDWIVES, KADERS AND TBAS
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Our data from SSIs and FGDs showed that a certain degree of collaboration between VMWs,
kaders and TBAs exists in some villages in SW Sumba and Cianjur. This collaboration is aimed
particularly at encouraging villagers to attend Posyandu and pregnant women to deliver in a
health facility. A kader in a village in SW Sumba appreciated the TBA services in her village
and the cooperation between kaders and TBAs:
“The TBA in this village is excellent, because some TBAs cooperate with us to give good
understanding to the mothers of the babies and toddlers to scale their weights in
Posyandu, to care for their children well, to give nutritious food to the children, so that
they become healthy.” (SSI, Kader, SW Sumba)
She added that the current policy (Maternal and Child Health Revolution) in SW Sumba does
not allow delivery assisted by TBA:
“TBAs aren’t allowed to help pregnant women to deliver, and they must advise the
pregnant women to go to a health facility to deliver. ...They [TBAs] really should guide
the women, especially the pregnant women; they should always remind them when it
is already the month of delivery so that they deliver at the Puskesmas. Before delivery,
if there’s any pain or uneasiness in their pregnancy, their roles, together with us as
kaders, are to suggest they go to Puskesmas for examination, and we suggest in the
delivery month that they deliver at the health facility.”
Another VMW in SW Sumba explained her collaboration with TBAs in her village in greater
detail:
“These days, some TBAs are good. If somebody reported that they [pregnant women]
missed their period, some TBAs inform me. If there is somebody about to deliver, they
[TBAs] also report to me, and some of them also come with us [to the house of the
pregnant woman]. Sometimes they take the pregnant women to the Puskesmas. Now
they also can have some incentive if they accompany the pregnant women to the
Puskesmas. They can have Rp.15,000 if they report a pregnant woman who is about to
deliver to us. Usually we give an explanation, though we [midwives] are the one who
assisted the delivery, the TBA will be the one who does the massage afterwards, so
they still can receive the chicken from the family of the pregnant woman. Then we give
an explanation to the mother to give clothes as an appreciation of the TBA, because
they have delivered with no cost in the Puskesmas.” (SSI, VMW, SW Sumba)
Similar collaboration between midwives, kaders and TBAs can also be found in Cianjur:
“We don’t work alone. Working alone made us tired, right? Usually, there is training
for kaders and also for paraji [TBAs] about delivery. So, if there is a delivery, we partner
with the paraji. The partnership is, if there is delivery, the paraji will call us; they will
call the midwife. If a woman about to deliver meets the kader, the kader will call us.
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But usually in the village, they trust more the paraji, thus we should collaborate with
the paraji better and closer.” (SSI, VMW, Cianjur)
“Sometimes a midwife cannot handle the delivery, and she will work together with a
paraji. And a paraji also will do the same if she cannot handle it. She will call a midwife.
So they are working together.” (SSI, Mother, Cianjur)
This collaboration is not without challenges or difficulties, however:
“At the beginning when we said that TBAs cannot assist delivery anymore, just
collaborate with us, they seemed like they were jealous. They were worried they won’t
be used anymore. But we gave them an explanation that the purpose is not to make
the TBAs vanish. We told them that they can remain and do their tasks like massaging
or taking care of the baby.” (SSI, VMW, SW Sumba)
The head of a Puskesmas in SW Sumba also identified some challenges to increasing
collaboration with TBAs:
“Some TBAs don’t want to cooperate. ...Some don’t understand what we said to them
due to their old age. They can’t cooperate because they’re too old to understand, and
they don’t really understand the Indonesian language that we use. ...The TBAs have
their own limitations: they didn’t study at schools, and their practice is only based on
experience. There are already midwives in the villages now, so they [pregnant women]
shouldn’t rely on TBAs anymore. TBAs should only accompany the midwives. They
shouldn’t aid the delivery, because the TBAs don’t know about the timings of the
complete openings, whether there’s foetal membrane fluid, and when the baby has to
be delivered.” (SSI, Manager, SW Sumba)
However, he added:
“Some TBAs have already understood the current policy [maternal and child health
revolution]. People often talk about it, like the kaders, village chief; there’s also
socialization about it in the Posyandus. Some of them understood that nowadays
delivery must be done with midwives’ aid at a health facility.”
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
FACTORS THAT INFLUEN CE THE DIFFERENCE IN MATERNAL HEALTH INDI CATORS IN THE
CHOSEN VILLAGES (STUDY SITES)
Our data showed two important factors that may contribute to the differing levels of maternal
health indicators among villages that we selected as the study sites: the performance and
enthusiasm of the VMW and the level of support from stakeholders (such as the village head,
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the wife of the village head, religious leaders, the PKK and the PNPM). Villages with better
maternal health indicators (higher attendance at ANC and facility delivery) generally have
more enthusiastic VMWs. In these villages there is also better support from the stakeholders
for the activities of VMWs and kaders.
VILLAGE MIDWIFE’S PERFORMANCE AND ENTHUSIASM
The performance and enthusiasm of VMWs were frequently mentioned by mothers and
kaders in the villages with higher attendance at ANC and facility delivery in SW Sumba.
Mothers especially appreciated the care for sick children, nutrition advice and other health
advice. For example, a mother in a village in Radamata (close to a health facility and with high
attendance at ANC and facility delivery) appreciated the performance of the VMW:
“She [the VMW] does her work very well. She helps the sick children. She keeps giving
us advice, such as to consume more vegetables. She examines our pregnancy
conditions and responds it well if we are not well. ...She gives us health education; for
instance, she forbade me to eat carelessly. She told me to be careful in consuming the
medicines from the market. She paid attention to these kinds of issues.” (SSI, Mother,
SW Sumba)
A kader in the same village also mentioned the enthusiasm and hardworking ethics of the
VMW, and the community’s respect for her:
“I think she [the VMW] is a really hard worker. She is very good and respected by the
people here. …Because without looking at the status of the persons she will help. She
also has a baby at home, but she still helps. She never made the people desperate and
is always ready to serve. I think this is because she doesn’t feel it as merely her task but
she loves the people. ...For example, when someone is in labour, she just has be texted
that someone has abdominal pain, and she will immediately come.” (SSI, Kader, SW
Sumba)
Positive comments about the performance and enthusiasm of the VMW were also mentioned
by mothers and kaders in another village in Radamata (far from a health facility but with high
attendance at ANC and facility delivery):
“I think she [the VMW] is OK. She and the kaders are active in managing Posyandu. She
and the kaders always watch out for the undernourished children. They also look after
the women who have an undernourished child and give health advice. ...If someone
wants to use contraception, the village head reports it to the midwife, and the midwife
will serve her.” (SSI, Mother, SW Sumba)
“The midwife here is very nice. Usually other health personnel are hard to approach.
But this one, she’s willing to help in everything. ...For instance, we ask her to help us in
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recording this data. She’s very open. She also always keeps her promise [to come to
Posyandu]. We, the kaders, work closely with her. Like when a young mother who was
never pregnant before and doesn’t know the signs of pregnancy, I can help her to
consult with the midwife. Then she will get a pregnancy test.” (SSI, Kader, SW Sumba)
Similar appreciation can be seen for the performance and enthusiasm of the VMW in a village
close to a health facility and with higher attendance at ANC and facility delivery in the Palla
area in SW Sumba:
“She [the VMW] is good. She is always present in Posyandu events every month. When
she was called in the middle of night [to help the pregnant woman to give birth], she
did come.” (SSI, Kader, SW Sumba)
“Her performance is excellent. Though without enough budget, she still organizes the
self-empowered milk and additional food programme [in Posyandu] by always asking
the mothers to bring tubers or sweet potatoes. This through a shared approval
between the village authority and the midwife. ...The way she does the service to help
pregnant mothers is very good. [For example], if someone [a pregnant woman] is
calling her from the village, although she must travel across the mountain, she still
comes to help.” (SSI, Village Head, SW Sumba)
In contrast, negative comments about the VMW were frequently mentioned by mothers or
kaders in a village in Radamata which is close to a health facility but has lower attendance at
ANC and facility delivery:
“She [the VMW] is frequently absent from Posyandu. I came, but many times only
kaders were there.” (SSI, Mother, SW Sumba)
“She is not good. Sometimes she comes, and sometimes not [to Posyandu]; sometimes
she also forgets the schedule. Many mothers in this village say, ‘why should we come
[to Posyandu] if the midwife is not there and we come for weighing only?’” (SSI, Kader,
SW Sumba)
The key role of the VMWs’ performance and enthusiasm and the differing levels of maternal
health indicators were also evident in the villages that we chose as the study sites in Cianjur
district. Informants in villages close to a health facility and with high attendance at ANC and
facility delivery) in Ciranjang and Sindangbarang appreciated the performance and attitude
of their VMW:
“She is nice and active. ...She speaks politely and is not arrogant.” (SSI, Mother, Cianjur)
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“Thank God, we have a good midwife. She is always ready. If we call her, she is always
available.” (SSI, Kader, Cianjur)
The attitude of the VMW was also appreciated by informants in villages far from a health
facility but with high attendance at ANC and facility delivery, both in Ciranjang and
Sindangbarang:
“Though she is not from this village, she accepts to live in the village where she works.
She always presents in Posyandu activities. …Well, sometimes she has another thing
to do such as shopping in the city. But if she was out and a patient needs her, just call
her. The midwife will return as fast as possible. She never leaves for more than one
day. They [the villagers] trust her.” (SSI, Village Head, Cianjur)
“We thank the midwife. She is willing to be woken up in the middle of the night. She is
very good in treating pregnant women. For delivery, she is always ready even though
it is raining.” (SSI, Kader, Cianjur)
It is noteworthy that some kaders and village heads in villages with higher attendance at ANC
and facility delivery in both SW Sumba and Cianjur emphasized that the performance and
enthusiasm of their VMWs encourage them to support the VMWs’ activities.
SUPPORT FROM STAKEHO LDERS
Our data also showed the crucial role of stakeholders (such as the village head, the wife of
the village head, religious leaders, the PKK and the PNPM) in the villages with higher
attendance at ANC and facility delivery. In SW Sumba this can be seen particularly in the two
villages in Radamata and one village in Palla. In a village in Radamata which is close to a health
facility and has high attendance at ANC and facility delivery, the support from the village head
in particular is important:
“I usually communicate with the village head. He frequently helps in motivating the
pregnant women so that even if there was no vehicle, they had to think about their
own way of reaching the health facility [to deliver].” (SSI, VMW, SW Sumba)
When asked about the result of her communication with the village head, this midwife
explained:
“There were positive responses from the people. For example, when there’s a health
promotion in the village, the village head helps in communicating with the people so
they can understand. ...When he comes to visit the houses [of the pregnant women],
he also helps them to understand.”
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In another village in the Radamata area which is far from a health facility but has high
attendance at ANC and facility delivery, the support of the village head is also evident.
However, the village head emphasized that it is the good performance of the midwife that
encouraged him and the head of the hamlets in his area to provide their support:
“People like the midwife’s services and her personality. Her dedication fits with her
oath as a midwife to do the task unconditionally. Because of these, the village head
and the head of the hamlets support her work.” (SSI, Village Head, SW Sumba)
We can also see the support of a village head and other stakeholders such as the PKK in Palla
in a village which is close to a health facility and has high attendance at ANC and facility
delivery:
“I keep communicating with the village head, particularly to encourage them
[pregnant women] to deliver in a health facility and to come to Posyandu. Fortunately
she is very committed. So in every meeting she conducts with hamlet heads she always
emphasizes these issues. So we have some improvements. I also discuss with my
midwife coordinator that we have to keep approaching the head of the village and the
hamlet heads because they are the ones who have real power in the village. We,
midwives, are like only guests. Villagers mostly respect the village head and hamlet
heads.” (FGD, VMW, SW Sumba)
“We’re happy if the village head participates; this has a big impact. For example, most
people think that Posyandu is from health officials only, which it is not. Posyandu is
actually the village asset. That’s why the village head’s participation is important. So
it’s also the responsibility of the village head and the head of the Family Welfare
Movement [PKK].” (SSI, Midwife Coordinator, SW Sumba)
The support of stakeholders (village heads, in particular) is also evident in villages with high
attendance at ANC and facility delivery in Cianjur (Sindangbarang and Ciranjang):
“Me and my wife frequently went to the Posyandu; we had meals together with the
community there. ...My frequent attendance to Posyandu has a good impact to
encourage pregnant women to come to Posyandu.” (SSI, Village Head, Cianjur)
“In the past, the maternal indicator in this village was poor. Now it is better. The
partnership is good, between us [midwives], kaders and the head of the village. We
work together. In other villages the partnership is not as good.” (SSI, VMW, Cianjur)
It is worth noting that VMWs and kaders in villages with higher ANC attendance and facility
delivery in Cianjur mentioned more varied stakeholders such as the wife of the village head,
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religious leaders, the PKK and the PNPM. A midwife in a village far from a health facility but
with higher ANC attendance and facility delivery in Sindangbarang said:
“I need more help. So I asked help from other people like religious leaders and the wife
of the village head who is also the head of the Family Welfare Movement. They support
me. Like the religious leaders deliver messages in their sermon during the pengajian
[Islamic recitation meeting] in the mosque. They also allow me to use the mosque to
announce the Posyandu day. I ask for help from them, because we [midwives and
kaders] cannot work alone. If there is a problem, they can help. We communicate with
them, so they feel these health issues are also their needs.” (SSI, VMW, Cianjur)
A VMW in Ciranjang, far from a health facility but with higher ANC attendance and facility
delivery, also mentioned the support from other stakeholders such as Healthy and Smart
Generation (GSC) organized by the PNPM in her village:
“We now have pregnancy class supported by GSC. More pregnant women come here.
We also try to solve problems together. For example, a pregnant woman doesn’t want
to go to ANC. We find out the problem. If the problem is money, we do not give her
money, but we replace her transportation cost. So the pregnant women can claim their
transportation cost to GSC.” (SSI, VMW, Cianjur)
These levels of performance and enthusiasm among midwives and support from stakeholders
are less visible in the the villages with lower ANC attendance and facility delivery.
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CHAPTER 6 – DISCUSSION
The REACHOUT CTC provider performance and services study in Indonesia is aimed at
improving maternal health services because of the low proportion of health facility deliveries.
We have, therefore, assessed the barriers to accessing maternal health services, as these
influence the end-user results of the CTC providers’ services and performance, and the role
of the CTC provider in addressing these barriers. In this discussion we draw on the desk study
and the findings of the qualitative study.
BARRIERS TO ACCESSING MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES
ANC
ANC is an approach aimed at improving maternal health outcomes by early identification of
risk pregnancies. It is recommended that pregnant women have a minimum of four ANC visits
during pregnancy. However, as presented in our findings, there are several important barriers
that may hinder pregnant women in SW Sumba and Cianjur from accessing ANC in Posyandu.
Our findings identify that pregnant women’s priority-setting and their disillusionment with
the services were important factors. In addition, other studies have indicated distance to
health facility, mothers reporting no obstetric complications during pregnancy, residents of
rural areas, low household wealth index and low maternal educational level as factors for
under utilization of ANC services [24, 32].
Facility delivery
Despite the increase in the proportion of deliveries at health facilities in both SW Sumba and
Cianjur since the introduction of health insurance for delivery (Jampersal), as mentioned by
some informants, this increase is not as high as the health authorities in both districts
anticipated. Our study results show that this is in part due to the presence of numerous
obstacles such as traditional beliefs, a lack of responsiveness from health facilities to cater for
those traditional beliefs and practices, and previous experience of normal delivery meaning
that some women did not recognize any benefit of facility delivery. These findings are in line
with other study findings from Indonesia [22, 24].
Practical difficulties such as distance, poor road conditions, lack of availability of
transportation (including the cost of transportation) and indirect costs (e.g. the cost of
accommodation and food for family members who accompany the parturient to deliver in a
health facility) were also identified. Our findings are in line with the findings of other studies
such as the IMMPACT analysis that addressed the importance of distance to health facility,
which found that 66% of women delivered with a skilled attendant when their place of
residence was close to the health facility (<5km), whereas only 9% of deliveries were attended
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by a skilled provider when the women lived more than 60km from the health facility [25]. A
lack of preparedness for a complication in terms of transport, the costs of accommodation
for extended families and other requirements also reduce the likelihood of facility delivery
during complications.
Some factors related specifically to human resources planning for maternal health, such as
the lack of availability of a VMW (particularly in SW Sumba because many midwives do not
reside in their assigned village) or difficulties in contacting the midwife due to distance and a
lack of communication tools, also emerged.
Difficulties in contacting the midwife are due to the fact that there are numerous factors that
do not support the midwives to live in their assigned village (e.g. basic facilities, safety and
family reasons). Our findings also confirm the findings of previous studies that explored
factors that influence the retention of midwives in their assigned villages[16, 18].
Our findings show that poor perception of the benefit of delivery at a health facility, negative
perceptions of health workers (midwives, in particular) and health facilities, preference for
home delivery and preference for TBA services as well as limited communication and referral
of pregnant women from TBAs to midwives are barriers to delivery at a health facility. These
findings support the findings of other studies such as a study in six districts in West Java in
which the limited availability of health care providers and the geographical, psychological and
cultural proximity of TBAs in the village hinder facility delivery [7]. Moreover, a UNICEF report
indicated that psychological and cultural support provided by the TBA such as massage and
herbal medicine are important factors for pregnant women to prefer using TBA services[22].
PNC and family planning
Traditional beliefs, preference for the services provided by TBAs and a lack of transportation
were also mentioned by informants as hindrances to accessing PNC. Regarding barriers to
accessing family planning, again traditional beliefs emerged, as did the aspiration to have a
complete family by having a boy and a girl and a lack of support from the husband.
Furthermore, access to child health services is hindered by disillusionment or negative
perceptions of health workers and health facilities.
The data show how traditional beliefs and practices continue to hinder access to maternal
health services at all stages: ANC, delivery at a health facility and family planning. This
indicates that although modernity in the forms of modern education and modern health
services have been intensively introduced and developed in Indonesia in the last few decades,
this does not necessarily influence practice and health-seeking behaviour relating to
pregnancy and delivery [7, 35, 36]. This is the case particularly in remote hamlets of Radamata
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(SW Sumba), but it can also still be found among pregnant women in some hamlets in the
sub-district of Sindangbarang (Cianjur), located on the island of Java, which has the most
advanced development in Indonesia.
FACILITATORS TO ACCESS MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES
HEALTH PROMOTION AND PERCEPTIONS OF QUALI TY OF CARE
Despite the presence of barriers, several factors were identified that may encourage or
facilitate pregnant women to access maternal and child health services. It is worth noting that
our desk study indicates that access to ANC (Posyandu attendance) increases as a result of
the local policy known as the Maternal and Child Health Revolution (Revolusi KIA) in East Nusa
Tenggara province and in Cianjur. Facilitators for ANC include the belief that having the
mother and baby checked will make the baby safe and healthy; to obtain vitamins, medicines,
injections or bed nets; the fact that the services are free; the trusted position of VMWs; and
the presence of social control and penalties for not attending ANC. Perception of quality
appeared to be a crucial facilitator for health facility delivery — for example, the belief that
there are better instruments and equipment in a health facility, specifically those to measure
blood pressure or to listen to the baby’s heart, and that the midwives are better skilled to
manage risks for the mother and the baby. Provision of beneficial supplies such as vitamins
or injections also contributed to motivate women to give birth at a facility.
Effective health promotion to improve knowledge about the benefits of delivering in a health
facility and assisted by health professionals such as midwives may improve health-seeking
behaviour. Research from beyond Indonesia suggests that such health promotion
programmes may also facilitate behavioural changes to make pregnant women more
motivated to give birth at a health facility [28, 37, 38]. In addition, birth preparedness can be
enhanced through participatory learning and action using groups in the community to
develop action plans to support women to use health facilities and speed up referral.
SUPPORT FROM STAKEHOLDERS
In addition, our data indicate that the support of stakeholders (including the village head, the
wife of the village head, religious leaders, the PKK and the PNPM) is also crucial to assist
VMWs and kaders in delivering maternal health services in the villages. These stakeholders
have the potential to improve maternal health services. In many cases, the support of the
strategic stakeholders emerged due to the communication initiatives of the VMWs. Our
comparative analysis suggests that the existence of highly motivated midwives combined
with support from key stakeholders may have had a positive effect on improving outcomes in
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villages that are a long way from health facilities. There is no published literature yet to
support this observation, which is worthy of further investigation.
