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Penilaian Sepintas Keragaman Fauna di Pegunungan Dieng Rapid

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Penilaian Sepintas Keragaman Fauna di Pegunungan Dieng Rapid
Penilaian Sepintas Keragaman Fauna
di Pegunungan Dieng
Rapid Assessment of Fauna Diversity
in Dieng Mountains
Oleh /By :
V. Nijman
Institute for Systematics and Population Biology / Zoological Museum,
University of Amsterdam, PO Box 94766 1090 GT Amsterdam
&
I. Setiawan
Yayasan Pribumi Alam Lestari
Jl. Paledang 21, Cibeureum, Bandung 40148
Mendukung program kerja
Supporting a Programme of
Jaringan Program Mitra Dieng
Perum Podosugih Jl. Berlian 10-12
Pekalongan 51111
KREDIT/CREDIT
PENULIS/AUTHOR
Vincent Nijma, Iwan Setiawan
KONTRIBUTOR UTAMA/MAIN CONTROBUTORS
Andi Prima Setiadi, Muchamad Muchtar (YPAL), Thomas Oni, Yogi Hartono, Akhirul Huda
(Yayasan Pteropus Vampyrus Indonesia), M. Ani Sofyan (Elppam), Budi (Jeram) Slamet Riyanto
(FK3I Jawa Tengah), Husnur Esthiwahyu (KIH Regional 11-Semarang)
PENYUNTING/EDITOR
Sahertian va bethoven
FOTO/PHOTO
Alain Compost, Andi P. Setiadi. Yayan
SPONSOR
Gibbon Foundation
@ Yayasan pribumi Alam Lestari, 2000
ISBN 979-9319-04-8
KUTIPAN/CITATION
Setiawan, I., V. Nijman., 2001. Penilaian Sepintas Keragaman Fauna di Pegunungan Dieng
[Rapid Assessment of Fauna Diversiti in Dieng Mountains]. Laporan Akhir [Final Report.
YPAl/Mitra Dieng/Gibbon Foundation, Bandung.
Perbanyakan dokumen ini didukung oleh
Publication of this document was supported by
GIBBON FOUNDATION
P.O. Box 7610 JKP
Jakarta 10076
Indonesia
1
Pendahuluan
Kawasan Pegunungan Dieng di Propinsi Jawa
Tengah menopang suatu ekosistem yang unik.
Jawa Tengah adalah salah satu propinsi dengan
populasi manusia terpadat serta kehancuran
hutannya yang paling parah di Indonesia dengan
hanya menyisakan 2,47% di seluruh propinsi
(Whitten et al. 1996). Hingga kini belum
terbentuk suatu kawasan teresterial yang luas
sebagai cagar alam di propinsi ini dan
ketidakberadaannya menciptakan suatu jurang
pemisah dalam Jaringan Kawasan Pelestarian di
Jawa (Nijman & Sözer, 1996). Hutan alam di
2
pegunungan mencakup 255 km , dan merupakan
kawasan hutan tersisa yang paling luas di
propinsi ini. Berkat luasnya, lokasi dan nilai hayati
yang tinggi, Pegunungan Dieng memiliki arti
secara internasional bagi pelestarian
keanekaragaman hayati dunia.
Hutannya masih dalam kondisi yang relatif baik
dan mencakup dataran rendah sampai dataran
tinggi dengan kemiringan 300 hingga 2.565 m
d.p.l. Di sana terdapat banyak spesies endemik
untuk Jawa dan sejumlah mammalia endemik
yang terancam punah. Pelestarian
hutan di
Pegunungan Dieng sangat penting karena
mewakili salah satu hutan dataran rendah yang
tersisa di Jawa. Bila inipun punah, kehidupan
banyak satwa dan spesies tumbuhan akan ada
dalam bahaya. Tumbuhan hutan adalah penting
untuk mencegah banjir Lumpur di kawasan
dataran yang padat penduduk. Pelestarian hutan
dapat mencegah erosi dan menstabilisasikan
iklim setempat.
Dari sudut konservasi, Pegunungan Dieng
merupakan tempat suaka bagi sejumlah besar
fauna endemik di Jawa Tengah, termasuk
mammalia seperti Owa Jawa (Hylobates moloch)
dan Suili (Presbytis comata). Populasi besar
kedua spesies ini diketemuakan di Pegunungan
Dieng tetapi daerah ini tidak dicantumkan dalam
laporan PHVA (Supriatna et al., 1994). Populasi
penting dari burung Elang Jawa (Spizaetus
bartelsi), serta sejumlah besar burung di hutan
dataran rendah sedang terancam kepunahan.
Melihat sedikitnya sisa hutan dataran rendah di
Jawa, hampir semua burung hutan terancam
kepunahan tanpa perkecualian.
Introduction
The Dieng Mountains, situated in the Central Java
Province, support a unique forest ecosystem.
Central Java is one of the most densely populated
and most deforested provinces in Indonesia, with
only 2,47% of the provincial total remaining
(Whitten et al., 1996). Hitherto, no large
terrestrial reserve has been established in the
province, and its absence creates a significant
lacuna in Java's Protected Area Network (Nijman
& Sozer, 1996). The natural forest on these
mountains totals c. 255 km sq., making it by far
the largest remaining forest in the province. By
virtue of its size, its location and its high biological
value, the Dieng Mountains are of international
significance for the conservation of global
biodiversity.
The forest is still in relatively good condition and it
ranges from lowland to upper montane over an
unbroken altitudinal gradient from c. 300 to 2565
m a.s.l. It support many birds species endemic to
Java, as well as a number of threatened and/or
endemic mammals. Maintenance of the forest in
the Dieng Mountains is essential as is represents
one of the last remaining lowland forests on Java.
When lost, the survival of many animals and plant
species will be put a stake. Forest cover is
essential in order to prevent mud floods in the
densely populated lowland. Locally, maintenance
of forest areas controls erosion and stabilizes the
local climate.
From a conservation perspective, the Dieng
mountains are the easternmost refuge for a great
number of threatened 'West Javan endemics'.
These include mammals like the Javan gibbon
Hylobates moloch and the Grizzled leaf monkey
Presbytis comata. Of both species large
populations are found in the Dieng mountains, yet
the area was not included in a recent PHVA-report
(Supriatna et al., 1994). For the birds important
populations of the endangered Javan Hawk-eagle
Spizaetus bartelsi, as well as a great number of
lowland forest birds. Given the tiny amount of
lowland forest remaining on Java, these forest
birds are almost without exception threatened to
some degree.
2
Mempertimbangkan berbagai fungsi Pegunungan
Dieng, hilangnya atau degradasi sisa-sisa hutan
akan menimbulkan akibat yang serius. Untuk
pelestarian kawasan ini diperlukan suatu rencana
strategis, dengan pernyataan kepentingan lokal,
regional dan nasional.
(Mitra
Dieng/KEHATI/GEF-SGP/BirdLife, 1999).
Rencana tersebut baru saja dirumuskan dan akan
digunakan sebagai referensi untuk perlindungan
dan pelestarian hutan di Pegunungan Dieng.
Considering the various functions of the Dieng
Mountains, loss or degradation of the remaining
forests will have far-reaching consequences. In
order to preserve the area a strategic plan is
required, integrating local, regional, and national
needs (Mitra Dieng/KEHATI/GEF-SGP/BirdLife,
1999). This strategic plan has recently been
formulated and will be used as a reference to
protect and preserve the forests in the Dieng
Mountains.