STAFF ATTITUDES
The friendly attitudes of the midwives are also important facilitators for mothers to access
PNC services. The desire to enhance quality of life and to reduce the burden on the family
emerged as a facilitator to spacing childbirth and accessing family planning. The presence of
these facilitators is in line with the findings of other studies internationally that highlight
factors that may enhance access to maternal and child health services [28, 37]. Our findings
in SW Sumba and Cianjur also show the essential role of the VMWs’ performance and
enthusiasm to facilitate higher attendance at ANC and facility delivery. Their performance,
enthusiasm and friendly attitude may also motivate the kaders to improve their performance
in organizing the Posyandu and encouraging pregnant women to attend ANC and deliver in a
health facility. Several studies have emphasized the important role of VMWs as the front line
providers of maternal health services in rural settings [28, 39] .
HUMAN RESOURCES
TYPOLOGY OF CTC PROVIDERS AND WORKLOAD
The main CTC providers of maternal health care are the VMWs or nurses, the Posyandu kaders
and TBAs. The VMWs are involved in providing midwifery care and attending deliveries at
facilities or at home. Since they might be the only health care provider in the village, in
addition to their 24-hour availability for deliveries, their roles expand to provide general
health care, care for elderly people and health promotion activities such as family planning
and nutrition, which is beyond their training. In Cianjur some midwives are also involved in
female genital cutting/circumcision. Midwives provide a 24-hour service in remote areas and
find the additional workload a challenge for their competencies.
Posyandu kaders are non-salaried workers who are chosen by the community to serve in the
Posyandu (community integrated health post). The kaders are responsible for arranging the
Posyandu, weighing children, assisting in registration and providing nutritional and health
promotion such as family planning. They receive a financial incentive from the DHO and a
week of training for their Posyandu-based tasks.
TBAs are non-salaried informal workers whose roles and training vary; some inherit the role.
They are involved in providing local traditions such as massage to position the foetus,
attending home deliveries and providing post-delivery care such as bathing mother and child.
SELECTION AND RECRUITMENT OF CTC MATERNAL HEALTH PROVIDERS
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Midwives are recruited on the basis of an academy certification and appointed by the DHOs.
Kaders are selected by the community, with a strong influence of village leaders on the
selection, based on literacy capabilities; however, increasingly, VMWs play a role in their
selection. Communities express a preference for married, older midwives. However, this is a
challenge. Older, married midwives often have a house, family and school-age children and
find it difficult to be based in remote villages without schooling for the children. The desk
study shows that midwives who are not resident in their assigned village spend less than half
the number of days on village-based clinical work than those who are resident, although this
differs significantly by location. Remote areas show a high turnover of midwives.
SUPERVISION
From the interviews with midwives, supervision is perceived as not very supportive or
motivating. Our desk review confirms this finding, adding that the performance of VMWs and
Posyandu kaders could be further increased by providing a structured and more supportive
supervisory system. Several reports in Indonesia have stated that this weakness is recognized
by the government, and efforts are ongoing to formulate a better structured supervisory
process [14, 22]. The decentralization policy implemented since 2001 could be used to
strengthen supervision and support to increase the performance of VMWs and Posyandu
kaders.
PLURAL HEALTH-SEEKING BEHAVIOURS AND COLLABORATION BETWEEN TBAS,
KADERS AND VMWS
While there is an increasing number of pregnant women who access ANC services and deliver
at health facilities in SW Sumba and Cianjur, our data in both districts clearly reveal the plural
health-seeking behaviours among pregnant women in these locations. Numerous pregnant
women use ANC services in Posyandu, but they also still use TBA services such as massages.
TBA services are considered important by most pregnant women and husbands in SW Sumba
and Cianjur during pregnancy and delivery and after delivery. TBA services are perceived as
valuable not merely for physical reasons (such as massage to relieve pain during pregnancy
and after delivery) but also for psychological support for pregnant women and their husbands.
These views reveal the still crucial role of TBAs among people in the study sites in SW Sumba
and Cianjur and indicate the importance of maintaining or improving collaboration between
TBAs, kaders and VMWs.
There is a certain amount of collaboration between VMWs, kaders and TBAs in some villages
in SW Sumba and Cianjur. The impact of this collaboration is the encouragement of pregnant
women to attend Posyandu for ANC and to deliver in a health facility; it is also considered an
important facilitator to access maternal and child health services.
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Several studies had advocated strategies to reduce the utilization of TBA services such as to
establish a TBA–midwife partnership. Under these strategies the cultural importance of TBAs
is respected, and TBAs are allowed to assist with local beliefs and practices and be present at
delivery to provide psychological support to the parturient while the delivery is conducted by
the midwife [22, 40]. Moreover, the TBAs are encouraged to refer pregnant women to the
midwife or health facility, and in return they receive a financial incentive. It is noteworthy that
the success of the transition from TBA to skilled birth attendant has been shown in West Java,
with the proportion of TBA-attended deliveries decreasing from over 80% in the IDHS report
of 2007 to 17% in 2013 [5, 9].
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SW SUMBA AND CIANJUR
In the above section we presented some similarities between SW Sumba and Cianjur,
particularly those related to barriers to and facilitators of maternal and child health services,
plural health-seeking behaviours related to maternal and child health as well as collaboration
between TBAs, kaders and VMWs in both districts. It is noteworthy that there are also
differences between the two districts:
VMWs: In Cianjur all VMWs live in their assigned villages. Several villages that we chose as
study sites have more than one VMW. In SW Sumba only three VMWs reside in their assigned
villages. The better availability of basic facilities such as clean water, electricity and
educational facilities such as kindergarten and primary school (for the children of the
midwives) in Cianjur may cause this phenomenon. Cianjur is a much older and better
developed district than SW Sumba. In addition, VMWs in villages in Cianjur with higher
attendance at ANC and facility delivery obtain more support from more varied stakeholders
(village head, the wife of village head, the PKK and the PNPM) compared to those in villages
in SW Sumba, who are merely supported by village heads.
Kaders: Kaders in villages that we chose as study sites in Cianjur are involved in more varied
programmes than their counterparts in SW Sumba, including their involvement in Healthy and
Smart Generation (GSC) organized by the PNPM. This programme is more available in Cianjur
then in SW Sumba. Again, this may be partly caused by the fact that Cianjur is a much older
and better developed district than SW Sumba.
TBAs: TBAs in Cianjur are generally more empowered than their counterparts in SW Sumba.
TBAs in Cianjur also receive greater financial or non-financial incentives for the services they
provide. In addition, compared to SW Sumba, there is a higher level of collaboration between
TBAs, kaders and VMWs in Cianjur.
Free insurance for facility delivery (Jampersal): There is also a stark difference regarding
Jampersal between Cianjur and SW Sumba. In the villages that we chose as study sites in
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Cianjur, VMWs may claim their incentives from Jampersal when they assist delivery in the
house of the parturient mother. This cannot be done in SW Sumba due to the local policy in
East Nusa Tenggara province, Maternal and Child Health Revolution.
Private midwife practices: In Cianjur there are numerous midwives who have private
practices. The higher level of availability of midwives and the greater financial capacity to pay
for private midwife practices may explain this situation.
Issues related to supplies and logistics: Issues related to supplies and logistics emerged more
clearly in SW Sumba than in Cianjur. These could be influenced by the more remote location
of SW Sumba and the fact that it is a newer and less developed district than Cianjur.
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CHAPTER 7 – IMPLICATIONS
FOR THE DRAFT FRAMEWORK
From the Indonesian context analysis data there are several implications for consideration
within the context analysis framework. These relate to the health system’s lack of
responsiveness to local practices which leads to the still high preference for TBA services and
home delivery. Another implication is the need to make more visible the potential and the
importance of strategic stakeholders (such as village heads) to support the work of CTC health
providers.
THE QUALITY IMPROVEMENT CYCLE
LOW HEALTH FACILITY DELIVERY RATES
We found common problems in our study in SW Sumba and Cianjur which need to be
prioritized i.e. low rates of delivery in a health facility. There are several factors contributing
to this problem, including the lack of consideration at health system level to the preference
for home delivery; poor perception of the benefit of facility delivery; a lack of birth
preparedness to overcome access barriers such as transport either by ambulance or other
ways; the cost of food and accommodation for family members in case of referral; and limited
communication and information about delivery from TBAs to midwives.
PREFERENCE FOR HOME DELIVERY
There are several factors that contribute to the preference for home delivery, such as the
poor response to community cultural practices within the existing health system and facilities
that leads to the preference for TBA assistance for delivery; poor road infrastructure leading
to poor access; non-functioning or a lack of communication services that also prevent timely
attendance at the health facilities for deliveries; and poor perception of the quality of facilitybased services. The poor perception of service quality is caused by a lack of flexibility in
accommodating local practices such as massage, hot baths and prayer recitations by TBAs, as
well as supply stock-outs and a lack of facilities and supervision from DHOs.
The preference for home delivery assisted by TBAs is also influenced by TBAs’ greater
responsiveness to cultural practices, their continuous support and presence during delivery,
community pressure to adopt local practices, and local customs related to delivery in which
the presence of TBA is considered obligatory. In addition, the preference for TBA services is
also caused by midwives’ limited proximity and availability compared to TBAs’. We have
presented in the findings that in SW Sumba in particular, there are several VMWs that do not
reside in their assigned village due to several factors such as the lack of basic facilities (e.g.
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housing, clean water, electricity), family reasons and the lack of educational facilities for their
children.
POOR PERCEPTION OF THE BENEFITS OF DELIVERY AT A HEALTH FACILITY
As can be seen in our findings and root cause analysis, a low level of community awareness
regarding delivery shapes the poor perception of the benefits of facility delivery. We also
found that the following factors may contribute to this situation: the perceived low risk to the
mother and baby with normal antenatal findings during pregnancy; mothers’ previous
experience of normal delivery and the lack of health promotion programmes in Posyandu; the
lack of a kader role outside Posyandu; and the lack of involvement of village authorities and
other important stakeholders (such as the PKK and the PNPM) in health promotion related to
the benefits of facility delivery and maternal health services.
INDIRECT COSTS
The indirect costs related to facility delivery may also contribute to the low rate of facility
delivery, including costs for accommodation and food for members of the family who
accompany the pregnant woman when they attend a health facility for delivery, as well as the
cost of using their own transport if an ambulance service is not available. These are costs not
covered by the Jampersal health insurance scheme provided by the government for free
delivery at health facilities.
LIMITED COMMUNICATIO N AND INFORMATION AB OUT DELIVERY FROM TBAS TO MIDWIVES
In addition, our findings and root cause analysis indicate that, despite the presence of a
certain degree of partnership between VMWs and TBAs in severel villages in SW Sumba and
Cianjur, limited communication and information about delivery from TBAs to midwives also
contributes to the low facility delivery rate in both districts.
POTENTIAL AREAS FOR INTERVENTION
Based on the abovementioned factors that contribute to the low rate of facility delivery in SW
Sumba and Cianjur, we recommend the following areas of interventions for improving the
performance of the CTC providers in the quality improvement cycle:
Coordination/referral: to initiate or support the three-way collaboration between VMWs,
Posyandu kaders and TBAs to facilitate timely referral of women in labour to attend a health
facility. This intervention is aimed at addressing the prevailing preference for home delivery
and limited communication and information about delivery from TBAs to midwives. This may
be achieved through regular monthly meetings. This mechanism could then be used to:
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


improve TBAs’ capacity and willingness to refer women, inform VMWs in advance of
an upcoming birth and accompany women for facility delivery, with an emphasis on
stimulating birth preparedness and capacity to refer;
follow up the Training Act as a supportive structure that can link to supervisory
support by sharing problems and possible solutions; and
provide a forum for regularly updating the skills of midwives and Posyandu kaders.
Health promotion: to improve the communication skills of CTC health providers such as
Posyandu kaders and VMWs to explain the benefits of ANC and facility delivery to pregnant
women. The intervention could, therefore, train providers to enhance their communication
skills and initiate discussion with women, supported by well-developed health promotion
materials. The aim would be to enable them to more effectively communicate with women
during ANC about the changes and developments in the health insurance scheme, on the
benefits of facility delivery, the risks despite a normal pregnancy etc.
Improve community support: to address traditional practices, decision-making and
preparedness for referral at birth. The features of the intervention could involve the
development of participatory learning and action in community groups with the aim of
generating reflection on decision-making and the development of action plans to overcome
barriers to accessing health facilities for delivery.
Cultural sensitivity: to give consideration to locally practised norms and acceptable services
such as the provision of hot baths after delivery at health facilities, to improve the
responsiveness of health services to local traditional practices that will encourage parturient
mothers to deliver at a health facility.
Support from strategic stakeholders: such as village authorities, the PKK and the PNPM to
become involved in and support maternal health services, and action plans developed by the
community.
Village transport: Encourage setting up a village transport network particularly for delivery
emergencies, with the involvement of key figures in the village such as the village head and
the PKK, and develop a reimbursement system for transport and family accommodation costs.
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Keluarga Sejahtera (PUSKA),. 2007, Faculty of Public Health, University of Indonesia, Jakarta.
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40. Titaley, C.R., M.J. Dibley, and C.L. Roberts, Type of delivery attendant, place of delivery and risk of
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ANNEXES
ANNEX 1. DEFINITION OF CTC PROVIDER
Definition of CTC provider
A CTC provider is a health worker who carries out promotional, preventive and/or curative
health services and who is first point of contact at community level. A CTC provider can be
based in the community or in a basic primary facility. A CTC provider has at least a minimum
level of training in the context of the intervention that they carry out and not more than two
or three years of para-professional training.
Some considerations and clarifications
CTC providers include a broad variety of health workers, including community health workers.
We will use the definition of lay health workers of Lewin et al. (2010) 1 , which refers to
community health workers (we will not use the term ‘lay health workers’, as they may be
regarded by some as having no training in the intervention). Other names that are used for
community health workers include, for example: village health workers, health promoters etc.
CTC providers also include auxiliary health workers. For auxiliary workers we use definitions
proposed by WHO.2
In REACHOUT, the focus is to improve the performance of CTC providers that have a link with
either the government or an NGO programme. For Mozambique, Malawi and Kenya these are
CHWs, and for Ethiopia these are the Health Extension Workers. The latter cadre has a one1
Lewin et al. (2010): definition of lay health worker: “Any health workers carrying out functions related to health
care delivery; trained in some way in the context of the intervention, and having no formal professional or
paraprofessional certificate or degree in tertiary education.”
2
WHO (2012): definition of auxiliary nurse: “Have some training in secondary school. A period of on-the job
training may be included, and sometimes formalised in apprenticeships. An auxiliary nurse has basic nursing
skills and no training in nursing decision-making. However, in different countries the level of training may vary
between few months to 2–3 years. Different names for this cadre are: auxiliary nurse, nurse assistant, enrolled
nurse (also called nurse technicians or associate nurses).”
Definition of auxiliary nurse midwife: “Have some training in secondary school. A period of on-the job training
may be included, and sometimes formalised inapprenticeships. Like an auxiliary nurse, an auxiliary nurse
midwife has basic nursing skills and no training in nursing decision making. Auxiliary nurse midwives assist in
the provision of maternal and newborn health care, particularly during childbirth but also in the prenatal and
postpartum periods. They possess some of the competencies in midwifery but are not fully qualified as
midwives.”
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year para-professional education and is employed by the government health services and,
therefore, could be regarded as falling within the WHO definition of an auxiliary worker.
For the purpose of the international literature review, it was necessary to develop the
definition of CTC provider with clear limits (mainly regarding educational level). Informal
providers are considered within the definition of CTC providers when they have a link with a
government or NGO programme and when they are trained. This is relevant for Bangladesh.
The definition of CTC providers excludes informal cadres such as community pharmacists,
informal private practitioners, traditional healers and TBAs who are not trained for an
intervention or who do not collaborate with other actors in the health system. The definition
also excludes cadres with tertiary education. This does not mean that they are completely
excluded from the REACHOUT literature review or processes; we will address the interactions
between CTC providers and these cadres. Nor are they excluded from the quality
improvement cycles.
What we include in the international literature review
In the international literature review we will particularly focus on the broad categories of
community health workers and auxiliary health workers. When it comes to other providers
(doctors, midwives and nurses with tertiary education who form a first contact with the
community) and informal cadres, we will include the interactions of community health
workers and auxiliary health workers with these cadres.
The table below contains some information on the cadres being included in the international
literature review:
Examples of cadres
and nomenclature
Auxiliary health workers
Community health workers










Auxiliary nurses
Nurse assistants
Enrolled nurses
Nurse technician
Associate nurses
Auxiliary nurse-midwives
Health extension workers




Lay health workers
Health promoters
Trained Traditional Birth
Attendants
Expert patient volunteers
Lay counsellors
Trained informal providers
Many more
Characteristics
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Auxiliary health workers
Residence
Community health workers
Often not living in community (as
catchment area often consists of
more than one community)
Often living in community, but
not always the case (catchment
area may consist of more
communities)
Selection
Not selected by community
Selected by community
(mostly)
(ideally) (and, in principle,
accountable to community)
Origin
Not necessarily coming from the
Coming from the community
community
(mostly)
Organizational set-up  Public sector and private
 Public and private sector
 Part of formal health system
 Some part of formal health
(government or NGO
system (government or
representing the government)
NGO)
 Others not part of but
collaborating with other
actors in the health system
Level of training
Formal para-professional training  Trained in some way
(some secondary schooling plus
related to intervention
on-the-job, apprenticeship) (may  No formal (parahave certificate)
professional) training
Remuneration
Paid/employed
Paid/employed or volunteer
REACHOUT countries and their CTC providers included in the research
Ethiopia
Health extension workers*
Volunteer community health
promoters
Indonesia
Village/community midwives**
Family planning volunteers
TBAs
Kenya
CHWs
Lay counsellors
Mozambique
CHWs
Malawi
 Health Surveillance
Assistants
 Community volunteers:
community home-based
care volunteers, health
promoters, village health
committee members (as
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Auxiliary health workers
Community health workers
health promoters), expert
patients
Bangladesh
CHWs
Trained informal providers
*Health extension workers are selected with the involvement of community and are
expected to live in the community. They kind of fall in between CHWs and auxiliaries.
**This cadre officially does not fall in the auxiliary cadre as defined by WHO.
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ANNEX 2. DRAFT FRAMEWORK
Major themes from the framework (see diagram below) on factors influencing CTC provider performance:
- Broad contextual factors
 Community factors
 Policy factors
- Health system factors
- Intervention design factors
 Human Resource Management
 Quality Assurance
 Monitoring & Evaluation
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ANNEX 3. SEARCH STRATEGY
We based our search strategy on Lewin 2010 but added CTC providers (CTC providers are
broader than LHWs and include for example also auxiliary staff and informal providers). We
combined CTC providers with the term ‘health’ (or ‘primary health care’) and with impact or
outcome measures and with specific search terms relating to either HRM, QA, M&E,
community or policy factors. Limiters were: from 2003 till now, English language and LMIC.
EMBASE search
Regarding Embase, we used Emtree terms to develop search terms, but while searching, we
did not use them as search terms as such, because the results are less if you do so. Reason is
that not all articles containing this term have been labeled. We searched for the terms in
whole text.
Searches CTC providers
Green = added to Lewin 2010.