Beberapa lokakarya telah diadakan (Semarang,
Oktober 1998; Banjarnegara, Februari 1999),
yang ditunjang oleh tidak kurang dari 36 lembaga
yang sedikit banyak terlibat dalam pengelolaan
Pegunungan Dieng dan dihadiri oleh utusan resmi
nasional, pemerintah daerah, organisasi
kemasyarakatan, LSM dan para kepada desa.
Disepakati perlunya dibentuk suatu program
jaringan untuk membina, melaksanakan dan
bertanggung jawab bagi perkembangan dan
pengelolaan Pegunungan Dieng sebagai kawasan
konservasi. Selanjutnya jariangan tersebut
didirikan dengan nama MITRA DIENG (Mitra
Dieng/KEHATI/GEF-SGP/BirdLife, 1999).
A number of workshops have been held
(Semarang, October 1998; Banjarnegara,
February 1999), which was supported by no less
than 36 institutions who are to a greater or lesser
extent involved in the management of Dieng
Mountains. It was attended by national and
provincial government officials, community based
organization, NGOs, and informal leaders. It was
agreed that a programme network was needed to
develop, to execute and take responsibility for the
development and management of the Dieng
Mountains as a conservation area. Subsequently,
this network has been established as MITRA
DIENG (Mitra Dieng/KEHATI/GEF-SGP/BirdLife,
1999).
Dalam rencana kegiatan, salah satu priroritas
adalah pengumpulan data mengenai
keanekaragaman hayati Pegunungan Dieng
dengan maksud menguatkan pembenaran
kawasan ini diremikan sebagai kawasan
pelestarian. Survei pertama diadakan di
Kembang langit dan Linggo asri 13 - 17 Februari
dan survei kedua di Petungkriyono dan Simego 22
Maret - 2 April 2000, survei ketiga, keempat dan
kelima mana?.
Within the strategic plan, compiling an inventory
of the biological potential of the Dieng mountains
was considered as one of the priorities. The
objective was formulated so as to collect data on
the biological diversity of the Dieng mountains in
order to increase the justification of the
gazettment of the Dieng Mountains as a
conservation area. The first survey was held in
Kembang langit and Linggo asri 13 to 17 February
and the second survey in Petungkriyono and
Simego 22 March to 2 April 2000.
3
Tujuan survey fauna
Aim of the faunal survey
Tujuan survei adalah pengumpulan data
mengenai keanekaagaman fauna Pegunungan
Dieng untuk menyokong usulan penetapan dan
pengelolaan Pegunungan Dieng sebagai kawasan
pelestarian.
The aim of the rapid faunal survey is to collect
information on the faunal diversity of the Dieng
mountains to support the establishment and
management of a proposed Dieng mountains
conservation area.
Tujuan survei tersebut mencakup lima hal :
The aims break down in five discrete items, i.e.:
1.
Penggumpulan data mengenai bermacam
habitat dan identifikasi sebagian besar tipe
vegetasinya.
1.
Collect information on the range of habitats
in the area and identify major vegetation
types.
2.
Pengumpulan data mengenai keberadaan
burung dan menyusun daftar spesies dan
perkiraan kelimpahan spesieskunci
2.
3.
Pengumpulan data mengenai keberadaan
mammalia dan menyusun daftar spesies
serta perkiraan kelimpahan spesies kunci.
Collect information on the occurrence of
birds in the Dieng mountains, thus providing
a species list and estimates of abundance of
key species.
3.
Collect information on the occurrence of
mammals in the Dieng mountains, thus
providing a species list and estimates of
abundance of key species.
4.
Record information on the extent of forest
encroachment, local infrastructure and use
of wildlife in and around the Dieng
Mountains.
5.
Train a number of members of Mitra Dieng in
rapid faunal survey techniques as part of a
capacity building programme for the Mitra
Dieng network.
4.
5.
Pencatatan data mengenai luasnya
peggunaan hutan, infrastuktur setempat,
pemanfaatan satwa liar di/sekitar
Pegunungan Dieng.
Pelatihan beberapa anggota Mitra Dieng
dalam teknik survei fauna sepintas sebagai
bagian membangun kapasitas dalam
program jaringan Mitra Dieng.
Dalam laporan ini beberapa penemuan dari survei
yang telah dilakukan hingga kini akan
disampaikan serta garis besar rancangan untuk
masa mendatang.
In this preliminary report some findings of the
survey conducted so far will be given and future
plans are outlined
4
Metodologi
Pengamatan keragaman mammalia dimulai
dengan cara berjalan lamban di hutan dan
mencatat semua satwa yang dilihat. Surveisurvei ini dilaksanakan di samping survei burung.
Keberadaan Owa Jawa diperkirakan berdasarkan
suaranya yang diperdengarkan di pagi hari. Surili
dan lutung disurvei melalui jalur silang menyilang
dan dipetakan dari sudut tempat yang
menguntungkan. Semua metode yang dipakai
dimaksudkan agar gangguan sedikit mungkin.
Tidak ada satwa yang dibiasakan dan tidak ada
usaha untuk menangkap (jadi tidak ada
penangkapan satwa kecil atau kelelawar). Bila
satwa berkelompok, ini dicatat pada pengamatan
bebas (Altmann, 1974), dan data secara
berkelompok (Martin & Bateson, 1992) dicatat
mengenai tipe hutan, urutan gangguan dan
ketinggian. Pengambilan contoh pengamatan Ad
libitum sebanyak-banyaknya tidak dianjurkan
untuk penelitian jangka
panjang secara
komprehensif (Martin & Bateson, 1992), tetapi
adanya system jalan rintis, penelitian diadakan
dalam waktu relatif singkat, satwa yang diteliti
tidak terbiasa dan sulitnya kondisi pengematan.
Keragaman burung dinilai dengan berjalan
lamban dalam hutan dan mencatat semua burung
yang dilihat atau didengar. Survei-survei tersebut
teruatama dilaksanakan dalam beberapa jam di
pagi hari,mengikuti rekomendasi Bibby et al. (in
press). Perhatian khusus diberikan pada tempat
di mana spesies kunci berkumpul seperti di pohon
ara yang berbuah, telaga kecil di pegunungan dan
sepanjang sungai. Burung pemangsa dan burung
melayang tinggi disurvei dati tempat yang
menguntungkan di hutan atau pinggirannya dan
pada waktu yang paling tepat (tengah hari atau
siang).
Data mengenai ancaman pada mammalia dan
burung dimulai dengan mencatat spesies yang
ditangkap dan dijual di kota-kota setempat
ditambah dengan hasil wawancara dengan
penduduk setempat mengenai pemanfaatan hasil
hutan dan satwa liar.
Methodology
The mammal diversity was assessed by slowly
walking in the forest and recording all mammals
seen These surveys were be conducted alongside
the bird surveys. The presence of Javan gibbons
was assessed by means of their early morning
vocalization. Grizzled leaf monkeys and Ebony
leaf monkeys were surveyed both by means of
transect walks and mapping individual groups
from vantage points. All methods used were
aimed at being as little intrusive as possible. No
animals were habituated, and no attempt was
made to capture animals (hence no small
mammal trapping or mist netting of bats was
conducted). When an animal or a group of animals
was recorded ad lib observations (Altmann,
1974), and group scans (Martin & Bateson, 1992)
were made, and data on forest type, order of
disturbance and altitude was collected. Ad libitum
sampling is not to be recommended for long-term
comprehensive studies but can be useful during
preliminary observations (Martin & Bateson,
1992). Ad libitum sampling was used by default
because there were no established trail systems in
the area, the study covered a relative short time
span, the study animals were not habituated, and
the observation conditions were relatively
difficult.
Bird diversity was assessed by slowly walking in
the forest and recording all birds seen and/or
heard. These surveys were mainly conducted
during the early hours of the day following
recommendations given by Bibby et al. (in press).
Special attention was given to sites where key
species congregate, e.g. fruiting fig trees, small
mountain lakes and rivers. Raptors and other
soaring birds were surveyed from suitable
vantage points in the forest or along its borders,
and at the most favorable times of the day (mid
and late-morning).
For both mammals and birds, data on threats
were assessed by recording which species were
captured and offered for sale in local villages. This
was supplemented by opportunistically
conducting semi-structured interviews with the
local communities on their use of forest products
and wildlife.
5
Hasil dan pembahasan
Results and Discussion
1. M e n g u m p u l k a n d a t a m e n g e n a i
bermacam habitat dan identifikasi
sebagian besar tipe vegetasinya
1. Collect information on the range of
habitats in the area and identify major
vegetation types
Vegetasi Pegunungan Dieng adalah jenis
terbasah, hutan dataran rendah dan hutan hujan
pegunungan di bawah 100 m dan hutan
pegunungan basah hingga 2.400 m d.p.l. (van
Steenis 1972). Akibat gangguan manusia
dengan/atau kondisi alamiah, padang rumput
dengan sedikit pohon menutup bagian atas Gn.
Prahu. Hutan dataran rendah yang penting masih
ada di sekitar Linggo asri di barat laut
Pegunungan Dieng. Hutan menurun sampai 300
m d.p.pl., diteruskan dengan hutan dataran
pegunungan di Gn. Lumping (1327 m), dan
membentang ke arah timur ke desa Karanganyar.
Satu hutan dataran rendah (<1000m d.p.l.) ada
dekat desa Doro (lihat peta). Daerah hutan
pegunungan yang berarti diketemukan di Gn.
Lumping, Gn. Kemulan (altitude cari ketinggian),
dan Gn. Prahu (2565 m d.p.l.). Di seluruh hutan
dataran rendah dekat Linggo terdiri sebagian dari
perkebunan kopi yang menurut keterangan
setempat ditinggalkan sekitar tahun 1930.
The vegetation of the Dieng mountains is of the
wettest type, i.e. mixed lowland and hill rain forest
below c. 100 m and montane ever-wet rain forest
to c. 2400 (van Steenis 1972). As a result of
human disturbance and/or natural conditions,
meadows with few trees cover the upper parts of
Mt Prahu. Important lowland forest is still present
in the surroundings of Linggo asri in the northwestern part of the Dieng mountains. The forest
descends down to some 300 m asl, is continuous
with montane forest on Mt Lumping (1327 m), and
stretches eastwards to the village of Karanganyar.
Other important lowland forest (<1000m asl) is
present near the village of Doro (see map). Good
tracts of montane forest were found on Mt
Lumping, Mt Kemulan (altitude cari ketinggian),
and Mt Prahu (2565 m asl). Throughout the area
some large patches of undisturbed forest remain,
but most of the area is somewhat disturbed. The
lowland forests near Linggo consist partially of a
former coffee plantation which, according to local
informants was abandoned in the 1930's.
Hutan sebagian besar dikelilingi oleh perkebunan,
seperti perkebunan teh di utara dan selatan,
perkebunan pinus di timur dan barat, perkebunan
karet di barat laut dan lahan pertanian di
tenggara. Di seluruh hutan terdapat daerah
enklave kecil dan menengah hingga besar, di
mana masyarakat menanam tanaman pertanian
seperti padi, dan kubis.
Dari sudut keanekaragamn hayati, hutan dataran
rendah dianggap sangat penting, begitu pula
zone transisi antara hutan dataran rendah dan
pegunungan. Dua-duanya memiliki jumlah besar
spesies dan khususnya hutan dataran rendah
diabaikan dalam Jaringan Kawasan Pelesatrian di
Jawa.
The forests are largely surrounded by cultivation,
i.e. tea plantations in the north and south, pine
plantations in the east and west, rubber
plantations in the north-west, and by agricultural
land in the south-east. Throughout the forests,
small and medium to large enclaves are present
where people grow crops as such rice and
cabbage.
From a biological diversity perspective, the
lowland forest are considered of greatest
importance, as well as the transition zone
between lowland and montane forests. Both have
high numbers of species, and especially lowland
forest is severely under-represented in the Javan
conservation areas network.
6
2.
Mengumpulkan data mengenai
keberadaan burung dan menyusun
daftar spesies dan perkiraan
kelimpahan spesies kunci
Hingga kini, kurang lebih 150 spesies burung
tercatat di Pegunungan Dieng dan masih ada
beberapa spesies tambahan yang masih
menunggu konfirmasiKeadan ini masih
beruntung dibandingkan kawasan lindung lainnya
di Jawa, seperti Meru Betiri ( >180 spesies), atau
Baluran (> 160 spesies) (Mackinnon et al., 1999).
Kami mencatat 20 spesies endemik Fauna Jawa,
yang mewakili kurang lebiih 67% dari jumlah
seluruhnya 30 spesies endemik Jawa (Jalak Bali
dibatasi pada ujung barat Bali dan Trulek Jawa
sudah hampir punah).
Selanjutnya kami mencatat 24 dari 33 spesies
urung sebaran terbatas yang terdapat di Pulau.
Spesies sebaran terbatas adalah spesies yang
mempeunyai daerah perkembangbiakannya <
2
50.000 km (Sujatnika et al. 1995), dan karena
wilayah kecil ini dianggap sebagai spesies yang
paling tepat untuk mengidentifikasi kawasan
prioritas untuk konservasi.
Spesies yang patut dicatat termasuk Elang Jawa
(Spizaetus bartelsi), Puyuh gongong (Arborophila
javanica), dan Tepus dada-putih (Stachyris
grammiceps).
Elang Jawa merupakan endemik Jawa dan
terbatas pada daerah hutan yang tersisa. Spesies
ini dianggap terancam kepunahan berdasarkan
jumlahnya yang kecilenyebaran yang terbatas,
kawasan hutan yang makin berkurang di jawa dan
belakangan adanya perdagangan spesies ini yang
makin besar (Collar et al., 1994).
Kami
menemukan Elang Jawa di beberapa lokasi di
Pegunungan Dieng, termasuk Gn. Prahu, Gn
Kemulan dan dekat Linggo asri. Berdasarkan
luasnya hutan yang tersisa, kawasan ini
mempunyai populasi terbesar dari spesies ini di
Jawa Tengah dan perlindungan kawasan ini
dianggap sangat penting untuk konservasi
spesies tersebut (Sözer et al. 1998).
2.
Collect information on the occurrence
of birds in the Dieng mountains, thus
providing a species list and estimates of
abundance of a number of key species
Hitherto, some 150 bird species have been
recorded in the Dieng mountains, and some
additional species await confirmation. This
compares very favorably with other (protected)
areas on Java, e.g. Meru Betiri ( >180 species), or
Baluran (> 160 species) (Mackinnon et al 1999).
The complete list of birds recorded will be included
in the final report.
We recorded 20 species endemic to the Javan
faunal province, which represents some 67
percent of the total number of 30 endemics (of
which one Bali Starlingis confined to the
westernmost part of Bali and another Javan
Lapwings almost certainly extinct).