#1
#2
#3
#4
#5
#6
#7
#8
'voluntary worker' OR 'voluntary workers' AND [humans]/lim AND [english]/lim
AND [2003-2013]/py
'paramedical personnel' AND [humans]/lim AND [english]/lim AND [2003-2013]/py
'health auxiliary' AND [humans]/lim AND [english]/lim AND [2003-2013]/py
'peer group' OR 'peer groups' AND [humans]/lim AND [english]/lim AND [20032013]/py
'health visitor' OR 'health visitors' AND [humans]/lim AND [english]/lim AND [20032013]/py
doula OR doulas OR douladural? AND [humans]/lim AND [english]/lim AND [20032013]/py
(lay OR voluntary OR volunteer OR volunteers OR untrained OR unlicensed OR
non+professionals OR non+professional OR nonprofessionals OR nonprofessional
OR 'non professional' OR 'non professionals' OR informal OR 'non formal' OR
non+formal) NEAR/5 (worker OR workers OR visitor OR visitors OR attendant OR
attendants OR aide OR aides OR support OR support* OR person* OR person OR
helper OR helpers OR carer OR carers OR caregiver OR caregivers OR consultant OR
consultants OR assistant OR assistants OR staff OR visit* OR visit OR midwife OR
midwives OR provider OR providers OR 'care giver' OR 'care givers' OR practitioner
OR practitioners) AND [humans]/lim AND [english]/lim AND [2003-2013]/py
paraprofessional OR paraprofessionals OR paramedic OR paramedics OR
'paramedical worker' OR 'paramedical workers' OR 'paramedical personnel' OR
'allied health personnel' OR 'allied health worker' OR 'allied health workers' OR
'support worker' OR 'support workers' OR 'home health aide' OR 'home health
aides' AND [humans]/lim AND [english]/lim AND [2003-2013]/py
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#9
#10
#11
#12
#13
#14
#15
#16
#17
#18
#19
#20
#21
#22
#23
#24
trained NEAR/3 (volunteer OR volunteers OR 'health worker' OR 'health workers'
OR mother OR mothers) AND [humans]/lim AND [english]/lim AND [2003-2013]/py
(community OR communities OR 'community based' OR village OR villages) NEAR/3
('health worker' OR 'health workers' OR 'health care worker' OR 'health care
workers' OR 'healthcare worker' OR 'healthcare workers' OR distributor OR
distributors) AND [humans]/lim AND [english]/lim AND [2003-2013]/py
(community OR communities OR 'community based') NEAR/3 (volunteer OR
volunteers OR aide OR aides OR support) AND [humans]/lim AND [english]/lim
AND [2003-2013]/py
(birth OR childbirth OR labor OR labour) NEXT/1 (attendant OR attendants OR
assistant OR assistants) AND [humans]/lim AND [english]/lim AND [2003-2013]/py
monitrice OR monitrices AND [humans]/lim AND [english]/lim AND [2003-2013]/py
(lay OR peer) NEXT/1 (volunteer OR volunteers OR mentor* OR mentor OR
counsel* OR support OR intervention OR interventions) AND [humans]/lim AND
[english]/lim AND [2003-2013]/py
'church based' NEAR/3 (intervention OR interventions OR program* OR program
OR counsel*) AND [humans]/lim AND [english]/lim AND [2003-2013]/py
linkworker OR linkworkers OR 'link worker' OR 'link workers' AND [humans]/lim
AND [english]/lim AND [2003-2013]/py
'barefoot doctor' OR 'barefoot doctors' AND [humans]/lim AND [english]/lim AND
[2003-2013]/py
outreach AND [humans]/lim AND [english]/lim AND [2003-2013]/py
home NEXT/1 (care OR aide OR aides OR nursing OR support OR intervention OR
interventions OR treatment OR treatments OR visit* OR visit) AND [humans]/lim
AND [english]/lim AND [2003-2013]/py
(care OR aide OR aides OR nursing OR support OR intervention OR interventions
OR treatment OR treatments OR visit* OR visit) NEAR/3 (lay OR volunteer OR
volunteers OR voluntary) AND [humans]/lim AND [english]/lim AND [20032013]/py
auxiliary NEAR/3 (worker OR workers OR nurse OR nurses OR midwives OR
midwife) AND [humans]/lim AND [english]/lim AND [2003-2013]/py
'expert patient' OR 'expert patients' OR 'health promoter' OR 'health promoters'
OR 'health extension worker' OR 'health extension workers' OR 'mentor mother'
OR 'mentor mothers' AND [humans]/lim AND [english]/lim AND [2003-2013]/py
#19 AND #20
#1 OR #2 OR #3 OR #4 OR #5 OR #6 OR #7 OR #8 OR #9 OR #10 OR #11 OR #12 OR
#13 OR #14 OR #15 OR #16 OR #17 OR #18 OR #21 OR #22 OR #23
Health or primary health care combined with impact and outcome measures
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#25 health AND (efficiency OR equity OR 'health care utilization' OR 'patient
compliance' OR 'patient attitude' OR 'patient attitudes' OR 'health care quality' OR
'patient satisfaction' OR 'cost effectiveness analysis' OR 'cost benefit analysis') AND
[humans]/lim AND [english]/lim AND [2003-2013]/py
#26 'primary health care' AND (efficiency OR equity OR 'health care utilization' OR
'patient compliance' OR 'patient attitude' OR 'patient attitudes' OR 'health care
quality' OR 'patient satisfaction' OR 'cost effectiveness analysis' OR 'cost benefit
analysis') AND [humans]/lim AND [english]/lim AND [2003-2013]/py
Searches related to HRM, QA, M&E, community and policy factors
#27 'performance appraisal' OR 'personnel selection' OR 'personnel recruitment' OR
'personnel turnover' OR 'staff development' OR workload OR remuneration OR
motivation OR incentive OR incentives OR disincentive OR disincentives OR 'job
satisfaction' OR 'job performance' OR retention OR supervision OR 'task+shifting'
OR 'task shifting' AND [humans]/lim AND [english]/lim AND [2003-2013]/py
#28 'quality assurance' OR 'continuing education' OR 'management quality circles' AND
[humans]/lim AND [english]/lim AND [2003-2013]/py
#29 'monitoring and evaluation' OR 'medical information system' OR 'medical
information systems' OR 'mobile health' OR mhealth OR ehealth AND [humans]/lim
AND [english]/lim AND [2003-2013]/py
#30 'community participation' OR ownership OR empowerment OR gender OR
accountability OR 'village health committees' OR 'village health commitee' AND
[humans]/lim AND [english]/limAND [2003-2013]/py
#31 decentralization AND [humans]/lim AND [english]/lim AND [2003-2013]/py
#32 #27 OR #28 OR #29 OR #30 OR #31
LMIC
#33 'low and middle income countries' OR lmic OR 'low income countries' OR 'low
income country' OR 'middle income countries' OR 'middle income country' OR
africa OR asia OR 'developing country' OR 'developing countries' AND [humans]/lim
AND [english]/lim AND [2003-2013]/py
Concluding searches
#34 #24 AND #25 AND #32 AND #33
#35 #24 AND #26 AND #32 AND #33
1539 hits
115 hits
After selection of articles based and title (and when doubt abstract): 242 out of 1539 for
abstract reading.
Next database searches: CENTRAL, SCOPUS and PUBMED.
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ANNEX 4. DATA COLLECTION TOOLS
CONSENT FORM
4. 1. 1. Consent Form – Indonesia
SURAT PERSETUJUAN
Saya bekerja di Lembaga Penelitian Eijkman yang saat ini bekerja sama dengan Dinas
Kesehatan Kabupaten, beserta 6 negara lain dan Fakultas Kedokteran Tropik Liverpool, Inggris
untuk mempelajari bagaimana meningkatkan program kesehatan ibu. Judul penelitian ini
ialah “Analisa konteks kinerja dan kesinambungan tenaga kesehatan di lini terdekat dengan
masyarakat untuk meningkatkan pelayanan kesehatan ibu di Indonesia.”
Sebagai bagian dari penelitian ini, kami akan mewawancara anda secara perorangan. Namun
sebelumnya kami akan menyampaikan informasi tentang penelitian ini lalu dilanjutkan
dengan wawancara. Hal-hal yang akan anda sampaikan berkaitan dengan kerja anda bersifat
penting untuk bisa mengatur dan meningkatkan pelayanan kesehatan ibu kepada masyarakat.
Penting bagi anda untuk memahami terlebih dahulu mengapa kami melakukanpenelitian ini
dan terkait dengan apa saja.
Apabila anda tidak mengerti mohon disampaikan dan saya akan menjelaskan. Jika anda
memiliki pertanyaan tentang penelitian ini, saya akan meninggalkan nomor telepon dan anda
bisa menghubungi saya.
Tujuan Penelitian
Kami ingin mempelajari tentang tenaga kesehatan di lini pertama (kader kesehatan, bidan
atau perawat desa, dukun bayi) dan peran mereka dalam program kesehatan ibu. Kami juga
ingin menggalisaran-saran anda untuk pemerintah dan organisasi non pemerintah dalam
mendukung kerja mereka dalam peningkatan pelayanan kesehatan ibu.
Siapa saja yang bergabung dalam penelitian ini
Kami akan memilih dan mewawancara beberapa informan kunci seperti ibu, bidan atau
perawat desa, tenaga sukarela desa (kader posyandu), dukun bayi, suami, perangkat desa atau
kepala desa, bidan coordinator, kepala Puskesmas, dan petugas kesehatan ibu dan anak di
dinas kesehatan kabupaten.
Apa yang kami harapkan dari anda
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Bila setuju, kami akan mewawancara anda hari ini. Hal-hal yang akan ditanyakan meliputi 1)
Pengetahuan anda, dan hubungan anda dengan tenaga kesehatan lini terdepan (kader
kesehatan, bidan atau perawat desa, dukun bayi), 2) Pandangan anda terhadap peran tenaga
kesehatan tersebut dalam program kesehatan ibu, 3) Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi peran
tenaga kesehatan tersebut, dan 4) Saran anda untuk meningkatkan kinerja mereka.
Wawancara berlangsung selama 1.5 – 2 jam. Kami ingin belajar dari anda. Karena itu penting
bagi kami bahwa anda merasa bebas nyaman menjawab pertanyaandan bahwa anda
mengerti tentang pentingnya pendapat dan ide anda bagi kami.
Risiko dan manfaat berpartisipasi dalam penelitian ini
Tidak ada manfaat langsung bagi anda yang berpartisipasi dalam studi ini, namun kami
berharap penelitian ini berkontribusi dalam meningkatkan pelayanan kesehatan ibu bagi
masyarakat Indonesia di masa yang akan datang. Kami akan mengidentikasi masalah-masalah
dalam peningkatkan kerja dan pelayanan anda di bidang kesehatan ibu. Kami meminta
partisipasi anda dalam penelitian ini setelah mendapatkan persetujuan dari Komite Etik
Lembaga Penelitian Eijkman di Jakarta dan ijin dari Dinas Kesehatan terkait.
Bila saya memutuskan untuk berpartisipasi
Anda tidak perlu berpartisipasi bila anda memutuskan demikian. Anda bebas memutuskan
karena partisipasi anda bersifat sukarela.Sebelum memutuskan, jangan ragu bertanya
mengenai apa yang sudah kami sampaikan sebelumnya. Bila setuju kami akan meminta anda
menandatangani formulir yang menunjukkan bahwa kami telah menjelaskan kepada anda
tentang penelitian ini dan anda bersedia utuk berpartisipasi.
Bila saya memutuskan untuk tidak berpartisipasi
Anda bebas untuk menolak berpartisipasi atau tidak menjawab pertanyaan tertentu. Selama
wawancara, anda bisa meminta saya untuk berhenti. Partisipasi anda juga bisa dibatalkan
kapan saja. Pekerjaan anda tidak akan terpengaruh karena hal tersebut.
Informasi yang diperoleh bersifat rahasia
Kami akan mengumpulkan informasi dari semua partisipan penelitian. Nama anda akan
tertulis hanya di lembar persetujuan yang akan disimpan dengan baik, terpisah dari hasil
wawancara dan diskusi. Hanya orang-orang tertentu yang berwenang mengakses berkas
tersebut. Untuk memastikan data penelitian digunakan secara benar, informasi yang kami
dapat akan direkam dengan alat perekam dan catatan pendek.Nama anda tidak akan
disebutkan dalam rekaman tersebut, tidak ditulis dan tidak diketik. Tidak akan ada orang yang
akan tahu hal-hal apa saja yang kita diskusikan.
Prosedur
Wawancara akan dilakukan di tempat tertutup dimana diskusi tidak didengar oleh orang lain.
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Kontak bila anda memiliki pertanyaan atau kekhawatiran
Bila ada memiliki kekhawatiran atau pertanyaan berkaitan dengan topik wawancara dan
diskusi,anda bisa menghubungi Dr. Syafruddin di Lembaga Penelitian Eijkman di Jakarta di
nomor telepon +62-81315093271.
DEKLARASI: UNTUK DITANDATANGANI OLEH PARTISIPAN
1. Saya setuju bahwa saya sudah membaca tentang informasi ( mengerti informasi
verbal yang telah dijelaskan kepada saya) yang menjelaskan latar belakang penelitian
dan prosedur yang akan saya jalani
2. Saya mengerti bahwa saya bebas memilih untuk berpartisipasi atau tidak dalam
penelitian ini dan tidak ada tekanan atas diri saya untuk berpartisipasi.
3. Semua pertanyaan saya mengenai penelitian telah dijelaskan kepada saya
4. Saya mengerti bahwa saya bisa meminta agar wawancara berhenti dan wawancara
tersebut akan berhenti atas permintaan saya
Mohon untuk memberi tanda (√) pada kotak yang tersedia
Ya Tdk
1. Saya bersedia untuk berpartisipasi
2. Saya setuju bahwa kutipan dan hasiI penelitian lain dari partisipasi saya dimasukkan
secara anonim dalam laporan apapun berkaitan dengan penelitian ini.
___________________________________________________________________________
Tanda tangan Tanggal
TANDA TANGAN SAKSI
___________________________________________________
Tanda tangan
Tanggal
Cap Jempol Partisipan
Jika anda memiliki pertanyaan atau ingin mengajukan keluhan, anda bisa menghubungi:
Nama organisasi bertanggung jawab atas
Nama Komite Etik di Indonesia
penelitian di Indonesia
Lembapa Penelitian Biomolekuler Eijkman
Komite Etik Eijkman
Jl Diponegoro 69
Jl Diponegoro 69
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Jakarta 10430
4. 1. 2. Consent Form – English
Jakarta 10430
CONSENT FORM
I am working for the Eijkman Institute who is doing a study with the District Health Office and
6 other partner countries and the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, UK to learn ways to
improve the maternal health program. Our study title is “Context Analysis of the performance
and sustainability of close-to-community (CTC) providers to improve CTC maternal health
services in Indonesia.”
As part of this study we are going to interview you individually, but before doing this we want
to give you more information about our study. After that I will invite you to join the interviews.
What you tell us about your work in the program is important to better organize and improve
the services offered to your community by the maternal health program. It is important that
you understand why we are doing this study and what it involves.
If there is anything you do not understand please stop me and ask questions and I will explain.
If you have any questions later about the study I will leave my phone number and you may
call me.
Purpose of study
We want to learn about the CTC provider and their work in the maternal health programme.
We want to understand your suggestions to be considered in the way the government and
non-government organisations support their work and ways to improve their service to
improve the programme.
Who is being asked to join the study
We are asking several key informants to join the interview: mothers, village midwives/ nurses,
village health volunteers (Posyandu Kader), Traditional Birth Attendances (TBAs), husbands,
village authorities (village head), midwives coordinators, Puskesmas head, and Maternal and
Child Health District Health Officers.
What are we asking from you
If you agree we will like to interview you today. We will ask you questions about 1) Your
knowledge about and relation with the CTC providers 2) Your views about their work related
with maternal health 3) Factors influencing the CTC providers’ work in maternal health, and
4) Your suggestions to be considered to improve their work. Our interviews would last about
1.5- 2 hours. We are here to learn from you and it is therefore important for us that you feel
free to answer in a way you feel most appropriate and that you understand all your opinions
and ideas are valuable for us.
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What are the risks and benefits of joining the study
There will be no direct benefit to you by agreeing to join the interviews but we are hoping it
can contribute to better maternal health service for the Indonesian community in the future.
We are identifying issues in order to help optimise your work and the service offered to the
maternal health programme. We have approached you to take part in this study after
obtaining approval from the Ethical Committee of the Eijkman Institute in Jakarta and the
permission of the District Health Office.
What happens if I decide join
You do not have to take part if you do not wish to. You are free to decide to take part in the
study. Your participation is voluntary. Before deciding to take part to support our study please
feel free to ask questions about what we have just told you. If you agree we will ask you to
sign a form to show that we have explained to you about the study and that you volunteered
to participate
What happens if I decide not to join
You are free to refuse to join or to respond to any questions that you do not want to answer.
Anytime during the discussion you can ask me to stop. If you decide not take part or withdraw
you can do so anytime. Your work in the programme or organization will not be affected in
anyway
Information collected is confidential
We will bring together what everybody is telling us. Your name will only be recorded on the
consent form, which will be kept locked up and separate from the interviews and discussions.
Only authorized persons have access to it. To make sure that the information is correctly used
the conversation will be recorded on a tape recorder in addition to taking notes. Your name
will not be mentioned in relation to anything that will be said, written down and taped.No
one will be able to identify what exactly we discussed.
Procedures
The interview or FGD will be conducted in a private place where nobody can hear what is said.
Contacts if you have any further questions or concerns
If you have any concerns or questions about the questions we are asking you may contact
Dr. Syafruddin at the Eijkman Institute in Jakarta on his phone +62-81315093271.
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DECLARATION: TO BE SIGNED BY THE RESPONDENT GIVING CONSENT
1. I agree that I have read the information (have understood the verbal information)
that explains the reason for the study and procedures I will be asked
2. I understand that I am free to choose to participate or not to participate in the study
and that no pressure is put on me participate
3. All questions I had about the study has been explained to me
4. I understand that I can request to stop questioning any time and that it will be
stopped on my request
Please tick (√)in the correct box
Y
N
1. I agree to participate
2. I do agree that quotes or other results arising from my participation being included
even anonymously in any reports about the study.
___________________________________________________________________________
Signed
Date
WITNESS SIGNATURE
___________________________________________________
Signed
Date
Thumbprint respondent
If you have any questions or want to file a complaint about the research you may contact:
Name organization responsible for the study
Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology
Jl Diponegoro 69
Jakarta 10430
Name Ethics Committee in country
Eijkman Ethics Commitee
Jl Diponegoro 69
Jakarta 10430
6 4.2. PARTICIPANT INFORMATION SHEET
4. 2. 1. Participant Information Sheet – Indonesian
4. 2. 1. 1. SSI Village midwife and Kader
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Lembar rekaman pengumpulan data Bidan Desa dan Kader
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Lembar Informasi Bidan Desa dan Kader
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4. 2. 1. 2. SSI TBA
Lembar Informasi Penolong Persalinan Tradisional (Dukun bayi)
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4. 2. 1. 3. SSI Mother
Lembar Informasi Ibu
4. 2. 1. 4. SSI Village Head
Lembar Informasi Tokoh Desa
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4. 2. 1. 5. SSI Midwife Coordinator, Puskesmas Head, and DHO MCH Officer
Lembar Informasi Health Manager
4. 2. 1. 6. FGD Husband/Men
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4. 2. 1. 7. FGD TBA (Cianjur)
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4. 2. 1. 8. FGD Midwives (SW Sumba)
4. 2. 2. Participant Information Sheet – English
4. 2. 2. 1. SSI Village midwife and Kader
Data Collection Form for Village Midwife and Kader
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Information Sheet for Village Midwife and Kader
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4. 2. 2. 2. SSI TBA
Information Sheet for TBA
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4. 2. 2. 3. SSI Mother
Information Sheet for Mother
4. 2. 2. 4. SSI Village Head
Information Sheet for Village Head
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4. 2. 2. 5. SSI Midwife Coordinator, Puskesmas Head, and DHO MCH Officer
Information Sheet for Health Manager
4. 2. 2. 6. FGD Husband/Men
Information Sheet for Husband
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4. 2. 2. 7. FGD TBA (only in Cianjur)
Information Sheet for TBA
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4. 2. 2. 8. FGD Village Midwives (only in SW Sumba)
Information Sheet for Village Midwife
7 4.3. INTERVIEW GUIDELINES INDONESIAN
4.3.1. SEMI-STRUCTURED INTERVIEW
4. 3. 1. 1. SSI Village Midwife
Panduan wawancara Bidan Desa
Tugas dan Klien
1. Bagaimana ceritanya anda menjadi bidan/perawat desa dan bekerja di sini?
2. Dapatkah Anda memberikan gambaran tentang pekerjaan anda?
Jajaki tentang:
 Jenis-jenis tugas (SaatPosyandudan di luarPosyandu)
 Alasan mengapa menjadi bidan/perawat desa
3. Dari mana sajaasal masyarakat yang anda layani?
(Gunakan/gambar peta setempat untuk meminta informan menunjukkan dari wilayah
mana masyarakat yang mereka layani)
Jajaki tentang:
 Apa motivasi atau alasan mereka menggunakan pelayanan Anda?
 Apa motivasi atau alasan mereka tidak menggunakan pelayanan Anda?
 Layanan apa yang paling banyak dipakai masyarakat? (poliklinik umum, pelayanan
kesehatan ibu, dll)
 Sesuai pengalaman anda, apa yang dilakukan para ibu didesa ini saat:
- Kehamilan. Apakah memeriksakan diri? Kemana? Mengapa?
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- Persalinan. Dimana? Mengapa?
- Pasca persalinan. Apakah memeriksakan diri? Dimana? Mengapa?
- Keluarga berencana. Apakah melakukan KB? Dimana? Mengapa?
 Layanan apa yang banyak digunakan para ibu?(ANC, persalinan, PNC, keluarga
berencana) Mengapa?
 Layanan apa yang kurang digunakan para ibu? (ANC, persalinan, PNC, keluarga
berencana) Mengapa?
Motivasi dan kepuasan kerja
4. Bagaimana pendapat anda tentang pekerjaan anda sekarang? Apakah anda puas?
Mengapa? Pekerjaan apa yang anda merasa puas? Mengapa? Apa contohnya?
Pekerjaan apa yang anda merasa tidak puas? Mengapa? Apa contohnya
Jajaki tentang:
 Insentif non-finansial (kepercayaan dari masyarakat, dukungan dari masyarakat,
status sosial)
 Bagaimana respons masyarakat tentang pelayanan informan? Contohnya?
 Apa yang masyarakat sukai dari layanan anda? Mengapa ? Contohnya?
 Apa yang masyarakat kurang sukai dari layanan anda? Mengapa ? Apa contohnya?
 Insentif finansial (pendapatan rutin)
 Perasaan tentang insentif finansial tersebut
 Pekerjaan lain, pemasukan lain?
Mutu Pelayanan
5. Menurut anda, apakah pelayanan kesehatan yang bermutu itu?. Mintalah informan
untuk memberi contoh pelayanan yang menurut informan telah dilakukan dengan mutu
yang baik dan kurang baik. Hal-hal apa yang mendukung anda untuk bisa bekerja
dengan baik? Mengapa? Hal-hal apa yang menghambat anda untuk bisa bekerja
dengan baik? Mengapa?
Tanyakan berkali2 pertanyaan ini, bila belum muncul, tanyakan faktor pendukung dan
penghambat informan dalam bekerja:
o Anda telah menjelaskan tentang tugas-tugas anda sebelumnya, bagaimana perasaan
anda atas beban kerja tersebut?
o Bagaimanakah infrastruktur tempat kerja anda?,
o Bagaimana lingkungan pekerjaan (kolega, atasan) anda?
o Bagaimana kondisi keamanan di tempat kerja anda? Bagaimana perasaan anda atas
hal tersebut?
o Bagaimana rencana karir di masa depan?
o Bagaimana perasaan anda atas pedoman-pedoman tindakan medis yang ada?
Supervisi
6. Bagaimana pengalaman anda tentang supervisi yang anda terima?
Jajaki:
- siapa supervisor-nya,
- kapan terakhir menerima supervisi,
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- seberapa sering supervisi dilakukan?
- bagaimana supervisi dilakukan, apa-apa saja yang dilakukan dalam supervisi? Jajaki:
diskusi target-target program, pelaporan
- Bagaimana umpan balik dilakukan?
- bagaimana dukungan pemecahan masalah (termasuk dukungan sosial). Mengapa?
Contohnya?
- bagaimana ketrampilan anda setelah supervisi? Contohnya?
- bagaimana pandangan tentang supervisi tersebut? Mengapa? Apa contohnya yang
bermanfaat? Apa contohnya yang kurang bermanfaat?
M&E
7. Bagaimana pencatatan dan pelaporan dari pelayanan kesehatan ibu yang anda alami
selama ini?
Tanyakan dulu berkali-kali. Bila belum keluar saat wawancara, baru jajaki tentang:
- Bagaimana cara pencatatan dan pelaporan anda? Hal-hal apa yang dilaporkan?
- Bagaimana laporan anda dikirimkan? Menggunakan alat apa?
- Siapa yang memberikan umpan balik? Bagaimana umpan balik dilakukan? Apa
bentuk umpan baliknya? Contoh bagaimana umpan balik diterapkan?
- Bagaimana pandangan anda tentang sistem pelaporan dan umpan baliknya? Apa ada
manfaat? Mengapa? Apa contohnya? Apa ada yang kurang bermanfaat? Mengapa?
Apa contohnya?
Hubungan dengan sistem kesehatan (termasuk kolega) dan pemuka masyarakat
8. Ketika anda menghadapi persoalan dalam pelayanan kesehatan, dengan pihak mana
anda berkomunikasi?
Jajaki tentang:
- Dengan siapa anda berkomunikasi?
- Berapa kali / seberapa sering anda berkomunikasi dengannya?
- Dimana atau apa alat / medianya?
- Siapa yang menyediakan alatnya?
- Bagaimana komunikasinya? Berikan contoh2 hal yang dikomunikasikan
- Apakah anda senang dengan komunikasi ini? Apa yang disenangi? Beri
contohnya.Mengapa? Apa yang kurang disenangi? Beri contohnya. Mengapa?
- Apakah komunikasi tersebut bermanfaat bagi kinerja anda?
9. Bagaimana anda berinteraksi dengan pemuka desa, staf puskesmas, rumah sakit dan
dinas kesehatan
Jajaki tentang: forum, frekuensi, isi pertemuan
10. Bagaimana anda menangani kasus yang perlu dirujuk selama
inidaritingkatdesakePuskesmas?
Jajaki tentang:
- Jenis kasus apa yang selama ini anda rujuk? Berikan contohnya (Kasus kebidanan,
Kasus umum,gawat dan gawat darurat) Mengapa anda merujuknya?
- Berapa sering anda perlu merujuk?
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- Fasilitas kesehatan mana yang dituju? Mengapa?
- Bagaimana cara anda merujuk?
- Apa yang cukup baik dalam rujukan itu? Mengapa?
- Hambatan apa yang dihadapi? Apa yang anda lakukan kemudian?
11. Bagaimana pendapat anda tentang dukun bayi? Yang baik apa contohnya? yang kurang
baik apa contohnya?
Jajaki:
- Bagaimana hubungan anda dengan dukun bayi selama ini? Mengapa? Beri
contohnya.
- Bagaimana anda melihat potensi kemitraan anda dengan dukun bayi? Apakah
kemitraan tersebut pernah anda coba? Apa yang terjadi kemudian?
- Bagaimana tanggapan masyarakat atas pekerjaan yang dilakukan dukun bayi?
12. Apakah anda pernah mendengar tentang sunat anak perempuan?
Siapa yang melakukan sunat? Alasannya? Ceritakan tentang proses sunat perempuan.
(Pertanyaan hanya di Cianjur).
13. Bagaimana pendapat anda tentang kader? Yang baik apa contohnya, yang kurang baik
apa contohnya?
Bagaimana pendapat anda tentang “kesukarelaan” dari kader dan kaitannya dengan
mutu pelayanan.
Bagaimana cara memantau mutu pelayanan kader? Siapa pihak yang berwenang
memantau mutu?
Apakah masyarakat ikut serta dalam memantau pelayanan kader? Bagaimana?
Jajaki:
- Bagaimana hubungan anda dengan kader selama ini? Beri contohnya.
- Bagaimana anda melihat potensi kemitraan anda dengan kader? Apakah kemitraan
tersebut pernah anda coba? Apa yang terjadi kemudian?
- Bagaimana tanggapan masyarakat atas pekerjaan yang dilakukan kader?
Keterlibatan dalam masyarakat
14. Bagaimana hubungan anda dengan komunitas? Contohnya ? Mengapa?
15. Bagaimana anda menjalin dan membina hubungan tersebut? Contohnya?
16. Bagaimana penempatan bidan desa disini?
Jajaki:
- Apakah masyarakat berperan dalam proses penempatan bidan desa tersebut?
Bagaimana bentuk keterlibatan tersebut?
- Bagaimana penilaian kinerja bidan?
- Apakah masyarakat ikut memantau kinerja bidan? Bagaimana?
Pemekaran(hanya di SW Sumba)
17. Sumba Barat Daya terbentuk sebagai pemekaran dari Sumba Barat. Apakah anda
melihat perbedaan pelayanan kesehatan sebelum dan sesudah pemekaran?
Revolusi KIA(hanya di SW Sumba)
18. Apakah anda pernah mendengar tentang revolusi KIA?
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Revolusi KIA merupakan kebijakan NTT untuk menurunkan angka kematian ibu dan bayi
baru lahir dengan mewajibkan ibu melahirkan di fasilitas kesehatan
Bagaimana menurut anda pelaksanaan kegiatannya di tingkat desa?
Apakah anda melihat perbedaan dengan masa sebelum peraturan ini diberlakukan?Apa
perbedaan tersebut? Bagaimana bisa terjadi perbedaan itu?
Saran
19. Menurut anda, hal-hal apa yang perlu dan memungkinkan untuk dilakukan supaya tugas
anda dalam pelayanan kesehatan ibu bisa lebih baik?
4. 3. 1. 2. SSI Kader
Panduan Wawancara Kader
Tugas dan Klien
1. Dapatkah Anda memberikan gambaran tentang pekerjaan anda?
Jajaki tentang:
- Mengapa anda memutuskan menjadi kader?
- Jenis-jenis tugassehari-hari
2. Siapakah masyarakat yang anda layani?
Jajaki tentang:
o Apa motivasi atau alasan mereka menggunakan pelayanan Anda?
o Apa motivasi atau alasan mereka tidak menggunakan pelayanan Anda?
o Sesuai pengalaman anda, apa yang dilakukan para ibu disini saat:
o Kehamilan. Apakah memeriksakan diri? Kemana? Mengapa?
o Persalinan. Dimana? Mengapa?
o Pasca persalinan. Apakah memeriksakan diri? Dimana? Mengapa?
o Keluarga berencana. Apakah melakukan KB? Dimana? Mengapa?
Motivasi dan kepuasan kerja
3. Bagaimana pendapat anda tentang pekerjaan anda sekarang? Apakah anda puas?
Mengapa? Pekerjaan apa yang anda merasa puas? Mengapa? Apa contohnya?
Pekerjaan apa yang anda merasa tidak puas? Mengapa? Apa contohnya?
Jajaki tentang:
 Insentif non-finansial (kepercayaan dari masyarakat, dukungan dari masyarakat,
status sosial)
 Insentif finansial (pendapatan rutin)
 Perasaan tentang insentif tersebut
 Pekerjaan lain, pemasukan lain?
Mutu Pelayanan
4. Menurut anda, apakah pelayanan kesehatan oleh kader bermutu itu?. Mintalah
informan untuk memberi contoh pelayanan yang selama ini menurut informan telah
dilakukan dengan mutu yang baik dan kurang baik.
Hal-hal apa yang selama ini mendukung anda untuk bisa bekerja dengan baik?
Mengapa?
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Hal-hal apa yang selama ini menghambat anda untuk bisa bekerja dengan baik?
Mengapa?
Apa pendapat anda tentang “kesukarelaan” dan kaitannya dengan mutu pelayanan
anda
Tanyakan berkali2 pertanyaan ini, bila belum muncul, tanyakan faktor pendukung dan
penghambat informan dalam bekerja:
o Anda telah menjelaskan tentang tugas-tugas anda sebelumnya, bagaimana perasaan
anda atas beban kerja tersebut?
o Bagaimanakah infrastruktur (fasilitas, alat, sarana) tempat kerja anda?
o Bagaimana lingkungan pekerjaan (kolega, atasan) anda?
o Bagaimana kondisi keamanan di tempat kerja anda? Bagaimana perasaan anda atas
hal tersebut?
Hubungan dengan sistem kesehatan dan pemuka masyarakat
5. Ketika anda menghadapi persoalan dalam melaksanakan tugas anda, dengan pihak
mana anda berkomunikasi?
Tanyakan dulu berkali-kali. Bila belum keluar saat wawancara, baru jajaki tentang:
a. Dengan siapa anda berkomunikasi?
b. Berapa kali / seberapa sering anda berkomunikasi dengannya?
c. Dimana atau apa alat / medianya?
d. Siapa yang menyediakan alatnya?
e. Bagaimana komunikasinya? Berikan contoh2 hal yang dikomunikasikan
f. Apakah anda senang dengan komunikasi ini? Apa yang disenangi? Beri
contohnya.Mengapa? Apa yang kurang disenangi? Beri contohnya. Mengapa?
g. Apakah komunikasi tersebut bermanfaat bagi kinerja anda?
6. Bagaimana anda berinteraksi dengan pemuka desa, staf puskesmas, rumah sakit dan
dinas kesehatan. Jajaki tentang: forum, frekuensi, isi pertemuan
7. Pernahkah anda melakukan rujukan? Beri contohnya.
Jajaki tentang:
- Jenis kasus apa yang selama ini anda rujuk? (Kasus kebidanan, Kasus umum, dan
gawat darurat) Mengapa anda merujuknya?
- Berapa sering anda perlu merujuk?
- Fasilitas kesehatan mana yang dituju? Mengapa?
- Bagaimana cara anda merujuk?
- Apa yang cukup baik dalam rujukan itu? Mengapa?
- Hambatan apa yang dihadapi? Apa yang anda lakukan kemudian?
Supervisi
8. Bagaimana pengalaman anda tentang pemantauan kerja yang anda terima?
Jajaki:
- siapa pemantau kerjanya,
- kapan terakhir menerima pantauan kerja
- seberapa seringpemantauan kerja dilakukan?
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- bagaimana pemantauan kerja dilakukan, apa-apa saja yang dilakukan dalam
pemantauan kerja?
- Bagaimana umpan balik dilakukan?
- bagaimana dukungan pemecahan masalah (termasuk dukungan sosial). Mengapa?
Contohnya?
- bagaimana ketrampilan anda setelah disupervisi? Mengapa? Contohnya?
- bagaimana pandangan anda tentang supervisi tersebut? Mengapa? Apa contohnya
yang bermanfaat? Apa contohnya yang kurang bermanfaat?
M&E
9. Bagaimana pencatatan dan pelaporan dari pelayanan kesehatan ibu yang anda alami
selama ini?
Tanyakan dulu berkali-kali. Bila belum keluar saat wawancara, baru jajaki tentang:
- Bagaimana cara pencatatan dan pelaporan anda? Hal-hal apa yang dilaporkan?
- Bagaimana laporan anda dikirimkan? Menggunakan alat apa?
- Siapa yang memberikan umpan balik? Bagaimana umpan balik dilakukan? Apa
bentuk umpan baliknya? Contoh bagaimana umpan balik diterapkan?
- Bagaimana pandangan anda tentang sistem pelaporan dan umpan baliknya? Apa ada
manfaat? Mengapa? Apa contohnya? Apa ada yang kurang bermanfaat? Mengapa?
Apa contohnya?
Persepsi tentang petugas kesehatan
10. Bagaimana pendapat anda tentang bidan/perawat desa?
Bisa anda ceritakan tentang bidan di desa ini?
Bagaimana menurut anda tentang kinerja bidan desa? (Perawat desa bila bidan tidak ada)
Apa saja tugas mereka?
Tugas mana yang dikerjakan dengan baik? Mengapa? Hal apa yang membuat tugas
tersebut dikerjakan dengan baik? Contohnya?
Tugas mana yang kurang dikerjakan dengan baik? Mengapa? Hal apa yang membuat
tugas tersebut tidak dikerjakan dengan baik? Contohnya?
Bila belum muncul saat wawancara, jajaki :
- Usia
- Asal
- Kompetensi klinis
- Sikap
- Alat medis
- Situasi tempat bersalin (privasi, kebersihan,dll)
- Alat komunikasi (telepon genggam)
- Sistem rujukan
11. Bagaimana menurut anda supaya layanan bidan dalam kesehatan ibu lebih bermanfaat
bagi masyarakat desa?
12. Bagaimana kerjasama antara bidan dan anda? Contohnya? Apakah kerja sama tersebut
pernah anda coba? Apa yang terjadi kemudian?
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13. Hal apa yang akan membuat anda senang untung merujuk persalinan ke bidan?
Persepsi tentang dukun bayi
14. Siapa saja dukun bayi di desa ini?
15. Apa pendapat anda tentang dukun bayi di desa ini?
16. Apa saja yang mereka lakukan sebagai dukun bayi ?
Bila belum muncul jajaki: kehamilan, persalinan, pasca persalinan, perawatan bayi,
membantu rumah tangga atau yang lain
Menurut anda, hal apa yang dikerjakan dengan baik? Mengapa? Contohnya?
Hal apa yang membuat tugas tersebut dikerjakan dengan baik? Mengapa? Contohnya?
Menurut anda, hal apa yang dikerjakan dengan kurang baik? Mengapa? Contohnya?
Bila belum muncul saat wawancara, jajaki :
- Usia
- Kompetensi klinis
- Sikap
- Alat medis
- Situasi tempat bersalin (privasi, kebersihan,dll)
- Alat komunikasi (telepon genggam)
- Sistem rujukan
17. Apakah anda pernah mendengar tentang sunat anak perempuan?
Siapa yang melakukan sunat? Alasannya? Ceritakan tentang proses sunat perempuan.
(Pertanyaan hanya di Cianjur).
18. Bagaimana menurut anda supaya layanan dukun bayi bisa lebih baik?
19. Bagaimana kerja sama antara anda dan dukun bayi? Contohnya. Apakah kerja sama
tersebut pernah anda coba? Apa yang terjadi kemudian?
Pemekaran(hanya di SW Sumba)
20. Sumba Barat Daya terbentuk sebagai pemekaran dari Sumba Barat. Apakah anda
melihat perbedaan pelayanan kesehatan sebelum dan sesudah pemekaran?
Revolusi KIA(hanya di SW Sumba)
21. Apakah anda pernah mendengar tentang revolusi KIA?
Revolusi KIA merupakan kebijakan NTT untuk menurunkan angka kematian ibu dan bayi
baru lahir dengan mewajibkan ibu melahirkan di fasilitas kesehatan
Bagaimana menurut anda pelaksanaan kegiatannya di tingkat desa?
Apakah anda melihat perbedaan dengan masa sebelum peraturan ini diberlakukan?Apa
perbedaan tersebut? Bagaimana bisa terjadi perbedaan itu?
Saran
22. Menurut anda, hal-hal apa yang perlu dan memungkinkan untuk dilakukan supaya tugas
anda dalam pelayanan kesehatan ibu bisa lebih baik?
4. 3. 1. 3. SSI TBA (only in SW Sumba)
Panduan Wawancaran Dukun Bayi
Tugas dan Klien
1. Dapatkah Anda memberikan gambaran tentang pekerjaan anda?
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Jajaki tentang:
- Bagaimana ceritanya anda menjadi dukun bayi?
- Jenis-jenis tugas (untuk dukun bayi jajaki: kehamilan, persalinan, pasca persalinan,
perawatan bayi, dll)
2. Siapakah masyarakat yang anda layani? Gali profil masyarakat yang biasanya dilayani
dukun bayi
Jajaki tentang:
o Apa motivasi atau alasan mereka menggunakan pelayanan Anda?
o Apa motivasi atau alasan mereka tidak menggunakan pelayanan Anda?
o Sesuai pengalaman anda, apa yang dilakukan para ibu disini saat:
o Kehamilan. Apakah memeriksakan diri? Kemana? Mengapa?
o Persalinan. Dimana? Mengapa?
o Pasca persalinan. Apakah memeriksakan diri? Dimana? Mengapa?
o Keluarga berencana. Apakah melakukan KB? Dimana? Mengapa?
Motivasi dan kepuasan kerja
3. Bagaimana pendapat anda tentang pekerjaan anda sekarang? Apakah anda puas?
Mengapa? Pekerjaan apa yang anda merasa puas? Mengapa? Apa contohnya?
Pekerjaan apa yang anda merasa tidak puas? Mengapa? Apa contohnya?
Jajaki tentang:
 Insentif non-finansial (kepercayaan dari masyarakat, dukungan dari masyarakat,
status sosial)
 Insentif finansial (pendapatan rutin)
 Perasaan tentang insentif tersebut
 Pekerjaan lain, pemasukan lain?
Mutu Pelayanan
4. Menurut anda,bagaimana pelayanan dukun bayi yang baik itu?. Mintalah informan
untuk memberi contoh pelayanan yang menurut informan telah dilakukan dengan baik
dan kurang baik.
Hal-hal apa yang mendukung anda untuk bisa bekerja dengan baik? Mengapa?
Hal-hal apa yang menghambat anda untuk bisa bekerja dengan baik? Mengapa?
Hubungan dengan sistem kesehatan dan pemuka masyarakat
5. Ketika anda menghadapi persoalan dalam membantu persalinan, dengan pihak mana
anda berkomunikasi?
Tanyakan dulu berkali-kali. Bila belum keluar saat wawancara, baru jajaki tentang:
a. Dengan siapa anda berkomunikasi?
b. Berapa kali / seberapa sering anda berkomunikasi dengannya?
c. Dimana atau apa alat / medianya?
d. Siapa yang menyediakan alatnya?
e. Bagaimana komunikasinya? Berikan contoh2 hal yang dikomunikasikan
f. Apakah anda senang dengan komunikasi ini? Apa yang disenangi? Beri
contohnya.Mengapa? Apa yang kurang disenangi? Beri contohnya. Mengapa?
130 | P a g e
g. Apakah komunikasi tersebut bermanfaat bagi kinerja anda?
6. Bagaimana anda berinteraksi dengan pemuka desa, staf puskesmas, rumah sakit dan
dinas kesehatan ? Jajaki tentang: forum, frekuensi, isi pertemuan
7. Pernahkah anda melakukan merujukkasuskebidandesa? Beri contohnya.
Jajaki tentang:
- Jenis kasus apa yang selama ini anda rujuk?Mengapa anda merujuknya?