Furthermore we recorded 24 of the 33 Restricted
range species present on the island. A restricted
range species is a species with a known breeding
range < 50.000 km sq (Sujatnika et al., 1995),
and, by virtue of its small range, has been
considered among those species most suitable for
identifying priority areas for conservation.
Noteworthy species include the Javan Hawk-eagle
Spizaetus bartelsi, Chestnut-bellied partridge
Arborophila javanica, and White-breasted babbler
Stachyris grammiceps.
The Javan Hawk-eagle is endemic to Java and is
confined to the last remaining forest areas. The
species is considered endangered on account of
its small population size, its restricted
distribution, the ever-decreasing tiny forest left
on Java, and more recently because of an
increased trade in the species (Collar et al., 1994).
We found the Javan Hawk-eagle in a number of
localities in the Dieng mountains, including Gn
Prahu, Gn Kemulan and near Linggo asri. Based
on the extent of remaining forest, the area
harbors the largest Central Javan population of
the species, and protection of the area is
considered vital for the conservation of this
species (Sozer et al., 1998).
7
Puyuh gongong diperkirakan terbatas di Jawa
Barat dengan populasi terpisah di lokasi yang
tersebar di seluruh propinsi di Jawa Tengah,
t e r m a s u k d i P e g u n u n g a n D i e n g . Ka m i
menemukan dekat Linggo, Gn. Lumping, Gn.
Kemulan dan Gn. Prahu. Sepertinya spesies ini
lebih suka tempat di pedalaman di atas tepi
hutan, meskipun kami mendengar suaranya di
beberapa tempat di hutan (sering mengikuti
aliran sungai) dekat Gn. Kemulan.
Tepus data-putih adalah endemik di Jawa,
penyebaranlokal terdapat di bagin-bagian kecil
dalam hutan yang tersisa. Sampai saat ini,
spesies tersebut dianggap terancam punah dan
diklasifikasi sebagai “rentan” dalam daftar
spesies burung yang terancam punah (Collar et
al., 1994). Dalam daftar terbaru (N. Collar pers.
comm.) spesies ini tidak lagi termasuk daftar
tersebut karena penyebarannya lebih luas dan
lebih biasadaripada diperkirakan semula. Kami
mencatatnya beberapa di beberapa lokasi
termasuk Linggo dan Gn. Kemulan.
Selain dari itu, sejumlah besar spesies yang
sebelumnya diperkirakan terbatas di Jawa Barat,
umpamanya Takur bututut (Megalaima corvina)
(endemik Jawa Bawar), Pergam gunung (Ducula
badia) (sedikit catatan baru dari Jawa Barat);
Luntur gunung Harpactes reinwartii (endemik
jawa Barat); Cincoang biru (Cinclidium diana)
(tercatat di tumur Gn. Ciremai); Wergan Jawa
(Alcippe pyrrhoptera) (Jawa Barat); dan Tesia
Jawa (Tesia superciliaris) (juga tercatat di timur
Gn. Ceremai) tercatat di Pegunungan Dieng.
The Chestnut-bellied Partridge was formerly
believed to be confined to West Java with an
isolated population occurring on Gn. Lawu on the
East and Central Javan border. In fact, it occurs in
a number of scattered localities throughout the
Central Javan province, including the Dieng
mountains. We found it present near Linggo, Gn
Lumping, Gn Kemulan and Gn Prahu. The species
seems to prefer the interior above the edge,
although we heard it calling in a number of small
forest patches (often following river courses) near
Gn Kemulan.
The White-breasted babbler is endemic to Java,
where it has a local distribution in remnant forest
patches. Until recently, the species was
considered threatened with extinction and was
classed as Vulnerable in the list of threatened bird
species (Collar et al., 1994). In the most recent
up-date (N. Collar pers. comm.) the species is no
longer listed as its distribution range is larger than
previously assumed and it is more common than
previously thought. We recorded the species in a
number of localities, including Linggo and Gn
Kemulan.
Additionally, a large number of bird species
previously thought to be confined to West Java,
e.g. Brown-throated Barbet Megalaima corvina
(endemic West Java), Mountain imperial pigeon
Ducula badia (few recent records from West
Java); Blue-tailed Trogon Harpactes reinwartii
(endemic West Java); Sunda blue robin
Cinclidium diana (recorded east to Mt Ciremai);
Javan fulvetta Alcippe pyrrhoptera (West Java);
and the Javan Tesia Tesia superciliaris (also
recorded east to Ceremai) have been recorded in
the Dieng mountains.
8
3.
Mengumpulkan data mengenai
keberadaan mammalia dan menyusun
daftar spesies serta perkiraan
kelimpahan spesies kunci
Hingga kini lebih kurang lebih 20 spesies
mammalia telah didientifikasi. Karena tidak ada
jeratan atau penangkapan mammalia kecial,
jumlahnya mewakili contoh cukup banyak dari
fauna mammalia teresterial di Jawa.
Jumlah spesies endemik yang tercatat, termasuk
Lutung ( Trachypithecus auratus ), Surili
(Presbytis comata) Owa Jawa (Hylobates moloch)
dan Babi Jawa (Sus verrucosus). Spesies lain
yang cukup penting adalah macan tutul (Panthera
pardus) dan the Binturung. Lutung hanya
terdapat di Jawa, Bali, dan lombok (Nijman in
press). Karena terbatas pada hutan alami di
bagian Indonesia ini, hanya sedikit habitat yang
cocok tersisa bagi spesies tersebut. Populasi yang
masih ada diketemukan tersebar di pulau-pulau
dan banyak daerah hutan yang terpencil terlalu
kecil untuk memberi tempat hidup untuk suatu
populasi. Ini kemudian diakui oleh IUCN dan
selanjutnya dalam edisi terakhir dari Red Data
Book (IUCN, 1996) spesies ini diberi status
“rentan”. Lutung diketemukan di seluruh
Pegunungan Dieng dan seperti juga lebih banyak
dekat kawasan terbuka yang dirusak, sepanjang
tepi dan dekat sungai, Akan tetapi diperkebunan
karet dan pinus, spesies ini jarang terlihat dan
adakala satu kelompok diketemukan di hutan
tanaman, tanpa perkecualian di tempat itu
terdapat petak-petak hutan dekat sungai kecil
yang melintasinya.
Surili adalah endemik di bagian barat Jawa hingga
Gn. Lawu di perbatasan dengan Jawa Timur
(Nijman, 1997b). Dianjurkan populasi Surili di
Jawa Tengah dijadikan suatu spesies baru
Presbytis fredericae (seperti Brandon-Jones,
1995), namun Nijman (1997a) menunjuk
beberapa variasi intraspesifik bersifat alami.
Spesies ini terancam sekali terutama karena
kerusakan habitat (Eudey, 1987; MacKinnon,
1987 ; Supriatna et al., 1994). Besarnya populasi
dikalkulasi berkisar 8040 ekor (MacKinnon, 1987)
hingga 2285 ekor (Supriatna et al., 1994). Surili
diklasifikasikan sebagai “terancam” menurut
kriteria ancaman IUCN (IUCN, 1996). Selama
survei, Surili terlihat di seluruh Pegunungan
3.
Collect information on the occurrence
of mammals in the Dieng mountains,
thus providing a species list and
estimates of abundance of a number of
key species
So far some 20 terrestrial mammal species have
been identified. Since no mist netting or small
mammal trapping has been carried out (or is
intended to be carried out), this represent a fairly
large sample of the terrestrial mammal fauna
present on the island of Java.