- Berapa sering anda perlu merujuk?
- Bagaimana cara anda merujuk?
- Apa yang cukup baik dalam rujukan itu? Mengapa?
- Hambatan apa yang dihadapi? Apa yang anda lakukan kemudian?
Persepsi tentang petugas kesehatan
8. Bagaimana pendapat anda tentang bidan/perawat desa?
Bisa anda ceritakan tentang bidan di desa ini?
Bagaimana menurut anda tentang kinerja bidan desa? (Perawat desa bila bidan tidak ada)
Apa saja tugas mereka?
Tugas mana yang dikerjakan dengan baik? Mengapa? Hal apa yang membuat tugas
tersebut dikerjakan dengan baik? Contohnya?
Tugas mana yang kurang dikerjakan dengan baik? Mengapa? Hal apa yang membuat
tugas tersebut tidak dikerjakan dengan baik? Contohnya?
Bila belum muncul saat wawancara, jajaki :
- Usia
- Asal
- Kompetensi klinis
- Sikap
- Alat medis
- Situasi tempat bersalin (privasi, kebersihan,dll)
- Alat komunikasi (telepon genggam)
- Sistemrujukan:apakahandamengetahuibagaimanabidandesamembantumerujukibumel
ahirkan? Bagaimanaceritanya?
9. Bagaimana kerjasama antara bidan dan anda? Contohnya? Apakah kerja sama tersebut
pernah anda coba? Apa yang terjadi kemudian?
10. Hal apa yang akan membuat anda senang untung merujuk persalinan ke bidan?
11. Bagaimana menurut anda supaya layanan bidan dalam kesehatan ibu lebih bermanfaat
bagi masyarakat desa?
Persepsi tentang kader
12. Siapa saja kader di desa ini?
13. Apa pendapat anda tentang kader di desa ini?
14. Apa saja yang mereka lakukan sebagai kader ?
Menurut anda, hal apa yang dikerjakan dengan baik? Mengapa? Contohnya?
Hal apa yang membuat tugas tersebut dikerjakan dengan baik? Mengapa? Contohnya?
Menurut anda, hal apa yang dikerjakan dengan kurang baik? Mengapa? Contohnya?
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Hal apa yang membuat tugas tersebut dikerjakan dengan kurang baik? Mengapa?
Contohnya?
Bila belum muncul jajaki deskripsi kerja berikut :
o Mengingatkan ibu hamil dan keluarganya untuk melahirkan didampingi tenaga terlatih
(bidan desa atau Puskesmas) (bila jarak rumah jauh, ibu bisa menunngu di rumah
tunggu)
o Mobilisasi untuk Posyandu
o Melaksanakan kegiatan penyuluhan, penimbangan, pencatatan dan pelaporan di
Posyandu
o Kunjungan rumah untuk mendata ibu hamil, melahirkan, nifas, menyusui, bayi dan
pasangan usia subur
o Melaporkan kepada bidan / tenaga kesehatan lain saat ada ibu yang melahirkan
15. Bagaimana menurut anda supaya layanan kader dalam kesehatan ibu bisa lebih baik?
16. Bagaimana kerja sama antara anda dan kader? Contohnya. Apakah kerja sama tersebut
pernah anda coba? Apa yang terjadi kemudian?
Pemekaran
17. Sumba Barat Dayaterbentuksebagaipemekarandari Sumba Barat.
Apakahandamelihatperbedaanpelayanankesehatansebelumdansesudahpemekaran?
Revolusi KIA
18. Apakah anda pernah mendengar tentang revolusi KIA?
Revolusi KIA merupakan kebijakan NTT untuk menurunkan angka kematian ibu dan bayi
baru lahir dengan mewajibkan ibu melahirkan di fasilitas kesehatan
Bagaimana menurut anda pelaksanaan kegiatannya di tingkat desa?
Apakah anda melihat perbedaan dengan masa sebelum peraturan ini diberlakukan?Apa
perbedaan tersebut? Bagaimana bisa terjadi perbedaan itu?
Saran
19. Peran apa yang sekiranya anda bisa lakukan selain menolong persalinan? Bagaimana
caranya untuk mengatur ini bisa terjadi?
20. Hal-hal lain apa yang menurut anda bisa dilakukan untuk meningkatkan pelayanan
kesehatan ibu?
4. 3. 1. 4. SSI Mother
Panduan Wawancara Ibu
Kehamilan dan ANC
1. Bagaimana anda mengetahui bahwa anda hamil?
2. Apa yang anda lakukan pertama kali saat mengetahui bahwa anda hamil? Mengapa?Lalu
apa yang terjadi? Apa yang anda lakukan kemudian?
Bila pernyataan tentang ANC belum keluar, baru jajaki :
3. Apakah anda melakukan pemeriksaan rutin kehamilan (ANC)? Mengapa? Dimana?
(medis, non medis / dukun bayi, atau tidak melakukan apa2) Mengapa?
4. Bagaimana anda memutuskan untuk hal tersebut?
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5.
6.
7.
Pada usia kehamilan berapa anda melakukan pemeriksaan? Mengapa?
Apakah anda periksa lebih dari 1 kali? Mengapa anda pergi ke 2, 3 dan 4 kali?
Tanyakan apalagi alasannya, bila belum muncul baru jajaki :
 Jarak ke fasilitas kesehatan
 Biaya transportasi dan konsultasi
 Keberadaan petugas
 Kepercayaan pada petugas (umur petugas, kompetensi medis, sikap, kelengkapan alat
medis)
 Kebiasaan lokal
8. Bagaimana menurut anda pelayanan pemeriksaan kehamilan yang ada? Mengapa?
Bagian mana yang baik? Beri contohnya? Bagian mana yang kurang baik? Beri contohnya?
9. Menurut anda, apa manfaat melakukan pemeriksaan rutin kehamilan?
10. Menurut anda, apa yang terjadi bila anda tidak melakukan pemeriksaan rutin kehamilan?
Kelahiran
11. Saat bulan-bulan terakhir menjelang kelahiran apa yang anda lakukan saat mulai
merasakan sakit yang sangat saat akan melahirkan (kontraksi)? Mengapa? Siapa yang
anda beritahu pertama kali? Mengapa? Apa yang dilakukan selanjutnya? Mengapa? Lalu
apa yang terjadi?
12. Kemana anda pergi untuk bersalin? Mengapa? Lalu apa yang terjadi?
13. Siapa yang menolong anda melahirkan? Mengapa?
14. Dengan siapa anda memutuskan untuk bersalin di tempat tersebut dan/atau ditolong
orang tersebut? Apa alasan anda mengambil keputusan tersebut?
 Bila belum muncul saat wawancara, jajaki alasan Jarak ke fasilitas kesehatan
 Biaya transportasi dan konsultasi
 Keberadaan petugas
 Kepercayaan pada petugas (umur petugas, kompetensi medis, sikap, kelengkapan alat
medis)
 Adanya asuransi kesehatan: Setahu anda, apa manfaat asuransi tersebut? Jenis
layanan apa yang anda bisa dapatkan dengan asuransi tersebut? Ceritakan
pengalaman anda dalam menggunakan asuransi tersebut. Bagaimana asuransi
mempengaruhi keputusan dalam kelahiran (di fasilitas kesehatan/di dukun)
 Kebiasaan setempat
Bila belum muncul, tanyakan:
15. Apa pendapat anda tentang persalinan yang ditolong dukun bayi? Manfaat dan
kerugiannya
16. Apa pendapat anda tentang persalinan yang ditolong bidan desa? Manfaat dan
kerugiannya
Pasca Persalinan Dan Keluarga Berencana
17. Apa yang anda lakukan setelah melahirkan? Mengapa ? Apa yang anda lakukan
selanjutnya? Mengapa?
18. Bagaimana pendapat anda tentang KB? Apakah anda ber KB? Mengapa?
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Bila ia menggunakan KB, tanyakan dimana ia melakukan KB? Mengapa?
Persepsi tentang bidan desa
19. Bisa anda ceritakan tentang bidan di desa ini?
20. Apa pendapat anda tentang kader di desa ini?
Bila belum muncul saat wawancara, jajaki :
 Usia
 Asal
 Kompetensi klinis
 Sikap
 Alat medis
 Situasi tempat bersalin (privasi, kebersihan,dll)
 Alat komunikasi (telepon genggam)
 Sistem
rujukan:
apakahandamengetahuibagaimanakadermembantumerujukibumelahirkan?
Bagaimanaceritanya?
21. Bagaimana menurut anda tentang kinerja bidan desa? (Perawat desa bila bidan tidak ada)
Apa saja tugas mereka?
Tugas mana yang dikerjakan dengan baik? Mengapa? Hal apa yang membuat tugas
tersebut dikerjakan dengan baik? Contohnya?
Tugas mana yang kurang dikerjakan dengan baik? Mengapa? Hal apa yang membuat
tugas tersebut tidak dikerjakan dengan baik? Contohnya?
22. Bagaimana menurut anda supaya layanan bidan dalam kesehatan ibu lebih bermanfaat
bagi masyarakat desa?
23. Apa saja yang telah dilakukan untuk mendukung kerja mereka?
Persepsi tentang kader
24. Siapa saja kader di desa ini?
25. Apa pendapat anda tentang kader di desa ini?
26. Apa saja yang mereka lakukan sebagai kader ?
Tanyakan berkali-kali sebelum menjajaki deskripsi kerja berikut :
o Mengingatkan ibu hamil dan keluarganya untuk melahirkan didampingi tenaga terlatih
(bidan desa atau Puskesmas) (bila jarak rumah jauh, ibu bisa menunngu di rumah
tunggu)
o Mobilisasi untuk Posyandu
o Melaksanakan kegiatan penyuluhan, penimbangan, pencatatan dan pelaporan di
Posyandu
o Kunjungan rumah untuk mendata ibu hamil, melahirkan, nifas, menyusui, bayi dan
pasangan usia subur
o Melaporkan kepada bidan / tenaga kesehatan lain saat ada ibu yang melahirkan
27. Menurut anda, bagaimana kinerja kader?
Hal apa yang dikerjakan dengan baik? Mengapa? Contohnya?Hal apa yang membuat
tugas tersebut dikerjakan dengan baik? Mengapa? Contohnya?
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Hal apa yang dikerjakan kurang baik? Mengapa? Contohnya? Hal apa yang membuat
tugas tersebut dikerjakan kurang baik? Mengapa? Contohnya?
28. Bagaimana menurut anda supaya layanan kader bisa lebih baik?
Persepsi tentang dukun bayi
29. Siapa saja dukun bayi di desa ini?
30. Apa pendapat anda tentang dukun bayi di desa ini?
Bila belum muncul saat wawancara, jajaki :
- Usia
- Layanan
- Sikap
- Situasi tempat bersalin (privasi, kebersihan,dll)
- Sistem rujukan
31. Apa saja yang mereka lakukan sebagai dukun bayi ?
Bila belum muncul jajaki: kehamilan, persalinan, pasca persalinan, perawatan bayi,
membantu rumah tangga atau yang lain)
Hal apa yang anda sukai dari layanan dukun bayi? Mengapa? Contohnya?
Hal apa yang anda kurang suka dari layanan dukun bayi? Mengapa? Contohnya?
32. Apakah ada sunat perempuan di desa ini? Bisa ceritakan tentang proses sunat
perempuan? Apakah anak perempuan Anda di sunat? Alasannya? (pertanyaan hanya di
Cianjur)
33. Bagaimana menurut anda supaya layanan dukun bayi lebih baik?
Kerjasama
34. Bagaimana menurut anda kerjasama antara bidan dan dukun bayi di desa ini?
Contohnya?
35. Bagaimana menurut anda kerjasama antara bidan dan kader di desa ini? Contohnya?
36. Bagaimana menurut anda kerjasama antara dukun dan kader di desa ini? Contohnya?
37. Menurut anda, bagaimana bisa meningkatkan kerjasama tersebut untuk meningkatkan
pelayanan kesehatan ibu?
Pemekaran(only in SW Sumba)
37. Sumba Barat Dayaterbentuksebagaipemekarandari Sumba Barat.
Apakahandamelihatperbedaanpelayanankesehatansebelumdansesudahpemekaran?
Revolusi KIA (Only in SW Sumba)
38. Apakah anda pernah mendengar tentang revolusi KIA?
Revolusi KIA merupakan kebijakan NTT untuk menurunkan angka kematian ibu dan bayi
baru lahir dengan mewajibkan ibu melahirkan di fasilitas kesehatan
Bagaimana menurut anda pelaksanaan kegiatannya di tingkat desa?
Apakah anda melihat perbedaan dengan masa sebelum peraturan ini diberlakukan?Apa
perbedaan tersebut? Bagaimana bisa terjadi perbedaan itu?
Saran
39. Hal-hal lain apa yang menurut anda bisa dilakukan untuk meningkatkan pelayanan
kesehatan ibu?
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4. 3. 1. 5. SSI Village Head
Panduan Wawancara Tokoh Desa
Kehamilan dan ANC
1. Bagaimana para wanita mengetahui bahwa mereka hamil? Apa yang mereka lakukan
pertama kali saat mengetahui dirinya hamil? Lalu apa yang terjadi? Apa yang mereka
lakukan kemudian?
Bila pernyataan tentang ANC belum keluar, baru jajaki:
Apakah mereka melakukan pemeriksaan rutin kehamilan (ANC)? Mengapa ada yang
melakukannya dan ada yang tidak? Mengapa? Beri contohnya
2. Pada usia kehamilan berapa biasanya mereka memeriksakan diri? Mengapa?
Apakah mereka periksa lebih dari 1 kali? Mengapa ada yang melakukan 2, 3 dan 4 kali?
Biasanya kapan mereka pergi memeriksakan diri? Mengapa?
Tanyakan apalagi alasannya, bila belum muncul baru jajaki :
- Jarak ke fasilitas kesehatan
- Biaya transportasi dan konsultasi
- Keberadaan petugas
- Kepercayaan pada petugas (umur petugas, kompetensi medis, sikap, kelengkapan alat
medis)
- Siapa yang memutuskan bahwa seorang wanita melakukan pemeriksaan rutin
kehamilan?
3. Bagaimana menurut anda pelayanan pemeriksaan kehamilan yang ada?
4. Apa yang terjadi bila seorang wanita tidak melakukan pemeriksaan rutin kehamilan?
Kelahiran
5. Apa yang dilakukan wanita hamil di sini saat mulai merasakan kontraksi? Apa yang
dilakukan selanjutnya? Mengapa? Lalu apa yang terjadi?
6. Siapa yang paling sering menolong wanita bersalin di desa ini? Mengapa?
7. Apakah ada perbedaan antara para wanita di desa ini antara yang menggunakan jasa
bidan dengan yang tidak? Mengapa? Beri contohnya.
8. Bagaimana para wanita mengambil keputusan dalam bersalin? siapa yang biasanya
memutuskan wanita bersalin di mana dan oleh siapa?
9. Apa yang menghambat para wanita melahirkan di fasilitas kesehatan?
Bila belum muncul saat wawancara, jajaki alasan tidak bersalin di polindes / bersalin
tidak didampingi tenaga terlatih :
- Jarak ke fasilitas kesehatan
- Biaya transportasi dan konsultasi
- Keberadaan petugas
- Kepercayaan pada petugas (umur petugas, kompetensi medis, sikap, kelengkapan alat
medis)
- Adanya asuransi kesehatan
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10. Apa pendapat anda tentang persalinan yang ditolong dukun bayi? Manfaat dan
kerugiannya
11. Apa pendapat anda tentang persalinan yang ditolong bidan desa? Manfaat dan
kerugiannya
Pasca Persalinan Dan Keluarga Berencana
12. Apa yang mereka lakukan setelah melahirkan? Mengapa ? Apa yang mereka lakukan
selanjutnya? Mengapa?
13. Bagaimana pendapat mereka tentang KB? Apakah mereka ber KB? Mengapa?
Bila mereka menggunakan KB, tanyakan dimana mereka melakukan KB? Mengapa?
Persepsi tentang petugas kesehatan
14. Bagaimana menurut anda tentang kinerja bidan desa? (Perawat desa bila bidan tidak
ada)Apa saja tugas mereka?
Tugas mana yang dikerjakan dengan baik? Mengapa? Hal apa yang membuat tugas
tersebut dikerjakan dengan baik?
Tugas mana yang kurang dikerjakan dengan baik? Mengapa? Hal apa yang membuat
tugas tersebut tidak dikerjakan dengan baik?
Bila belum muncul saat wawancara, jajaki :
- Usia
- Kompetensi klinis
- Sikap
- Alat medis
- Situasi melahirkan (birthing environment)
- Alat komunikasi (telepon genggam)
- Sistem rujukan
15. Bagaimana peran kader di desa anda?
16. Bagaimana peran dukun bayi di desa anda?
Pemekaran(only in SW Sumba)
17. Sumba Barat Dayaterbentuksebagaipemekarandari Sumba Barat.
Apakahandamelihatperbedaanpelayanankesehatansebelumdansesudahpemekaran?
Revolusi KIA (Only in SW Sumba)
18. Apakah anda pernah mendengar tentang revolusi KIA?
Revolusi KIA merupakan kebijakan NTT untuk menurunkan angka kematian ibu dan bayi
baru lahir dengan mewajibkan ibu melahirkan di fasilitas kesehatan
Bagaimana menurut anda pelaksanaan kegiatannya di tingkat desa?
Apakah anda melihat perbedaan dengan masa sebelum peraturan ini diberlakukan?Apa
perbedaan tersebut? Bagaimana bisa terjadi perbedaan itu?
Saran
19. Hal-hal lain apa yang menurut anda bisa dilakukan untuk meningkatkan pelayanan
kesehatan ibu?
4. 3. 1. 6. SSI Midwife Coordinator, Puskesmas Head, and DHO MCH Officer
137 | P a g e
Panduan Wawancara Bidan Koordinator, Kepala Puskesmas, dan Petugas/Kepala Bidang
KIA
1. Dapatkah anda ceritakan tentang pekerjaan anda yang terkait dengan bidang kesehatan
ibu?
2. Bagaimana pendapat anda tentang tugas dan fungsi bidan/perawat desa, penolong
persalinan tradisional dan kader (terkait kesehatan ibu)? Berikan alasan atas pendapat
anda.
Jajaki tentang: system rujukan antara bidan/perawat desa, puskesmas dan rumah sakit.
3. Apakah factor pendukung dan penghambat tugas dan fungsi bidan/perawat desa,
penolong persalinan tradisional dan kader (terkait kesehatan ibu)?
Jajaki:
- Aspek kebijakan kesehatan: regulasi, komitmen politis (tingkat kabupaten, desa)
- Aspek sistem kesehatan: trainings, financial incentives, M/E, supervision, human
resource management
4. Apa saran/pendapat anda mengenai kemitraan antara bidan/perawat desa dengan
penolong persalinan tradisional dan kader?
Jajaki:
- Contoh model kemitraan
- M/E dan supervisi
- Insentif
- Hambatan dan antisipasinya
4.3.2. FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION
4. 3. 2. 1. FGD Husband/Men
Panduan Diskusi Kelompok Terarah Suami
Kehamilan dan ANC
1. Bagaimana para wanita mengetahui bahwa mereka hamil? Apa yang mereka lakukan
pertama kali saat mengetahui dirinya hamil? Lalu apa yang terjadi? Apa yang mereka
lakukan kemudian?
Bila pernyataan tentang ANC belum keluar, baru jajaki:
Apakah mereka melakukan pemeriksaan rutin kehamilan (ANC)? Mengapa ada yang
melakukannya dan ada yang tidak? Mengapa? Beri contohnya
2. Pada usia kehamilan berapa biasanya mereka memeriksakan diri? Mengapa?
Apakah mereka periksa lebih dari 1 kali? Mengapa ada yang melakukan 2, 3 dan 4 kali?
Biasanya kapan mereka pergi memeriksakan diri? Mengapa?
Tanyakan apalagi alasannya, bila belum muncul baru jajaki :
- Jarak ke fasilitas kesehatan
- Biaya transportasi dan konsultasi
- Keberadaan petugas
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- Kepercayaan pada petugas (umur petugas, kompetensi medis, sikap, kelengkapan alat
medis)
- Siapa yang memutuskan bahwa seorang wanita melakukan pemeriksaan rutin
kehamilan?
3. Bagaimana menurut anda pelayanan pemeriksaan kehamilan yang ada?
4. Apa yang terjadi bila seorang wanita tidak melakukan pemeriksaan rutin kehamilan?
Kelahiran
5. Apa yang dilakukan wanita hamil di sini saat mulai merasakan kontraksi? Apa yang
dilakukan selanjutnya? Mengapa? Lalu apa yang terjadi?