A number of endemic species were recorded,
including Ebony leaf monkey Trachypithecus
auratus, Grizzled leaf monkey Presbytis comata,
Javan gibbon Hylobates moloch, and Javan warty
pig Sus verrucosus. Other noteworthy species
include the Leopard Panthera pardus and the
Binturung. Ebony leaf monkeys are restricted to
the islands of Java, Bali and Lombok (Nijman in
press). Being confined to natural forest areas in
this part of Indonesia, little suitable habitat
remains for the species. The remaining
populations are found scattered over the islands,
and numerous isolated forest areas are too small
to harbour a viable population (Nijman in press).
This has been recognized by the IUCN and
subsequently in the latest edition of the Red Data
Book (IUCN, 1996) the species was merited the
Vulnerable status. Ebony leaf monkeys were
found throughout the Dieng mountains and seem
to be more common near open, disturbed areas,
along edges, and near rivers. However, in the
extensive rubber and pine plantations, the
species was rarely encountered, and in those
instances when a group was observed in forest
plantations it was without exception in those parts
where more natural forest patches were present,
e.g. near small rivers dissecting the plantation.
The Grizzled leaf monkey is endemic to the
western half of the island of Java, as far as Mt.
Lawu on the border with East Java (Nijman,
1997b). The central Javan populations have been
proposed as separate species Presbytis fredericae
(e.g. Brandon-Jones, 1995), but Nijman (1997a)
showed some of the alleged differences not to be
diagnostic, while some intraspecific variation was
of a clinal nature. The species is severely
threatened mainly due to habitat destruction
(Eudey, 1987; MacKinnon, 1987 ; Supriatna et al.,
1994). Population sizes have been calculated and
range from 8040 animals (MacKinnon, 1987) to
9
Dieng, dari hutan bagian barat Linggo pada 300 m
d.p.l., dekat Gn. Kemulan, sampai puncak Gn.
Prahu (2565 m) di bagian timur. Kelihatannya
spesies ini lebih suka tinggal di pedalaman
darupada di tepi, meskipun karena mudahnya
pengamatan primata sepanjang tepi, jumlah
kelompok dicatat dalam tipe habitat ini. Bila
diperkirakan jumlah populasi yang diberi oleh
kelompok pakar primata (Supriatna et al. 1994)
IUCN mencerminkan keadan sebenarnya dari
status spesies di alam, populasi Surili di
Pegunungan Dieng (mungkin ratusan) mewakili
bagian cukup besar dari populasi di seluruh dunia.
Mungkin satu-satunya kawasan lain di Jawa di
mana jumlah Surili sama atau lebih banyak
adalah Taman Nasional Halimun di Jawa Barat.
Seperti juga Surili, Owa Jawa adaklah endemik di
bagian barat Jawa. Sebagian besar populasi
diketemukan di propinsi Jawa Barat (Kappeler,
1984), tetapi sedikit masih ada di propinsi Jawa
Tengah (Nijman and Sözer, 1995; Nijman, 1995).
Perkiraan populasi terbaru, berdasarkan
ekstrapolasi dari habitat yang tersedia berkisar
antara 2000 ekor (Supriatna et al., 1994) hingga
3000 ekor (Asquith et al., 1995). Spesies ini diberi
tingkat prioritas konservasi yang tertinggi untuk
primata di Asia (Eudey, 1987), dan baru-baru ini
termasuk dalam kategori terancam kepunahan
menurut IUCN (IUCN, 1996). Spesies ini terdapat
di hutan basah di Jawa Barat dan terbatas pada
hutan dengan kanopi tertutup hingga ± 1600 m
d.p.l., suatu tipe habitat yang makin jarang.
Survei menemukan Owa Jawa di seluruh hutan
Linggo hingga ke timur sampai Gn. Kumajan, dan
dengan populasi yang terpisah pada bagian
selatan desa Kalibening. Berdasarkan hasil itu,
daerah penyebaran yang tersimpul
memperkirakan bahwa ada sisa populasi terdiri
dari beberapa ratus individu, dengan demikian
menjadi populasi terbesar di luar Jaringan
Kawasan Pelestarian.
Di hutan barat laut Linggo jejak jenis kucing besar
terlihat pada ketingian ± 500 d.p.l., Tahun 1995,
jejak yang masih bari diketemukan di tebing
barat laut Gn. Lumping, dekat puncaknya. Jejak
Ini diambil untuk dianalisa selanjutnya dan
mengandung rambut dan kuku binturong
(Arctictus binturung), dan kuku kijang (Muntiacus
muntjak). Kedua tanda diperkirakan dari macan
tutul yang dikenal baik oleh banyak orang yang
sering masuk hutan, meskipun beberapa laporan
tidak mengecualikan jenis kucing lainnya, bahkan
2285 animals (Supriatna et al., 1994). Grizzled
leaf monkeys have been classified as Endangered
according to the IUCN threat criteria (IUCN,
1996). During the survey, Grizzled leaf monkeys
were observed throughout the Dieng mountains,
from the forest west of Linggo at c. 300 m asl,
near Mt. Kemulan, to the summit of Mt Prahu
(2565 m) in the east. The species seems to prefer
the interior above the edge, although, probably
owing to the ease of observing primates along
edges, a fair number of groups were recorded in
this habitat type. If the estimates of population
numbers presented by the IUCN primate
specialist group (Supriatna et al. 1994) are a true
reflection of the species' status in the wild, the
population of Grizzled leaf monkeys in the Dieng
mountains (which must number in the hundreds)
represents a considerate proportion of the world
population. Probably the only other area in Java
that harbours similar or greater numbers of
Grizzled leaf monkeys is Halimun National Park in
West Java.
Like the Grizzled leaf monkey, the Javan gibbon is
endemic to the western half of Java. Most
populations can be found in the western province
(Kappeler, 1984), but few remain in the central
Javan province (Nijman and Sozer, 1995; Nijman,
1995). The most recent population estimates,
based on extrapolation of the available habitat,
range from 2000 animals (Supriatna et al., 1994)
to 3000 animals (Asquith et al., 1995). The
species is merited the highest conservation
priority rating for Asian primates (Eudey, 1987),
and has recently been included in the Critically
Endangered category according to the IUCN
threat criteria (IUCN, 1996). The species occurs in
the ever wet rainforests of western Java. It is
confined to closed canopy forests up to c. 1600 m
asl, a habitat type that is becoming increasingly
rare. The survey found the Javan gibbon to be
present throughout the forests near Linggo, as far
east as Mt Kumajan, and with an isolated
population occurring south of the village of
Kalibening. Based on these results, the inferred
distribution range suggests a remaining
population of several hundred of individuals,
making it one of, if not the, largest populations
outside the protected area net work.
In the forest north-west of Linggo, at an altitude of
c. 500 m asl, footprints of a large feline were
observed. In 1995, a fresh scat was found on the
10
mammalia lain. Macan tutul adalah mammalia
pemangsa terbesar yang tersisa di Pegunungan
Dieng, selain manusia. Daerah rendah dari hutan
di Pegunungan Dieng merupakan tempat tinggal
sejaumlah besar spesies mangsanya seperti babi,
lutung, pelanduk dan kijang.
Babi sering diketemukan di hutan tetapi jejak dan
kubangannya lebih umum diketemukan.
Dilaporkan babi sering masuk sawah, kebun dan
pertanaman dan menyebabkan kerusakan besar.