6. Siapa yang paling sering menolong wanita bersalin di desa ini? Mengapa?
Apakah ada perbedaan antara para wanita di desa ini antara yang menggunakan jasa
bidan dengan yang tidak? Mengapa? Beri contohnya.
7. Bagaimana para wanita mengambil keputusan dalam bersalin? siapa yang biasanya
memutuskan wanita bersalin di mana dan oleh siapa?
8. Apa yang menghambat para wanita melahirkan di fasilitas kesehatan?
Bila belum muncul saat wawancara, jajaki alasan tidak bersalin di polindes / bersalin
tidak didampingi tenaga terlatih :
- Jarak ke fasilitas kesehatan
- Biaya transportasi dan konsultasi
- Keberadaan petugas
- Kepercayaan pada petugas (umur petugas, kompetensi medis, sikap, kelengkapan alat
medis)
- Adanya asuransi kesehatan: Setahu anda, apa manfaat asuransi tersebut? Jenilayanan
apa yang anda bisa dapatkan dengan asuransi tersebut? Ceritakan pengalaman anda
dalam menggunakan asuransi tersebut. Bagaimana asuransi mempengaruhi
keputusan dalam kelahiran (di fasilitas kesehatan/di dukun)
Bila belum muncul, tanyakan:
Apa pendapat anda tentang persalinan yang ditolong dukun bayi? Manfaat dan
kerugiannya
Apa pendapat anda tentang persalinan yang ditolong bidan desa? Manfaat dan
kerugiannya
Pasca Persalinan Dan Keluarga Berencana
9. Apa yang anda lakukan setelah melahirkan? Mengapa ? Apa yang anda lakukan
selanjutnya? Mengapa?
10. Bagaimana pendapat anda tentang KB? Apakah anda ber KB? Mengapa?
11. Bila ia menggunakan KB, tanyakan dimana ia melakukan KB? Mengapa?
Persepsi tentang petugas kesehatan
12. Bagaimana menurut anda tentang kinerja bidan desa? (Perawat desa bila bidan tidak ada)
13. Apa saja tugas mereka?
Tugas mana yang dikerjakan dengan baik? Mengapa? Hal apa yang membuat tugas
tersebut dikerjakan dengan baik?
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Tugas mana yang kurang dikerjakan dengan baik? Mengapa? Hal apa yang membuat
tugas tersebut tidak dikerjakan dengan baik
Bila belum muncul saat wawancara, jajaki :
- Usia
- Kompetensi klinis
- Sikap
- Alat medis
- Situasi melahirkan (birthing environment)
- Alat komunikasi (telepon genggam)
- Sistem rujukan: apakah anda mengetahui bagaimana bidan desa membantu merujuk
ibu melahirkan? Bagaimana ceritanya?
14. Bagaimana peran kader di desa anda?
15. Bagaimana peran dukun bayi di desa anda?
16. Apakah anda pernah mendengar sunat perempuan? Bagaimana proses sunat
perempuan? Apakah semua anak perempuan harus di sunat? Alasannya? (Hanya di
Cianjur)
Pemekaran (only in SW Sumba)
17. Sumba Barat Dayaterbentuksebagaipemekarandari Sumba Barat.
Apakahandamelihatperbedaanpelayanankesehatansebelumdansesudahpemekaran?
Revolusi KIA (Only in SW Sumba)
18. Apakahandapernahmendengar tentang revolusi KIA?
19. Revolusi KIA merupakan kebijakan NTT untuk menurunkan angka kematian ibu dan bayi
baru lahir dengan mewajibkan ibu melahirkan di fasilitas kesehatan
Bagaimana menurut anda pelaksanaan kegiatannya di tingkat desa?
Apakah anda melihat perbedaan dengan masa sebelum peraturan ini diberlakukan? Apa
perbedaan tersebut? Bagaimana bisa terjadi perbedaan itu?
Saran
20. Hal-hal lain apa yang menurut anda bisa dilakukan untuk meningkatkan pelayanan
kesehatan ibu?
4. 3. 2. 2. FGD TBA (only in Cianjur)
Panduan Diskusi Kelompok Terarah Dukun Bayi
Tugas dan Klien
1. Dapatkah Anda memberikan gambaran tentang pekerjaan anda?
Jajaki tentang:
- Bagaimana ceritanya anda menjadi dukun bayi?
- Jenis-jenis tugas (untuk dukun bayi jajaki: kehamilan, persalinan, pasca persalinan,
perawatan bayi, dll)
- Peran dalam sunat perempuan (hanya di Cianjur)
2. Siapakah masyarakat yang anda layani? Gali profil masyarakat yang biasanya dilayani
dukun bayi
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Jajaki tentang:
o Apa motivasi atau alasan mereka menggunakan pelayanan Anda?
o Apa motivasi atau alasan mereka tidak menggunakan pelayanan Anda?
o Sesuai pengalaman anda, apa yang dilakukan para ibu disini saat:
o Kehamilan. Apakah memeriksakan diri? Kemana? Mengapa?
o Persalinan. Dimana? Mengapa?
o Pasca persalinan. Apakah memeriksakan diri? Dimana? Mengapa?
o Keluarga berencana. Apakah melakukan KB? Dimana? Mengapa?
Motivasi dan kepuasan kerja
3. Bagaimana pendapat anda tentang pekerjaan anda sekarang? Apakah anda puas?
Mengapa? Pekerjaan apa yang anda merasa puas? Mengapa? Apa contohnya?
Pekerjaan apa yang anda merasa tidak puas? Mengapa? Apa contohnya?
Jajaki tentang:
 Insentif non-finansial (kepercayaan dari masyarakat, dukungan dari masyarakat,
status sosial)
 Insentif finansial (pendapatan rutin)
 Perasaan tentang insentif tersebut
 Pekerjaan lain, pemasukan lain?
Mutu Pelayanan
4. Menurut anda,bagaimana pelayanan dukun bayi yang baik itu?. Mintalah informan
untuk memberi contoh pelayanan yang menurut informan telah dilakukan dengan baik
dan kurang baik.
Hal-hal apa yang mendukung anda untuk bisa bekerja dengan baik? Mengapa?
Hal-hal apa yang menghambat anda untuk bisa bekerja dengan baik? Mengapa?
Hubungan dengan sistem kesehatan dan pemuka masyarakat
5. Ketika anda menghadapi persoalan dalam membantu persalinan, dengan pihak mana
anda berkomunikasi?
Tanyakan dulu berkali-kali. Bila belum keluar saat wawancara, baru jajaki tentang:
a. Dengan siapa anda berkomunikasi?
b. Berapa kali / seberapa sering anda berkomunikasi dengannya?
c. Dimana atau apa alat / medianya?
d. Siapa yang menyediakan alatnya?
e. Bagaimana komunikasinya? Berikan contoh2 hal yang dikomunikasikan
f. Apakah anda senang dengan komunikasi ini? Apa yang disenangi? Beri
contohnya.Mengapa? Apa yang kurang disenangi? Beri contohnya. Mengapa?
g. Apakah komunikasi tersebut bermanfaat bagi kinerja anda?
6. Bagaimana anda berinteraksi dengan pemuka desa, staf puskesmas, rumah sakit dan
dinas kesehatan ? Jajaki tentang: forum, frekuensi, isi pertemuan
7. Pernahkah anda melakukan merujukkasuskebidandesa? Beri contohnya.
Jajaki tentang:
- Jenis kasus apa yang selama ini anda rujuk?Mengapa anda merujuknya?
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- Berapa sering anda perlu merujuk?
- Bagaimana cara anda merujuk?
- Apa yang cukup baik dalam rujukan itu? Mengapa?
- Hambatan apa yang dihadapi? Apa yang anda lakukan kemudian?
Persepsi tentang petugas kesehatan
8. Bagaimana pendapat anda tentang bidan/perawat desa?
Bisa anda ceritakan tentang bidan di desa ini?
Bagaimana menurut anda tentang kinerja bidan desa? (Perawat desa bila bidan tidak ada)
Apa saja tugas mereka?
Tugas mana yang dikerjakan dengan baik? Mengapa? Hal apa yang membuat tugas
tersebut dikerjakan dengan baik? Contohnya?
Tugas mana yang kurang dikerjakan dengan baik? Mengapa? Hal apa yang membuat
tugas tersebut tidak dikerjakan dengan baik? Contohnya?
Bila belum muncul saat wawancara, jajaki :
- Usia
- Asal
- Kompetensi klinis
- Sikap
- Alat medis
- Situasi tempat bersalin (privasi, kebersihan,dll)
- Alat komunikasi (telepon genggam)
- Sistemrujukan:apakah anda mengetahui bagaimana bidan desa membantu merujuk ibu
melahirkan? Bagaimana ceritanya?
9. Bagaimana kerjasama antara bidan dan anda? Contohnya? Apakah kerja sama tersebut
pernah anda coba? Apa yang terjadi kemudian?
10. Hal apa yang akan membuat anda senang untung merujuk persalinan ke bidan?
11. Bagaimana menurut anda supaya layanan bidan dalam kesehatan ibu lebih bermanfaat
bagi masyarakat desa?
Persepsi tentang kader
12. Siapa saja kader di desa ini?
13. Apa pendapat anda tentang kader di desa ini?
14. Apa saja yang mereka lakukan sebagai kader ?
Menurut anda, hal apa yang dikerjakan dengan baik? Mengapa? Contohnya?
Hal apa yang membuat tugas tersebut dikerjakan dengan baik? Mengapa? Contohnya?
Menurut anda, hal apa yang dikerjakan dengan kurang baik? Mengapa? Contohnya?
Hal apa yang membuat tugas tersebut dikerjakan dengan kurang baik? Mengapa?
Contohnya?
Bila belum muncul jajaki deskripsi kerja berikut :
o Mengingatkan ibu hamil dan keluarganya untuk melahirkan didampingi tenaga terlatih
(bidan desa atau Puskesmas) (bila jarak rumah jauh, ibu bisa menunngu di rumah
tunggu)
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o Mobilisasi untuk Posyandu
o Melaksanakan kegiatan penyuluhan, penimbangan, pencatatan dan pelaporan di
Posyandu
o Kunjungan rumah untuk mendata ibu hamil, melahirkan, nifas, menyusui, bayi dan
pasangan usia subur
o Melaporkan kepada bidan / tenaga kesehatan lain saat ada ibu yang melahirkan
15. Bagaimana menurut anda supaya layanan kader dalam kesehatan ibu bisa lebih baik?
16. Bagaimana kerja sama antara anda dan kader? Contohnya. Apakah kerja sama tersebut
pernah anda coba? Apa yang terjadi kemudian?
Saran
17. Peran apa yang sekiranya anda bisa lakukan selain menolong persalinan? Bagaimana
caranya untuk mengatur ini bisa terjadi?
18. Hal-hal lain apa yang menurut anda bisa dilakukan untuk meningkatkan pelayanan
kesehatan ibu?
4. 3. 2. 3. FGD Village Midwife (only in SW Sumba)
Panduan Diskusi Kelompok Terarah Bidan Desa
Tugas dan Klien
1. Bagaimana ceritanya anda menjadi bidan/perawat desa dan bekerja di sini?
2. Dapatkah Anda memberikan gambaran tentang pekerjaan anda?
Jajaki tentang:
 Jenis-jenis tugas (SaatPosyandudan di luarPosyandu)
 Alasan mengapa menjadi bidan/perawat desa
3. Dari mana sajaasal masyarakat yang anda layani?
(Gunakan/gambar peta setempat untuk meminta informan menunjukkan dari wilayah
mana masyarakat yang mereka layani)
Jajaki tentang:
 Apa motivasi atau alasan mereka menggunakan pelayanan Anda?
 Apa motivasi atau alasan mereka tidak menggunakan pelayanan Anda?
 Layanan apa yang paling banyak dipakai masyarakat? (poliklinik umum, pelayanan
kesehatan ibu, dll)
 Sesuai pengalaman anda, apa yang dilakukan para ibu didesa ini saat:
- Kehamilan. Apakah memeriksakan diri? Kemana? Mengapa?
- Persalinan. Dimana? Mengapa?
- Pasca persalinan. Apakah memeriksakan diri? Dimana? Mengapa?
- Keluarga berencana. Apakah melakukan KB? Dimana? Mengapa?
 Layanan apa yang banyak digunakan para ibu?(ANC, persalinan, PNC, keluarga
berencana) Mengapa?
 Layanan apa yang kurang digunakan para ibu? (ANC, persalinan, PNC, keluarga
berencana) Mengapa?
Motivasi dan kepuasan kerja
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4.
Bagaimana pendapat anda tentang pekerjaan anda sekarang? Apakah anda puas?
Mengapa? Pekerjaan apa yang anda merasa puas? Mengapa? Apa contohnya?
Pekerjaan apa yang anda merasa tidak puas? Mengapa? Apa contohnya
Jajaki tentang:
 Insentif non-finansial (kepercayaan dari masyarakat, dukungan dari masyarakat,
status sosial)
 Bagaimana respons masyarakat tentang pelayanan informan? Contohnya?
 Apa yang masyarakat sukai dari layanan anda? Mengapa ? Contohnya?
 Apa yang masyarakat kurang sukai dari layanan anda? Mengapa ? Apa contohnya?
 Insentif finansial (pendapatan rutin)
 Perasaan tentang insentif finansial tersebut
 Pekerjaan lain, pemasukan lain?
Mutu Pelayanan
17. Menurut anda, apakah pelayanan kesehatan yang bermutu itu?. Mintalah informan
untuk memberi contoh pelayanan yang menurut informan telah dilakukan dengan
mutu yang baik dan kurang baik. Hal-hal apa yang mendukung anda untuk bisa
bekerja dengan baik? Mengapa? Hal-hal apa yang menghambat anda untuk bisa
bekerja dengan baik? Mengapa?
Tanyakan berkali2 pertanyaan ini, bila belum muncul, tanyakan faktor pendukung dan
penghambat informan dalam bekerja:
o Anda telah menjelaskan tentang tugas-tugas anda sebelumnya, bagaimana perasaan
anda atas beban kerja tersebut?
o Bagaimanakah infrastruktur tempat kerja anda?,
o Bagaimana lingkungan pekerjaan (kolega, atasan) anda?
o Bagaimana kondisi keamanan di tempat kerja anda? Bagaimana perasaan anda atas
hal tersebut?
o Bagaimana rencana karir di masa depan?
o Bagaimana perasaan anda atas pedoman-pedoman tindakan medis yang ada?
Supervisi
6. Bagaimana pengalaman anda tentang supervisi yang anda terima?
Jajaki:
- siapa supervisor-nya,
- kapan terakhir menerima supervisi,
- seberapa sering supervisi dilakukan?
- bagaimana supervisi dilakukan, apa-apa saja yang dilakukan dalam supervisi? Jajaki:
diskusi target-target program, pelaporan
- Bagaimana umpan balik dilakukan?
- bagaimana dukungan pemecahan masalah (termasuk dukungan sosial). Mengapa?
Contohnya?
- bagaimana ketrampilan anda setelah supervisi? Contohnya?
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- bagaimana pandangan tentang supervisi tersebut? Mengapa? Apa contohnya yang
bermanfaat? Apa contohnya yang kurang bermanfaat?
M&E
7. Bagaimana pencatatan dan pelaporan dari pelayanan kesehatan ibu yang anda alami
selama ini?
Tanyakan dulu berkali-kali. Bila belum keluar saat wawancara, baru jajaki tentang:
- Bagaimana cara pencatatan dan pelaporan anda? Hal-hal apa yang dilaporkan?
- Bagaimana laporan anda dikirimkan? Menggunakan alat apa?
- Siapa yang memberikan umpan balik? Bagaimana umpan balik dilakukan? Apa
bentuk umpan baliknya? Contoh bagaimana umpan balik diterapkan?
- Bagaimana pandangan anda tentang sistem pelaporan dan umpan baliknya? Apa ada
manfaat? Mengapa? Apa contohnya? Apa ada yang kurang bermanfaat? Mengapa?
Apa contohnya?
Hubungan dengan sistem kesehatan (termasuk kolega) dan pemuka masyarakat
8. Ketika anda menghadapi persoalan dalam pelayanan kesehatan, dengan pihak mana
anda berkomunikasi?
Tanyakan dulu berkali-kali. Bila belum keluar saat wawancara, baru jajaki tentang:
a. Dengan siapa anda berkomunikasi?
b. Berapa kali / seberapa sering anda berkomunikasi dengannya?
c. Dimana atau apa alat / medianya?
d. Siapa yang menyediakan alatnya?
e. Bagaimana komunikasinya? Berikan contoh2 hal yang dikomunikasikan
f. Apakah anda senang dengan komunikasi ini? Apa yang disenangi? Beri
contohnya.Mengapa? Apa yang kurang disenangi? Beri contohnya. Mengapa?
g. Apakah komunikasi tersebut bermanfaat bagi kinerja anda?
9. Bagaimana anda berinteraksi dengan pemuka desa, staf puskesmas, rumah sakit dan
dinas kesehatan
Jajaki tentang: forum, frekuensi, isi pertemuan
10. Bagaimana anda menangani kasus yang perlu dirujuk selama ini dari tingkat desa ke
Puskesmas?
Jajaki tentang:
- Jenis kasus apa yang selama ini anda rujuk? Berikan contohnya (Kasus kebidanan,
Kasus umum,gawat dan gawat darurat) Mengapa anda merujuknya?
- Berapa sering anda perlu merujuk?
- Fasilitas kesehatan mana yang dituju? Mengapa?
- Bagaimana cara anda merujuk?
- Apa yang cukup baik dalam rujukan itu? Mengapa?
- Hambatan apa yang dihadapi? Apa yang anda lakukan kemudian?
11. Bagaimana pendapat anda tentang dukun bayi? Yang baik apa contohnya? yang kurang
baik apa contohnya?
Jajaki:
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- Bagaimana hubungan anda dengan dukun bayi selama ini? Mengapa? Beri
contohnya.
- Bagaimana anda melihat potensi kemitraan anda dengan dukun bayi? Apakah
kemitraan tersebut pernah anda coba? Apa yang terjadi kemudian?
- Bagaimana tanggapan masyarakat atas pekerjaan yang dilakukan dukun bayi?
12. Apakah anda pernah mendengar tentang sunat anak perempuan?
Siapa yang melakukan sunat? Alasannya? Ceritakan tentang proses sunat perempuan.
(Pertanyaan hanya di Cianjur).
13. Bagaimana pendapat anda tentang kader? Yang baik apa contohnya, yang kurang baik
apa contohnya?
Bagaimana pendapat anda tentang “kesukarelaan” dari kader dan kaitannya dengan
mutu pelayanan.
Bagaimana cara memantau mutu pelayanan kader? Siapa pihak yang berwenang
memantau mutu?
Apakah masyarakat ikut serta dalam memantau pelayanan kader? Bagaimana?
Jajaki:
- Bagaimana hubungan anda dengan kader selama ini? Beri contohnya.
- Bagaimana anda melihat potensi kemitraan anda dengan kader? Apakah kemitraan
tersebut pernah anda coba? Apa yang terjadi kemudian?
- Bagaimana tanggapan masyarakat atas pekerjaan yang dilakukan kader?
Keterlibatan dalam masyarakat
14. Bagaimana hubungan anda dengan komunitas? Contohnya ? Mengapa?
15. Bagaimana anda menjalin dan membina hubungan tersebut? Contohnya?
16. Bagaimana penempatan bidan desa disini?
Jajaki:
Apakah masyarakat berperan dalam proses penempatan bidan desa tersebut?
Bagaimana bentuk keterlibatan tersebut?
Bagaimana penilaian kinerja bidan?
Apakah masyarakat ikut memantau kinerja bidan? Bagaimana?
Pemekaran
15. Sumba Barat Daya terbentuk sebagai pemekaran dari Sumba Barat. Apakah anda
melihat perbedaan pelayanan kesehatan sebelum dan sesudah pemekaran?
Revolusi KIA
16. Apakah anda pernah mendengar tentang revolusi KIA?
Revolusi KIA merupakan kebijakan NTT untuk menurunkan angka kematian ibu dan bayi
baru lahir dengan mewajibkan ibu melahirkan di fasilitas kesehatan
Bagaimana menurut anda pelaksanaan kegiatannya di tingkat desa?
Apakah anda melihat perbedaan dengan masa sebelum peraturan ini diberlakukan? Apa
perbedaan tersebut? Bagaimana bisa terjadi perbedaan itu?
Saran
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17. Menurut anda, hal-hal apa yang perlu dan memungkinkan untuk dilakukan supaya tugas
anda dalam pelayanan kesehatan ibu bisa lebih baik?
INTERVIEW GUIDELINE ENGLISH
4.4.1. SEMI-STRUCTURED INTERVIEW
4. 4. 1. 1. SSI Village Midwife
Interview Guideline for Village Midwife/Nurse
Tasks and Client
1. Can you explain how did you end up working as village midwife/nurse in this health
facility?
2. Can you describe about your job?
- The tasks (The task in posyandu and outside posyandu).
- The reason behind the participant wants to be a village midwife/nurse.
3. Which are your working areas?
- Who are you clients or people who utilise your service?
- Why do they use or not use your service?
- What kind of health services that most utilised by the community? (Policlinic,
maternal health service, etc)
- According to your experience, what do the women in this village do when:
* They wanted to have pregnancy check-up
* They were going into the labor process
Where did they go for assistance in those two occasions? Why did they go there?
- After childbirth, did they have check-up? Where? Why did they choose that place?
- In terms of family planning program, did these women follow the program? Where?
- What are the most utilised health services? (ANC, labor process services, after-birth
services, family planning program)
- What are the least utilised health services? (ANC, labor process services, after-birth
services, family planning program)
Motivation and job satisfaction
4. What do you think about your current job/role? Are you happy with your job? Why?
What are the things that make you feel happy or do not feel happy about your job?
Why? Can you give me some examples?
Ask the participant about:
- Non-financial incentive (Gain trust from the community, community’s support, social
status).
 What is the response from community? Give me some examples.
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 What do the community like and dislike in relation with your services? Give me
some examples.
- Financial incentive (income).
- The participant’s feeling/opinion about those incentives.
- Other job or income.
Service quality
5. What is your opinion about midwife/nurse’s good quality health services? According to
your ownexperience, can you give me some examples about midwife/nurse’s good and
bad quality health services?
In terms of good quality service, what are the things that support you and not support
you in performing your role as a midwife/nurse? Why?
Ask the participant about:
- The workload. What does he/she feel about it?
- The workplace infrastructure
- The work environment (colleague, supervisor)
- The safety in the workplace
- The future career
- The feeling/opinion about existed medical guidelines
Supervision
6. What is your experience about work supervision?
Who does supervise your work?
When was the last time you get supervised?
How often does the supervision conducted?
How was the supervision conducted? (The target of the program and the reporting)
What is the feedback?
How about the problem solving (including social support)? Why? Give me an example.
Does your skill improved after supervision? Why? Give me an example.
What is your opinion about the supervision? Why? Did you get or did not get some
benefits from supervision?Can you give me some examples?
Monitoring and Evaluation
7. Can you explain about the recording and reporting of maternal health services?
Ask:
- How do you do the recording and reporting? What is the content of the report?
- How do you send your report files? What instrument do you use?
- Who does give you the feedback? How is the feedback conducted? How is the
feedback applied?
- What do you think about the reporting system and the feedback? Is there any
benefits? Why? Can you give some examples?
The relationship with health system and community leaders
8. When you were facing difficulties in performing your job:
- Who do you contact?
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- How often?
- Where? Do you use any media to communicate with that person? If yes, who did
provide the communication tool?
- What do you feel about your communication and relationship with this person?
What do you likeor dislike about it? Why?
- Does the communication give you benefit to perform your job?
9. How do you communicate with community leaders, puskesmas’ staffs, hospital, and
health institution?
- The forum
- The frequency
- The content of the meeting
10. How do you handle the referral cases? (From village to puskesmas)
- What were the referral cases you had? Give some examples. Why did you refer those
cases?
- How often do you do the referral?
- Where did you refer those cases?
- How did you do it?
- What are the good things about referral? Why?
- What are the obstacles? What did you do next (to overcome the obstacles)?
11. What do you think about kader? What are the good and bad things about kader? Give
me some examples.
- What do you think about kader’s “voluntarism” and what is the relationship with the
health service quality?
- How do you monitor the quality of kader’s health services?
- Does the community participate in monitoring kader’s health services? How?
Ask about:
- The participant’s relationship with kader and the examples.
- The participant’s view about his/her partnership with kader. Does the partnership
ever exist? Then, what happened?
- What is the community’s response regarding kader’s services?
Relationship with TBA
12. Is there any TBA in this village?
What is their TBA role in MCH?
Can you tell me more about their role during ANC, delivery, PNC, child health and FP?
13. Is there any female circumcision in this village? Does evet female must be circumcised?
The reason? Can you tell me the process? (Only in Cianjur)
Community Involvement
14. How is your relationship with the community? Give me some examples. Why?
15. How do you develop that relationship? Give me some examples?
16. How is the midwives’ placement in this village?
- Does the community take part in that placement? How is their involvement?
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- How is the evaluation of midwives’ performance conducted?
- Does the community involved in that evaluation? How?
Regional Expansion (only in SW Sumba)
17. Southwest Sumba is developed from the regional expansion of West Sumba. Do you see
the difference of health services before and after the expansion?
Mother and Children Health Revolution(only in SW Sumba)
18. Have you ever heard about mother and children health revolution?
Mother and children health revolution is a part of East Nusa Tenggara policy to
decrease the maternal mortality rate and new-born baby mortality rate.
What do you think about the implementation of this policy in village level?
Do you see if there any difference before and after mother and child health revolution?
What are the differences? How do the differences happen?
Suggestion
19. In your opinion, what are the things that can be done to improve your performance in
supporting better maternal health services?
4. 4. 1. 2. SSI Kader
Interview Guideline for Kader
Tasks and Client
1. Can you explain me about your job?
- Why did you decide to be a kader?
- What is your daily job?
2. Who are your clients? Which are your working areas?
Why do they use or not use your service?
According to your experience, what do the women in this village do when:
- They wanted to have pregnancy check-up
- They were going into the labor process
Where did they go for assistance in those two occasions? Why did they go there?
After childbirth, did they have check-up? Where? Why did they choose that place?
In terms of family planning program, did these women follow the program? Where?
Why did they choose to follow or not to follow the program?
Motivation and job satisfaction
3. What do you think about your current role as a kader? Are you happy with your job?
Why?
What are the things that make you feel happy or do not feel happy about your role?
Why? Can you give me some examples?
Ask the participant about:
- Non-financial incentive (Gain trust from the community, community’s support, social
status).
- Financial incentive.
- The participant’s feeling/opinion about those incentives.
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- Other income.
Service quality
4. What is your opinion about kader’s good quality health services? According to your own
experience, can you give me some examples about good and bad quality kader’s health
services?
In terms of good quality service, what are the things that support you or not support
you in performing your role as a kader? Why?
What is your opinion about “volunteerism” in relationship with your service quality?
Ask the participant about:
- The supporting and inhibiting factors in performing the his/her role as a kader.
- The workload. What does he/she feel about it?
- The facilities in the workplace.
- The work environment (colleague, supervisor).
- The safety in the work place. What do you feel about it?
The relationship with health system and community leaders
5. When you were facing difficulties in performing your job:
- Who do you contact?
- How often?
- Where? Do you use any media to communicate with that person? If yes, who did
provide thecommunication tool?
- What do you feel about your communication and relationship with this person?
What do you like or dislike about it? Why?
- Does the communication give you benefit to perform your job?
6. How do you communicate with community leaders, puskesmas’ staffs, hospital, and
health institution?
- The forum
- The frequency
- The content of the meeting
7. Have you ever done a referral? Can you give me some examples?
What were the referred cases? (Obstetric cases, general health cases, and emergency
cases)
Why did you do a referral?
How often do you need to refer a patient?
How do you do a referral?
What are the good things about a referral? Why?
What were the obstacles you face? What did you do?
Supervision
8. What is your experience about work supervision?
Who does supervise your work?
When was the last time you get supervised?
How often does the supervision conducted?
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How was the supervision conducted?
What is the feedback?
How about the problem solving (including social support)? Why? Give me an example.
Does your skill improved after supervision? Why? Give me an example.
What is your opinion about the supervision? Why? Did you get or did not get some
benefits from supervision?Can you give me some examples?
Monitoring and Evaluation
9. Can you explain about the recording and reporting of maternal health services?
Ask:
- How do you do the recording and reporting? What is the content of the report?
- How do you send your report files? What instrument do you use?
- Who does give the feedback? How is the feedback conducted? How is the feedback
applied?
- What do you think about the reporting system and the feedback? Is there any
benefits? Why? Can you give some examples?
Perception about health care providers
10. What do you think about village midwives or nurses?
Can you tell me about the midwives in this village?
How is their performance?
What are their roles?
Which role was good executed and which role was not? Why?
What are the things that make their roles were well executed and were not well
executed? Can you give some examples?
Ask the participant about: age, origin, clinical competencies, attitude, medical
equipment, maternity environment (privacy, cleanliness, etc), communication tools (cell
phone), and referral system.
11. What is your suggestion to improve the midwives services?
12. How is your relationship with the midwives? Have you ever work with them in the past?
Can you give some examples? The, what happened?
13. What do make you feel glad to refer childbirth process to the midwives?
Perception about TBAs
14. Who are the TBAs in this village?
15. What do you think about them?
16. What are their roles? What do they do?(in pregnancy, during childbirth process, after
childbirth process, neonatal care, etc)
Did the tasks were well performed? Why? Can you give some examples?
What are the things that make the tasks were well performed? Why? Can you give
some examples?
What are the things that make the tasks were poorly performed? Why? Can you give
some examples?
What is your suggestion to make the TBAs services better?
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How is your relationship with the TBAs? Have you ever work with them in the past?
Ask the participant about: age, origin, clinical competencies, attitude, medical
equipment, maternity environment (privacy, cleanliness, etc), communication tools (cell
phone), and referral system.
17. Is there any female circumcision in here? Why female must be circumcised? The
reason? What is the process? (Only in Cianjur)
Regional Expansion(Only in SW Sumba)
18. Southwest Sumba is developed from the regional expansion of West Sumba. Do you see
the difference of health services before and after the expansion?
Mother and Children Health Revolution(Only in SW Sumba)
19. Have you ever heard about mother and children health revolution?
Mother and children health revolution is a part of East Nusa Tenggara policy to
decrease the maternal mortality rate and new-born baby mortality rate.
What do you think about the implementation of this policy in village level?
Do you see if there any difference before and after mother and child health revolution?
What are the differences? How do the differences happen?
Suggestion
20. What are the things that can be done to improve maternal health services?
4. 4. 1. 3. SSI TBA
Interview Guideline for TBA (Only in SW Sumba)
Tasks and Client
1. Can you explain me about your job?
- Why did you decide to be a TBA?
- What is your daily job? (Ask the participant about the type of tasks, e.g. during
pregnancy, the childbirth process, neonatal care, etc).
2. Who are your clients? Which are your working areas?
- Why do they use or not use your service?
- According to your experience, what do the women in this village do when:
 They wanted to have pregnancy check-up
 They were going into the labor process
- Where did they go for assistance in those two occasions? Why did they go there?
- After childbirth, did they have check-up? Where? Why did they choose that place?
- In terms of family planning program, did these women follow the program? Where?
- Why did they choose to follow or not to follow the program?
Motivation and job satisfaction
3. What do you think about your current role as a TBA? Are you happy with your job?
Why?
What are the things that make you feel happy or do not feel happy about your role?
Why? Canyou give me some examples?
Ask the participant about:
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- Non-financial incentive (Gain trust from the community, community’s support, social
status).
- Financial incentive.
- The participant’s feeling/opinion about those incentives.
- ther income.
Service quality
4. What is your opinion about good quality health services by a TBA? According to your
own experience, can you give me some examples about good and bad quality TBA’s
health services?
In terms of good quality service, what are the things that support you and not support
you in performing your role as a TBA? Why?
The relationship with health system and community leaders
5. When you were facing difficulties in performing your job:
- Who do you contact?
- How often?
- Where? Do you use any media to communicate with that person? If yes, who did
provide the communication tool?
- What do you feel about your communication and relationship with this person?
What do you like or dislike about it? Why?
- Does the communication give you benefit to perform your job?
6. How do you communicate with community leaders, puskesmas’ staffs, hospital, and
health institution?
- The forum
- The frequency
- The content of the meeting
7. Have you ever done a referral? Can you give me some examples?
- What were the referred cases?
- Why did you do a referral?
- How often do you need to refer a patient?
- How do you do a referral?
- What are the good things about a referral? Why?
- What were the obstacles you face? What did you do?
Perception about health care providers
8. What do you think about village midwives or nurses?
- Can you tell me about the midwives in this village?
- How is their performance?
- What are their roles?
- Which role was good executed and which role was not? Why?
- What are the things that make their roles were well executed and were not well
executed?
- Can you give some examples?
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Ask the participant about: age, origin, clinical competencies, attitude, medical
equipment, maternity environment (privacy, cleanliness, etc), communication tools (cell
phone), and referral system.
9. How is your relationship with the midwives? Have you ever work with them in the past?
10. What do make you feel glad to refer childbirth process to the midwives?
11. What is your suggestion to improve the midwives services?
Perception about Kader
12. Who are the kaders in this village?
13. What do you think about them?
14. What are their roles?
- What are the tasks they performed well? Why? Give me some examples.
- What are the things that make the task were well performed? Why? Can you give
some examples?
- What are the things that make the task were poorly performed? Why? Can you give
some examples?
- What is your suggestion to make the kader’s services better?
- How is your relationship with the kaders? Have you ever work with them in the past?
15. How can the kader’s services be improved?
16. How is your relationship with kaders?(in terms of the opportunity to work together)
Have you ever have one? Then, what happened?
Regional Expansion
17. Southwest Sumba is developed from the regional expansion of West Sumba. Do you see
the difference of health services before and after the expansion?
Mother and Children Health Revolution
18. Have you ever heard about mother and children health revolution?
Mother and children health revolution is a part of East Nusa Tenggara policy to
decrease the maternal mortality rate and new-born baby mortality rate.
What do you think about the implementation of this policy in village level?
Do you see if there any difference before and after mother and child health revolution?
What are the differences? How do the differences happen?
Suggestion
19. What else can you do besides helping the women go through the labor process?
20. In your opinion, what are the things that can be done to improve maternal health
services?
4. 4. 1. 4. SSI Mother
Interview Guideline for Mother
Pregnancy and Antenatal Care (ANC)
1. How did you know if you are pregnant?
2. What did you initially do when you knew you were pregnant? Why? Then, what
happen?
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If ANC’s statements were not sufficient yet, ask:
3. Did you have or have regular ANC? Why? Where? (medical/non-medical ANC)
4. How did you decide that?
5. In which gestational age did you have ANC? Why?
6. Did you have ANC for more than one time? Why did you have second, third, and fourth
ANC?
7. Ask the participant the reason behind for her statement above.
If ANC’s statements were not sufficient yet, ask:
- The distance of health facilities
- The cost of transportation and consultation
- The health provider’s presence
- The trust issue in relation with the health providers (their age, medical
competencies, and attitude; and the completeness of medical equipment).
- The culture in the community
8. What do you think about the existed ANC service? Why? What are the good and bad
things about ANC? Can you give some examples?
9. What do you think about having regular ANC?
10. In your opinion, what will happen if a woman does not have regular ANC?
Childbirth Process
11. What did you do when you started feel contraction? Why? Whom did you inform your
contraction for the first time? Why? The, what did you do next? Why?
12. Where did you seek help to deliver the baby?
13. Who did help you during the labor process?
14. Who did make decision to give birth in puskesmas or helped by TBA? Why?
If ANC’s statements were not sufficient yet, ask:
- The distance of health facilities
- The cost of transportation and consultation
- The health provider’s presence
- The trust issue in relation with the health providers (their age, medical
competencies, and attitude; and the completeness of medical equipment).
- The culture in the community
15. What do you think about the childbirth process aided by TBAs? (The advantages and the
disadvantages.)
16. What do you think about the childbirth process aided by midwives? (The advantages
and the disadvantages.)
After Childbirth Process and Family Planning
17. What do you do after the childbirth process? Why? What do they do afterwards?
18. What do you think about family planning program? Do you follow the family planning
program? Why?
If the participant follows the family planning program, ask her where and why she
follows the program.
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Perception about village midwives
19. Can you tell me about the village midwives?
20. What do you think about them?
Ask the participant about: age, origin, clinical competencies, attitude, medical
equipment, maternity environment (privacy, cleanliness, etc), communication tools (cell
phone), and referral system.
21. What do you think about the village midwives’ (or nurses) performance?
What are their duties?
Which tasks are well performed? Why? What are the things that make the tasks were
well performed? Can you give me an example?
Which tasks are poorly performed? Why? What are the things that make the tasks were
poorly performed? Can you give me an example?
22. What can be done to improve the midwives’ services to improve maternal health?
23. How can it be supported?
Perception about Kader
24. Who are the kaders in this village?
25. What do you think about them?
26. What are their roles?
27. What do you think about kader’s work performance?
What are the tasks they performed well? Why? Give me some examples.
- What are the things that make the task were well performed? Why? Can you give
some examples?
- What are the things that make the task were poorly performed? Why? Can you give
some examples?
28. What is your suggestion to make the kader’s services better?
Perception about TBAs
29. Who are the TBAs in this village?
30. What do you think about them?
Ask about: age, services, attitude, birthing environment, referral system
31. What are their roles? What do they do?(in pregnancy, during childbirth process, after
childbirth process, neonatal care, etc). The role of TBA in female circumcision (only in
Cianjur).
What do you like about their services? Why? Can you give me an example?
What do you dislike about their services? Why? Can you give me an example?
32. What is your suggestion to make the TBAs services better?
Cooperation
33. What do you think about the cooperation between midwives and TBAs in this village?
Give me an example.
34. What do you think about the cooperation between midwives and kaders in this village?
Give me an example.
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35. What do you think about the cooperation between kaders and TBAs in this village? Give
me an example.
36. What can be done to improve their cooperation?
Regional Expansion (Only in SW Sumba)
37. Southwest Sumba is developed from the regional expansion of West Sumba. Do you see
the difference of health services before and after the expansion?
Mother and Children Health Revolution (Only in SW Sumba)
38. Have you ever heard about mother and children health revolution?
Mother and children health revolution is a part of East Nusa Tenggara policy to
decrease
the maternal mortality rate and new-born baby mortality rate.
What do you think about the implementation of this policy in village level?
Do you see if there any difference before and after mother and child health revolution?
What are the differences? How do the differences happen?
Suggestion
39. What are the things that can be done to improve maternal health services?
4. 4. 1. 5. SSI Village Head
Interview Guideline for Village Head
Pregnancy and Antenatal Care (ANC)
1. How do the women know if they are pregnant?
2. What do they initially do when they know they are pregnant? Then, what happened?
What do they do afterwards?
If ANC’s statements were not sufficient yet, ask:
- Do they have regular ANC?
- Why do some women have the routine ANC and some have not? Why? Give an
example.
- In which gestational age they have the ANC? Why?
- Do they do the ANC for more than one time? Why do some women have the ANC for
2, 3 or 4 times?
If the statements were not sufficient yet, ask:
- The distance of health facilities
- The cost of transportation and consultation
- The health provider’s presence
- The trust issue in relation with the health providers (their age, medical
competencies, and attitude; and the completeness of medical equipment).
3. Who does decide if a woman should have regular ANC?
4. What do you think about the existed ANC service?
5. What does usually happen when pregnant women do not have regular ANC?
Childbirth Process
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6.
What do the pregnant women do when they start to feel contraction? What do they do
afterwards? Why? Then, what happened?
7. Who does usually help the women during the childbirth process? Why?
8. Is there any difference between those who utilise midwives health services and those
who do not? Why? Give an example.
9. How do the women make decision in the childbirth process? Who does decide it for
them?
10. What are the obstacles for the women to give birth in health facilities?
If the statements were not sufficient yet, ask the participant the reason why the
pregnant women do not utilise polindes or do not assisted by trained health providers
during the childbirth process. Several things to be considered are:
- The distance of health facilities
- The cost of transportation and consultation
- The health provider’s presence
- The trust issue in relation with the health providers (their age, medical
competencies, and attitude; and the completeness of medical equipment).
- Health insurance
11. What do you think about the childbirth process aided by TBAs? The advantages and the
disadvantages.
12. What do you think about the childbirth process aided by midwives? The advantages and
the disadvantages.
After Childbirth Process and Family Planning
13. What do the women do after the childbirth process? Why? What do they do
afterwards?
14. What do you think about family planning program? Do you follow the family planning
program? Why?
15. If the participant follows the family planning program, ask him/her where and why
he/she follows the program.
Perception about health service providers
16. What do you think about the performance of village midwives? (Village nurses if there is
no presence of village midwives).
- What are their tasks?
- Which tasks do they performed well? Why? What are the things that make them do
the tasks well?
- Which tasks are poorly performed? Why? What are the things that make them do
the tasks poorly?