Mereka sering diburu, kadang-kadang oleh orang
luar. Perburuan dilakukan oleh sekelompok orang
(5-6) dan sejumlah ekor anjing, Daging dijual
pada orang Tingkok atau orang di Pekalongan.
Laporan masyarakat setempat menunjukkan
bahwa ada tipe babi yang berbeda; yang agak
kecil dan yang lebih besar S. verruscosus
memperlihatkan dimorfisme seksual yang jelas,
dengan betina yang besarnya setengah dari yang
jantan (c. 45 kg; 90 kg), sedangkan besarnya
dimorfisme tidak terdapat pada S. scrofa (jantan
dan betina beratnya 90 kg) (Blouch, 1983).
Blouch's (1983) kajian dari S. verruscosus
menunjukkan bahwa di Jawa S. scrofa lebih
banyak hidup dikawasan di atas 800 m d.p.l.,
sedang S. verruscosus lebih banyak hidup di
daerah hutan sekunder fataran rendah, termasuk
hutan jati, dan padang rumput alang-alang
Imperata cylindrical. Meskipun tidak pasti, boleh
disimpulkan bahwa kedua spesies hidup di
kawasan rendah Pegunungan Dieng.
Kesimpulan, Pegunungan Dieng adalah habitat
bagi sebagian besar spesies mammalia yang
dapat diperkirakan keberadaannya. Sejumlah
spesies endemik di Jawa Barat terdapat di sana.
Sedikit pekerjaan lapangan telah dilakukan
mengenai penyebaran dan status kelelawar dan
tikus di Jawa dan banyak spesies endemik
diketahui dari kelompok kecil individu hanya dari
jumlah kecil di lapangan (survei tipelokasi)
(Whitten et al., 1996).
north-western slope of Mt Lumping, near its
summit. It was collected for further analysis and
contained hairs and nails of a binturong Arctictus
binturung, and the hooves of a Barking deer
Muntiacus muntjak. Both signs are considered to
belong to Leopards. Leopards are well known to a
large number of people who frequently enter the
forest, although some of the reports do not
exclude other felids or indeed other mammals.
The leopard is the largest remaining mammalian
predator in the Dieng mountains, apart from
humans. The forest in the lower parts of the Dieng
mountains are home to a relative large number of
potential prey species, e.g. pigs, leaf monkeys,
barking deer and mouse deer.
Pigs were encountered occasionally in the forest,
but their tracks and wallows were commonly
encountered. Pigs are reported to enter rice fields,
gardens and orchards, where they can cause
considerable damage when raiding crops. Pigs are
frequently hunted in the area, sometimes by
outside people. Mostly hunting is done with a
group of people (c. 5-6) and an equal number of
dogs. The meat is sold to either Chinese or people
in the city of Pekalongan. Reports by local people
indicate that there are two different types of pigs;
a smaller and a larger one. S. verruscosus shows a
clear sexual dimorphism, with the females being
about half the size of the males (c. 45 kg vs. 90
kg), whereas this size-dimorphism is absent in S.
scrofa (both males and females weigh c. 90 kg)
(Blouch, 1983). Blouch's (1983) study of S.
verruscosus indicates that, on Java, S. scrofa
occurs more often in mountainous areas above
some 800 m asl, whereas S. verruscosus occurs
more in the lowland secondary areas, including
teak plantations, and alang-alang Imperata
cylindrical grasslands. Although not conclusive, it
is tentatively concluded that both species occur in
the lowland areas of the Dieng mountains.
Concluding, the Dieng mountains seem to contain
a large proportion of the mammal species that can
be expected to be present. A number of 'west
Javan' endemics are present in the area, and it
would be worthwhile to set up a small-mammal
and bat-trapping programme to establish whether
or not more endemic species are present. Little
field work has been conducted on the distribution
and status of bats and rats on Java, and many of
the endemics are known from a small series of
individuals from a small number of sites (often the
type locality) only (Whitten et al., 1996).
11
4. Mencatat data mengenai luasnya
peggunaan hutan, infrastuktur
setempat, pemanfaatan satwa liar
di/sekitar Pegunungan Dieng
4. Record information on the extent of
forest encroachment, local
infrastructure and use of wildlife, in and
around the Dieng Mountains
Data mengenai bagian ini dari survei masih harus
dianalisis secara terperinci, tetapi beberapa
pendapat dapat disimpulkan pada tahap ini.
Data on this part of the survey still has to be
analysed in greater detail, but a few remarks can
be made at this stage.
Sebagian besar kawasan hutan di Pegunungan
Dieng terfragmentasi dan sering hutan yang baik
hanya ada di bukit, lereng curam atau sepanjang
aliran sungai. Hutan yang baik masih terdapat di
sekitar Gn. Lumping dan pada lereng-lereng
bagian timur Pegunungan Dieng.
In a great number of localities the forests on the
Dieng mountains are fragmented, and often good
forest is only present on ridges, on steep slopes,
or following river courses. Good forest is still
present in the surroundings of Gn Lumping and on
the upper slopes of the eastern part of the Dieng
mountains.
Ada beberapa jalan di daerah ini, sebagian besar
di daerah utara-selatan. Jalan dari Kajen melalui
Linggo dan Paninggaran ke Kalibening sering
dipakai, sedangkan yang dari Kembang Langit ke
Bandar hanya untuk penggunaan local.
Cara yang paling biasa memanfaatkan satwa liar
adalah penangkapan burung, yang dijual kepada
pedagang burung (umpamanya di Linggo dan
Kajen). Mereka membawanya ke pasar burung
yang lebih besar seperti di Jakarta. Perburuan
satwa hutan berkurang, tetapi masih terjadi di
mana-mana..
Several roads are present in the area, mostly
running in a north-south direction. The road from
Kajen via Linggo and Paningaran to Kalibening is
frequently used, whereas for instance the road
from Kembang Langgit to Bantur seems to be for
local use only.
The most common use of wild life is trapping of
birds. These birds are mostly sold locally to bird
traders (e.g. in Linggo and Kajen) who transport
then to larger bird markets in e.g. Jakarta.
Hunting of forest animals is less common, but is
still widespread.
12
5. Melatih beberapa anggota Mitra Dieng
dalam teknik survei fauna sepintas
sebagai bagian membangun kapasitas
dalamprogram jarongan Mitra Dieng.
5. Train a number of members of Mitra
Dieng in rapid faunal survey techniques
and capacity building of the Mitra Dieng
network
Dalam rangka kerjasama dengan Mitra Dieng, 8
anggota dari 6 LSM lokal yag berbeda dipilih
untuk pelatihan teknik survei fauna dan
pengumpulan data mengenai ancaman terhadap
keberlangsungan hidup satwa liar. Para peserta
mempunyai latar belakang yang berbeda, dari
bidang teknik dan biologi. Pada umunya
pengetahuan dasar sanagat terbatas, maka kami
bermaksud menambah tingkat perhatian pada
masalah-masalah konservasi satwa liar
diPegunungan Dieng. Teknik survei terfokus pada
identifikasi jumlah terbatas spesies kunci burung
dan mammalia, termasuk burung pergam,
rangkong, burung pemangsa dan primata.
Setiapmalam diadakan evaluasi untuk menilai
kemajuan.
In cooperation with Mitra Dieng, eight members of
six different local NGOs were selected for training
in rapid faunal survey techniques and collection
of data on threats to the survival of wildlife. The
participants had various backgrounds, ranging
from engineering and management to biology. In
general biological background knowledge was
limited and therefore we aimed at increasing the
level of interest in the problems facing
conservation of wildlife in the Dieng mountains.