If the statements were not sufficient or have not answered the questions yet, ask the
participant:
- Age
- Clinical competencies
- Attitude
159 | P a g e
- Medical equipment
- Birthing environment
- Communication tools (cell phone)
- Referral system
17. What is the kader’s role in your village?
18. What is the TBAs’ role in your village?
19. Is there any female circumcision in this village? Can you explain about it? What is the
reason if it is a must? Can you tell me the process? (Only in Cianjur)
Regional Expansion (Only in SW Sumba)
20. Southwest Sumba is developed from the regional expansion of West Sumba. Do you see
the difference of health services before and after the expansion?
Mother and Children Health Revolution (Only in SW Sumba)
21. Have you ever heard about mother and children health revolution?
Mother and children health revolution is a part of East Nusa Tenggara policy to
decrease the maternal mortality rate and new-born baby mortality rate.
What do you think about the implementation of this policy in village level?
Do you see if there any difference before and after mother and child health revolution?
What are the differences? How do the differences happen?
Suggestion
22. What is your suggestion to improve the health services provided by village midwives in
ANC and childbirth process to give the community more health benefit?
23. How can the cooperation betwwen TBAs and midwives be improved in order to
improve maternal health service?
4. 4. 1. 6. SSI Midwife Coordinator, Puskesmas Head, and DHO MCH Officer
Interview Guideline for Midwife Coordinator, Puskesmas Head, DHO MCH Officer
1. Can you tell me about your task related to MCH?
2. What do you think about the tasks of village midwife, TBA and kader in relationship
with MCH? Give the reason about your opinion. (Asking about referral, coordination,
supervision).
3. What are the supporting factors and the inhibiting factors of the tasks of village
midwife, kader and TBA regarding MCH?
Asking about:
- Health policy (regulation, political commitcment in the village and district)
- Health system (trainings, financial/non-financial incentives, M/E, supervision, human
resource management)
4. What is your suggestion regarding the partnership between village midwife and kader
and/or TBA?
Asking about:
- Partnership model
- M/E and supervision
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- Incentive
- Obstacles and the anticipations
4.4.2. FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION
4. 4. 2. 1. FGD Husband/Men
FGD Guideline for Men
Pregnancy and Antenatal Care (ANC)
1. How do the women know if they are pregnant?
2. What do they initially do when they know they are pregnant?
Then, what happened?What do they do afterwards?
If ANC’s statements were not sufficient yet, ask:
- Do they have regular ANC?
- Why do some women have the routine ANC and some have not? Why? Give an
example.
- In which gestational age they have the ANC? Why?
- Do they do the ANC for more than one time? Why do some women have the ANC for
2, 3 or 4 times?
- When do they usually have the ANC? Why?
If the statements were not sufficient yet, ask:
- The distance of health facilities
- The cost of transportation and consultation
- The health provider’s presence
- The trust issue in relation with the health providers (their age, medical
competencies, and attitude; and the completeness of medical equipment).
3. Who does decide if a woman should have regular ANC?
4. What do you think about the existed ANC service?
5. What does usually happen when pregnant women do not have regular ANC?
Childbirth Process
6. What do the pregnant women do when they start to feel contraction? What do they do
afterwards? Why? Then, what happened?
7. Who does usually help the women during the childbirth process? Why?
8. Is there any difference between those who utilise midwives health services and those
who do not? Why? Give an example.
9. How do the women make decision in the childbirth process? Who does decide it for
them?
10. What are the obstacles for the women to give birth in health facilities?
Several things to be considered are:
- The distance of health facilities
- The cost of transportation and consultation
161 | P a g e
- The health provider’s presence
- The trust issue in relation with the health providers (their age, medical
competencies, and attitude; and the completeness of medical equipment).
- Health insurance
11. What do you think about the childbirth process aided by TBAs? The advantages and the
disadvantages.
12. What do you think about the childbirth process aided by midwives? The advantages and
the disadvantages.
After Childbirth Process and Family Planning
13. What do the women do after the childbirth process? Why? What do they do
afterwards?
14. What do you think about family planning program? Do you follow the family planning
program? Why?
15. If the participant follows the family planning program, ask him/her where and why
he/she follows the program.
Perception about health service providers
16. What do you think about the performance of village midwives? (Village nurses if there is
no presence of village midwives).
- What are their tasks?
- Which tasks do they performed well? Why? What are the things that make them do
the tasks well?
- Which tasks are poorly performed? Why? What are the things that make them do
the tasks poorly?
If the statements were not sufficient or have not answered the questions yet, ask the
participant:
- Age
- Clinical competencies
- Attitude
- Medical equipment
- Birthing environment
- Communication tools (cell phone)
- Referral system
17. What is the cadre’s role in your village?
18. What is the TBAs’ role in your village?
19. Is there any female circumcision in here? Does it must be done? The reason? How is the
process?
Regional Expansion(Only in SW Sumba)
20. Southwest Sumba is developed from the regional expansion of West Sumba. Do you see
the difference of health services before and after the expansion?
Mother and Children Health Revolution(Only in SW Sumba)
21. Have you ever heard about mother and children health revolution?
162 | P a g e
Mother and children health revolution is a part of East Nusa Tenggara policy to
decrease the maternal mortality rate and new-born baby mortality rate.
What do you think about the implementation of this policy in village level?
Do you see if there any difference before and after mother and child health revolution?
What are the differences? How do the differences happen?
Suggestion
22. What is your suggestion to improve the health services provided by village midwives in
ANC and childbirth process to give the community more health benefit?
23. What do you think about the cooperation between TBAs and village midwives?
24. How can the cooperation betwwen TBAs and midwives be improved in order to
improve maternal health service?
4. 4. 2. 2. FGD TBA (only in Cianjur)
FGD Guideline for TBA
Tasks and Client
1. Can you explain me about your job?
- Why did you decide to be a TBA?
- What is your daily job? (Ask the participant about the type of tasks, e.g. during
pregnancy, the childbirth process, neonatal care, etc).
- Is there any female circumcision in Cianjur? How is it? Who does the circumcision?
2. Who are your clients? Which are your working areas?
- Why do they use or not use your service?
- According to your experience, what do the women in this village do when:
 They wanted to have pregnancy check-up
 They were going into the labor process
- Where did they go for assistance in those two occasions? Why did they go there?
- After childbirth, did they have check-up? Where? Why did they choose that place?
- In terms of family planning program, did these women follow the program? Where?
- Why did they choose to follow or not to follow the program?
Motivation and job satisfaction
3. What do you think about your current role as a TBA? Are you happy with your job?
Why?
What are the things that make you feel happy or do not feel happy about your role?
Why? Canyou give me some examples?
Ask the participant about:
- Non-financial incentive (Gain trust from the community, community’s support, social
status).
- Financial incentive.
- The participant’s feeling/opinion about those incentives.
- ther income.
Service quality
163 | P a g e
4.
What is your opinion about good quality health services by a TBA? According to your
own experience, can you give me some examples about good and bad quality TBA’s
health services?
In terms of good quality service, what are the things that support you and not support
you in performing your role as a TBA? Why?
The relationship with health system and community leaders
5. When you were facing difficulties in performing your job:
- Who do you contact?
- How often?
- Where? Do you use any media to communicate with that person? If yes, who did
provide the communication tool?
- What do you feel about your communication and relationship with this person?
What do you like or dislike about it? Why?
- Does the communication give you benefit to perform your job?
6. How do you communicate with community leaders, puskesmas’ staffs, hospital, and
health institution?
- The forum
- The frequency
- The content of the meeting
7. Have you ever done a referral? Can you give me some examples?
- What were the referred cases?
- Why did you do a referral?
- How often do you need to refer a patient?
- How do you do a referral?
- What are the good things about a referral? Why?
- What were the obstacles you face? What did you do?
Perception about health care providers
8. What do you think about village midwives or nurses?
- Can you tell me about the midwives in this village?
- How is their performance?
- What are their roles?
- Which role was good executed and which role was not? Why?
- What are the things that make their roles were well executed and were not well
executed?
- Can you give some examples?
Ask the participant about: age, origin, clinical competencies, attitude, medical
equipment, maternity environment (privacy, cleanliness, etc), communication tools (cell
phone), and referral system.
9. How is your relationship with the midwives? Have you ever work with them in the past?
10. What do make you feel glad to refer childbirth process to the midwives?
11. What is your suggestion to improve the midwives services?
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Perception about Kader
12. Who are the kaders in this village?
13. What do you think about them?
14. What are their roles?
- What are the tasks they performed well? Why? Give me some examples.
- What are the things that make the task were well performed? Why? Can you give
some examples?
- What are the things that make the task were poorly performed? Why? Can you give
some examples?
- What is your suggestion to make the kader’s services better?
- How is your relationship with the kaders? Have you ever work with them in the past?
15. How can the kader’s services be improved?
16. How is your relationship with kaders?(in terms of the opportunity to work together)
Have you ever have one? Then, what happened?
Suggestion
19. What else can you do besides helping the women go through the labor process?
20. In your opinion, what are the things that can be done to improve maternal health
services?
4. 4. 2. 3. FGD Village Midwife (only in SW Sumba)
FGD Guideline for Village Midwife
Tasks and Client
1. Can you explain how did you end up working as village midwife/nurse in this health
facility?
2. Can you describe about your job?
- The tasks (The task in posyandu and outside posyandu).
- The reason behind the participant wants to be a village midwife/nurse.
3. Which are your working areas?
- Who are you clients or people who utilise your service?
- Why do they use or not use your service?
- What kind of health services that most utilised by the community? (Policlinic,
maternal health service, etc)
- According to your experience, what do the women in this village do when:
* They wanted to have pregnancy check-up
* They were going into the labor process
Where did they go for assistance in those two occasions? Why did they go there?
- After childbirth, did they have check-up? Where? Why did they choose that place?
- In terms of family planning program, did these women follow the program? Where?
- What are the most utilised health services? (ANC, labor process services, after-birth
services, family planning program)
165 | P a g e
- What are the least utilised health services? (ANC, labor process services, after-birth
services, family planning program)
Motivation and job satisfaction
4. What do you think about your current job/role? Are you happy with your job? Why?
What are the things that make you feel happy or do not feel happy about your job?
Why? Canyou give me some examples?
Ask the participant about:
- Non-financial incentive (Gain trust from the community, community’s support, social
status).
 What is the response from community? Give me some examples.
 What do the community like and dislike in relation with your services? Give me
some examples.
- Financial incentive (income).
- The participant’s feeling/opinion about those incentives.
- Other job or income.
Service quality
5. What is your opinion about midwife/nurse’s good quality health services? According to
your ownexperience, can you give me some examples about midwife/nurse’s good and
bad quality health services?
In terms of good quality service, what are the things that support you and not support
you in performing your role as a midwife/nurse? Why?
Ask the participant about:
- The workload. What does he/she feel about it?
- The workplace infrastructure
- The work environment (colleague, supervisor)
- The safety in the workplace
- The future career
- The feeling/opinion about existed medical guidelines
Supervision
6. What is your experience about work supervision?
- Who does supervise your work?
- When was the last time you get supervised?
- How often does the supervision conducted?
- How was the supervision conducted? (The target of the program and the reporting)
- What is the feedback?
- How about the problem solving (including social support)? Why? Give me an
example.
- Does your skill improved after supervision? Why? Give me an example.
- What is your opinion about the supervision? Why? Did you get or did not get some
benefits from supervision?Can you give me some examples?
Monitoring and Evaluation
166 | P a g e
7.
Can you explain about the recording and reporting of maternal health services?
Ask:
- How do you do the recording and reporting? What is the content of the report?
- How do you send your report files? What instrument do you use?
- Who does give you the feedback? How is the feedback conducted? How is the
feedback applied?
- What do you think about the reporting system and the feedback? Is there any
benefits? Why? Can you give some examples?
The relationship with health system and community leaders
8. When you were facing difficulties in performing your job:
- Who do you contact?
- How often?
- Where? Do you use any media to communicate with that person? If yes, who did
provide the communication tool?
- What do you feel about your communication and relationship with this person?
What do you likeor dislike about it? Why?
- Does the communication give you benefit to perform your job?
9. How do you communicate with community leaders, puskesmas’ staffs, hospital, and
health institution?
- The forum
- The frequency
- The content of the meeting
10. How do you handle the referral cases? (From village to puskesmas)
- What were the referral cases you had? Give some examples. Why did you refer those
cases?
- How often do you do the referral?
- Where did you refer those cases?
- How did you do it?
- What are the good things about referral? Why?
- What are the obstacles? What did you do next (to overcome the obstacles)?
11. What do you think about kader? What are the good and bad things about kader? Give
me some examples.
- What do you think about kader’s “voluntarism” and what is the relationship with the
health service quality?
- How do you monitor the quality of kader’s health services?
- Does the community participate in monitoring kader’s health services? How?
Ask about:
- The participant’s relationship with kader and the examples.
- The participant’s view about his/her partnership with kader. Does the partnership
ever exist? Then, what happened?
- What is the community’s response regarding kader’s services?
167 | P a g e
Relationship with TBA
12. Is there any TBA in this village?
What is their TBA role in MCH?
Can you tell me more about their role during ANC, delivery, PNC, child health and FP?
13. Is there any female circumcision in this village? Does evet female must be circumcised?
The reason? Can you tell me the process? (Only in Cianjur)
Community Involvement
14. How is your relationship with the community? Give me some examples. Why?
15. How do you develop that relationship? Give me some examples?
16. How is the midwives’ placement in this village?
- Does the community take part in that placement? How is their involvement?
- How is the evaluation of midwives’ performance conducted?
- Does the community involved in that evaluation? How?
Regional Expansion
17. Southwest Sumba is developed from the regional expansion of West Sumba. Do you see
the difference of health services before and after the expansion?
Mother and Children Health Revolution
18. Have you ever heard about mother and children health revolution?
Mother and children health revolution is a part of East Nusa Tenggara policy to
decrease the maternal mortality rate and new-born baby mortality rate.
What do you think about the implementation of this policy in village level?
Do you see if there any difference before and after mother and child health revolution?
What are the differences? How do the differences happen?
Suggestion
19. In your opinion, what are the things that can be done to improve your performance in
supporting better maternal health services?
168 | P a g e
ANNEX 5. ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS AND PROBLEM STATEMENT
169 | P a g e
170 | P a g e
171 | P a g e
172 | P a g e
173 | P a g e
ANNEX 6. NVIVO CODING FRAMEWORK
Indonesia NVIVO Coding Framework
NAME
SOURCES
REFERENCES
CREATED ON
CREATED BY
MODIFIED ON
1. CTCP description
123
2308
9/23/2013 1:07 PM
OT
3/10/2014 4:39 PM
MODIFIED
BY
L
1.1 Midwife coordinators
12
37
10/9/2013 3:59 PM
LL
1/14/2014 7:40 AM
LL
1.2 Village midwife
120
946
10/9/2013 3:59 PM
LL
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
1.3 TBA
117
597
10/9/2013 3:59 PM
LL
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
1.4 Kader
115
580
10/9/2013 3:59 PM
LL
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
1.5 Other
29
93
10/9/2013 3:59 PM
LL
3/13/2014 7:55 AM
L
1.6 Private midwife
22
44
12/31/2013 7:58 AM
L
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
2. Community
1
1
9/23/2013 1:22 PM
OT
10/4/2013 7:13 AM
RU
2.1 Community context
18
26
9/23/2013 1:22 PM
OT
3/13/2014 7:59 AM
L
2.1.1 Religion, culture, social
84
282
9/23/2013 1:22 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
2.1.2 Gender, norms, values, roles
42
94
9/23/2013 1:22 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
2.1.3 Stigma, discrimination
12
18
9/23/2013 1:26 PM
OT
3/6/2014 9:37 AM
L
2.2 Community engagement with CTCP
9
10
9/23/2013 1:29 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
2.2.1 Recruitment and selection
37
45
9/23/2013 1:29 PM
OT
3/6/2014 9:12 AM
L
2.2.2 Comm support
47
81
9/23/2013 1:31 PM
OT
3/13/2014 7:55 AM
L
2.2.3 Financial and non-fin incentives
52
125
9/23/2013 1:31 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
2.2.4 Dis-incentives
13
32
9/23/2013 1:34 PM
OT
3/10/2014 4:39 PM
L
2.2.5 Governance
33
75
9/23/2013 2:40 PM
OT
3/13/2014 7:55 AM
L
2.2.6 Awareness of rights
14
19
9/23/2013 2:58 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
2.3 Community Expectations
73
208
9/23/2013 3:01 PM
OT
3/13/2014 7:53 AM
L
2.4 Perceptions of provider
112
577
9/23/2013 3:03 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
2.5 Health seeking behaviour
0
0
9/23/2013 3:05 PM
OT
9/23/2013 3:07 PM
OT
174 | P a g e
NAME
SOURCES
REFERENCES
CREATED ON
CREATED BY
MODIFIED ON
2.5.1 Understanding, knowledge belief
81
230
9/23/2013 3:06 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
MODIFIED
BY
L
2.5.2 Health practice
106
471
9/23/2013 3:06 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
2.5.3 Decision-making
72
163
9/24/2013 4:03 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
2.5.4 Reasons for using or not using MH
services
3. Human Resources
111
622
9/24/2013 4:04 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
0
0
9/23/2013 3:10 PM
OT
9/30/2013 12:29 PM
KDK
3.1 Selection and recruitment
53
88
9/23/2013 3:10 PM
OT
3/13/2014 7:59 AM
L
3.2 Provider role
0
0
9/23/2013 3:16 PM
OT
9/23/2013 3:21 PM
OT
3.2.1 Focus and tasks
100
560
9/23/2013 3:21 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
3.2.2 Location
76
143
9/23/2013 3:22 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
3.2.3 Competencies
22
39
9/30/2013 12:33 PM
KDK
2/27/2014 10:18 AM
L
3.3 Total workload
49
111
9/23/2013 3:26 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
3.4 Continuous education
20
35
9/23/2013 3:29 PM
OT
3/13/2014 7:55 AM
L
3.5 Career perspective
15
24
9/23/2013 3:32 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
3.6 Incentives
91
278
9/23/2013 3:33 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
3.7 Non-financial incentives
41
63
9/23/2013 3:38 PM
OT
3/13/2014 7:22 AM
L
3.8 Supervision
51
127
9/23/2013 3:40 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
3.9 Motivation Job satisfaction and Attrition
57
228
9/30/2013 9:03 AM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
4. Programme management and implementation
4
12
9/23/2013 3:54 PM
OT
1/2/2014 8:24 AM
L
4.1 Access including availability
103
375
9/23/2013 4:00 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
4.2 Service delivery
109
610
9/23/2013 4:00 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
4.3 Staff availability
68
154
9/23/2013 4:02 PM
OT
3/13/2014 7:55 AM
L
4.4 Recording, reporting, data systems
47
112
9/23/2013 4:07 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
4.5 Referral
82
177
9/23/2013 4:08 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
4.6 Coordination and communication
105
501
9/23/2013 4:21 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
4.7 Logistics and supply chain
66
190
9/23/2013 4:23 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
4.8 Sustainability
17
24
9/23/2013 4:25 PM
OT
3/10/2014 2:46 PM
L
175 | P a g e
NAME
SOURCES
REFERENCES
CREATED ON
CREATED BY
MODIFIED ON
5. Quality
0
0
9/23/2013 4:16 PM
OT
3/6/2014 9:30 AM
MODIFIED
BY
L
5.1 Manuals and protocols
24
31
9/23/2013 4:27 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
5.2 M&E loops and feedback
45
149
9/23/2013 4:28 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
5.3 Problem solving mechanisms
48
133
9/23/2013 4:28 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
5.4 Policy and strategies
84
324
9/23/2013 4:33 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
5.5 Perception of quality
71
231
9/24/2013 3:39 PM
OT
3/13/2014 7:53 AM
L
6. Governance
58
196
9/23/2013 4:34 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
7. TBA
0
0
9/23/2013 4:39 PM
OT
9/29/2013 11:06 AM
OT
7.1 TBAs' perspective on policy and practice
10
29
10/10/2013 9:53 AM
LL
3/6/2014 9:12 AM
L
7.2 Perspecitives on TBAs
102
275
9/24/2013 4:43 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
8. Health issue
6
8
9/23/2013 4:59 PM
OT
3/13/2014 7:55 AM
L
8.1 FP
106
207
9/23/2013 5:00 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
8.2 Delivery
111
505
9/23/2013 5:00 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
8.3 Neonatal
60
134
9/23/2013 5:00 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
8.4 Child health
64
170
9/23/2013 5:01 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
8.5 ANC PNC
112
574
9/23/2013 5:01 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
9. Examples training
42
93
10/1/2013 12:47 PM
KDK
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
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Great quotations
46
119
9/23/2013 5:07 PM
OT
3/13/2014 8:02 AM
L
176 | P a g e
ANNEX 7. ETHICAL APPROVAL LETTER
177 | P a g e
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