Faunal survey techniques concentrated on
identifying a limited number of key bird and
mammal species, including fruit doves, hornbills,
raptors and primates. Each evening an evaluation
was held to assess the progress made so far.
Selain kedelapan peserta ini, ada tambahan
sepuluh anggota Mitra Dieng di lapangan. Mereka
berusaha untuk menimbulkan minat pada
konservasi hutan dan satwa lainnya di
Pegunungan Dieng melalui
(kepadala desa,
kepala adat dan sebagainya) dan penyebaran
bahan penyadartahauan (poster dan leaflet) di
sekolah-sekolah dasar.
Ada 6 anggota yang telah melalui seleksi untuk
mengikuti survey, termasuk sejumlah partisipan
lainnya.
Apart from the eight participants, up to ten
additional members of Mitra Dieng were present
in the field. They tried to raise awareness for the
conservation of forest and its wildlife in the Dieng
mountains through discussions with significant
persons in the different villages (kepala desa,
kepala adat, etc.) and by distributing awareness
material (posters, leaflets) at primary schools.
For the follow-up surveys six members have been
selected, including a number of the previous
participants.
13
Daftar Pustaka
References
Blouch, R.A., Laban, B.Y., Susilo, H.D. & Atmosoedjirjo, S. 1983. the Javan warty pig: distribution, status
and prospects for the future. PPA/WWF report no. 3088, Bogor.
Chasen, F.N. 1940. Handlist ofMalaysian mammals. Bull. Raffl. Mus. No. 15, Singapore.
Eudey, A.A. 1987. Action Plan for Asian Primate Conservation 1987-91. IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist
Group, Gland.
Melish, R. 1992. Checklist of the land mammals of Java. PHPA/AWB-Indonesia, Bogor.
Melish, R. Noor, Y.R., Giesen, W., Widjanarti, E.H. & Rudiyanto 1993. An assessment of the importance of
Rawa Danau for Nature Conservation and an evaluation of resource use. PHPA/AWB, Bogor.
Payne, J., Francis, C.M., & Phillipps, K. 1985. A field guide to the mammals of Borneo. WWF/Sabah
Foundation, Kota Kinabalu.
Zon, A. van der. 1979. Mammals of Indonesia. Draft version. UNDP/FAO, Bogor.
KIH-11/KPA-Pteropus vampyrus/Kanwil Jawa Tengah. 1998. Laporan Lokakarya Pembahasan Pengusulan
Kawasan Pegunungan Dieng Sebagai Kawasan Konservasi, Semarang.
KIH-11/KPA-Pteropus vampyrus/Mapadi. 1999. Laporan Lokakarya Rencana Strategis dan rancang
Tindak Kawasan Pegunungan Dieng, Semarang.
Mitra Dieng/KEHATI/GEF-SGP/Birdlife. 1999. rencana Strategis dan Rancang Tindak Kawasan
Pegunungan Dieng, Bogor.
Nijman, V & Sozer, R. 1996. Konservasi Elang Jawa dan jenis-jenis burung endemic Jawa lainnya: Daerah
prioritas kawasan konservasi di Jawa Tengah / Conservation of the Javan Hawk-eagle and other
endemic bird species on Java: Priority areas for conservation in Central Java. PHPA/BirdLife
International Indonesia Programme Technical Memorandum 11.
Nijman, V. 1995. Remarks on the occurrence of gibbons in Central Java. Primate Conservation 16: 66-67.
Whitten, T., Soeriaatmadja, R.E. & Afiff, S. 1996. The ecology of Java and Bali. The Ecology of Indonesia
Series II. Periplus, Singapore.
Supriatna, J. Tilson, R., Gurmaya, K.J. et al. 1994. Javan gibbon and Javan langur population and habitat
viability analysis report. IUCN/SSC Captive breeding Specialist Group, Taman Safari, Cisarua.
Sujatnika, Jepson, P., Soehartono, T.R., Crosby, M.J. and Mardiastuti, A. 1995. Melestartikan
keanakaragaman hayati Indonesia: pendekatan Daerah Burung Endemik / Conserving Indonesian
Biodiversity: The Endemic Bird Area Approach. PHPA/BirdLife International Indonesia Programme,
Jakarta.
Sözer, R., Nijman, V., Setiawan, I. Van Balen, S., Prawiradilaga, D. M. dan Subijanto, J. 1998. Rencana
Pemulihan Elang Jawa. KMNLH/PHPA/LIPI/BirdLife International-Indonesia Programme, Bogor.
14
15
Lampiran 1
Appendix I
Mammalia endemik, terancam punah dan dilindungi yang tercatat di kawasan Pegunungan
Dieng (IUCN, 1996, Corbet & Hill, 1992)
Endemic, endangered and protected mammals recorded in the Dieng mountains (IUCN,
1996, Corbet & Hill, 1992)
No
Family/Scientific Name
Mammals
Hylobates moloch
Presbytis comata
Trachypithecus auratus
Macaca fascicularis
Callosciurus sp
Muntiacus muntjak
Sus verrucosus
Ratufa bicolor
Pteropus vampirus
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13 Phantera pardus
14
Reptils
1
2 Varanus salvator
3
English Name
Local Name
Javan Gibbon
Owa
Grizzled leaf monkeySurili
Ebony leaf Monkey Lutung
Kera
Tupai
Kijang
Javan warty pig
Babi hutan
Giant Squirrel
Jelarang
Kelelawar
Kalong buah
Garangan
Berang-berang
Ular hijau
Kadal
Status
KL LA SN SK BK LR BD TB KT
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Keterangan/Note:
EN=Endangered/ Genting; VU=Vulnerable/ Rentan; R-r=Restricted-range/Sebaran terbatas
KL= Kembang langit; LA= Linggo Asri; SN=Sinalum; SK=Sokokembang; BK= Bantar Kulon;
LR=Laren; BD= Bedagung; TB= Tombo; KT= Kali Tengah
+
16
Lampiran II
Appendix II.
Spesies burung endemik, Sebaran terbatas dan yang dilindungi yang tercatat di kawasan Pegunungan Dieng (data dari
Sujatnika dkk. 1995, Sozer dkk., 1999, S.van Balen, V. Nijman dan I. Setiawan data tidak dipublikasi)
Endemic, Restricted Range, and Protected bird species recorded in the Dieng mountains (data from Sujatnika et al. 1995,
Sozer et al., 1999, S.van Balen, V. Nijman and S. Setiawan unp. Data)
No
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5
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9
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11
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15
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17
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19
20
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28
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32
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34
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37
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40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
Family/Scientific Name
CICONIDAE
Ciconia episcopus
ACCIPITRIDAE
Pernis ptylorinchus
Spilornis cheela
Ictinaetus malayensis
Hieraaetus kienerii
Spizaetus cirrhatus
Spizaetus bartelsi
FALCONIDAE
Microhierax fringillarius
Falco moluccensis
PHASIANIDAE
Arborophila javanica
Gallus gallus
Gallus varius
TURNICIDAE
Turnix sylvatica
RALLIDAE
Amaurornis phoenicurus
COLUMBIDAE
Treron griseicauda
Treron vernans
Ptilinopus porphyreus
Ptilinopus melanospila
Ducula aenea
Ducula lacernulata
Macropygia unchall
Macropygia emiliana
Streptopelia bitorquata
Streptopelia chinensis
Geopelia striata
Chalcophaps indica
PSITTACIDAE
Loriculus pusillus
CUCULIDAE
Cuculus saturatus
Cacomantis merulinus
Cacomantis sepulcralis
Phaenicophaeus javanicus
Phaenicophaeus curvirostris
Centropus sinensis
STRIGIFORMES
Bufo sumatranus
Otus lempiji
APODIDAE
Collocalia fuciphaga
Collocalia linchi
Apus affinis
Cypsiurus balasiensis
HEMIPROCNIDAE
Hemiprocne longipennis
TROGONIDAE
Harpactes reindwartii
Harpactes oreskios
ALCEDINIDAE
Ceyx rufidorsa
Lacedo pulchella
Halcyon cyanoventris
Todirhampus chloris
CORACIIDAE
Eurystomus orientalis
BUCEROTIDAE
Aceros undulatus
CAPITONIDAE
Megalaima corvina
Megalaima javensis
Megalaima armillaris
Megalaima australis
PICIDAE
Picus miniaceus
Dendrocopus macei
Hemicircus concretus
EURYLAIMIDAE
Eurylaimus javanicus
PITTIDAE
Pitta guajana
HIRUNDINIDAE
Hirundo tahitica
CAMPHEPHAGIDAE
Hemipus hirundinaceus
Coracina fimbriata
Coracina striata
Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
Pericrocotus miniatus
Pericrocotus flammeus
CHLOROPSEIDAE
Aegithina tiphia
English Name
Indonesian Name
Status
KL LA SN SK BK LR BD TB KT
Wooly-necked Stork
Bangau Sandanglawe
l
Oriental Honey-buzzard
Crested Serpent-eagle
Black Eagle
Rufous-bellied Eagle
Changeable Hawk-eagle
Javan Hawk-eagle
Sikep
Elang
Elang
Elang
Elang
Elang
l
l
l
l
l
l
Black-thighed Falconet
Spotted Kestrel
Alap-alap capung
Alap-alap Sapi
Chesnut-bellied Partridge
Red Junglefowl
Green Junglefowl
Puyuh gonggong Jawa
Ayam Hutan Merah
Ayam Hutan Hijau
Small Buttonquail
Gemak Tegalan
madu Asia
Ular-Bido
Hitam
Perut-karat
Brontok
Jawa
White-breasted Waterhen
Kareo Padi
Grey-Cheeked Green Pigeon
Pink-necked Green-Pigeon
Pink-headed Fruit-Dove
Black-naped Fruit-Dove
Green Imperial -Pigeon
Dark-backed Imperial Pigeon
Barred Cuckoo-Dove
Ruddy Cuckoo-Dove
Island Collared-Dove
Spotted-Dove
Zebra-Dove
Emerald Dove
Punai Penganten
Punai Gading
Walik Kepala Ungu
Walik Kembang
Pergam Hiijau
Pergam Punggung Hitam
Uncal Loreng
Uncal Buau
Dederuk Jawa
Tekukur Biasa
Perkutut Jawa
Delimukan Zamrud
Yellow-throated Hanging Parrot
Serindit Jawa
Oriental Cuckoo
Plaintive Cuckoo
Rusty-breasted Cuckoo
Red-billed Malkoha
Chesnut-breasted Malkoha
Greater Coucal
Kangkok Ranting
Wiwik Kelabu
Wiwik Uncuing
Kadalan Kembang
Kadalan Birah
Bubut Besar
Collared Scop-owl
Celepuk reban
Edible-nest swiflet
Cave-Swiflet
Little Swift
Asian Palm Swift
Walet Sarang Putih
Walet sapi
Kapinis Rumah
Walet Palem-Asia
Grey-rumped Treeswift
Tepekong jambul
Blue-tailed Trogon
Orange-breasted Trogon
Luntur Gunung
Luntur Harimau
Rufous-backed Kingfisher
Banded-Kingfisher
Javan Kingfisher
Collared Kingfisher
Udang Punggung Merah
Cekakak Batu
Cekakak Jawa
Cekakak Sungai
Dollarbird
Tiong Lampu Biasa
Whreated Hornbill
Julang Emas
Brown-throated barbet
Black-banded Barbet
Orange-fronted Barbet
Blue-eared Barbet
Takur
Takur
Takur
Takur
Banded Woodpecker
Fulvous-breasted Woodpecker
Grey and buff Woodpecker
Pelatuk Merah
Caladi Ulam
Caladi Tikotok
Banded broadbill
Sempur Hujan Rimba
Banded-Pitta
Paok Pancawarna
Bututut
Tulungtumpuk
Tohtor
Tengeret
Pacific Swallow
Layang-layang batu
Black-winged Flycatcher-shrike
Lesser Cuckoo Shrike
Jingjing Batu
Kepudang Sungu Kecil
Small Minivet
Sunda Minivet
Scarlet Minivet
Sepah kecil
Sepah Gunung
Sepah Hutan
Comon Iora
Cipoh Kacat
EN/R-r
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
R-r
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
GD
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
KL
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
R-r
R-r
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
R-r
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
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l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
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l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
R-r
l
R-r
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
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l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
R-r
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
17
No
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
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118
119
120
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122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
Family/Scientific Name
CORVIDAE
Platylophus galericulatus
Corvus enca
AEGHITALIDAE
Psaltria exilis
PARIDAE
Parus major
SITTIDAE
Sitta frontalis
Sitta azurea
TIMALIIDAE
Pellorneum pyrrogenys
Pomatorhinus montanus
Malacocincla sepiarum
Napothera epilepidota
Pnoepyga pusilla
Stachyris grammiceps
Stachyris melanothorax
Pteruthius aenobarbus
TURDIDAE
Brachypteryx leucophrys
Brachypteryx montana
Enicurus velatus
Enicurus leschenaulti
Myiophoneus caeruleus
Zoothera sibirica
SYLVIIDAE
Gerygone sulphurea
Seisercus gramiceps
Abroscopus supercilliaris
Phylloscopus borealis
Phylloscopus trivirgatus
Megalurus polustris
Orthotomus sepium
Prinia familiaris
Prinia polychroa
Tesia supercilliaris
MUSCICAPIDAE
Eumyas indigo
Ficedula mugimaki
Ficedula westermanni
Ficedula zanthopygia
Cyanoptila cyanomelana
Cyornis unicolor
Cyornis banyumas
Culicicapa ceylonensis
Rhipidura phoenicura
Rhipidura javanica
Hypothymis azurea
MOTACILLIDAE
Motacilla cinerea
ARTAMIDAE
Artamus leucorynchus
LANIIDAE
Lanius schach
STURNIDAE
Aplonis panayensis
NECTARINIIDAE
Anthreptes malacensis
Anthreptes singalensis
Nectarinia jugularis
Aethopyga eximia
Aethopyga siparaja
Aethopyga mystacalis
Arachnothera longirostra
Arachnothera affinis
DICAEIDAE
Prionochilus percussus
Dicaeum trigonostigma
Dicaeum sanguinolentum
Dicaeum trochileum
ZOSTEROPIDAE
Zosterops palpebrosus
Lophozosterops javanicus
PLOCEIDAE
Erythrura prasina
Lonchura leucogastroides
English Name
Indonesian Name
Crested Jay
Slender-billed Crow
Tangkar Ongklet
Gagak Hutan
Pygmy Tit
Cerecet Jawa
Great Tit
Gelatik batu Kelabu
Velvet-fronted Nuthatch
Blue Nuthatch
Munguk Beledu
Munguk Loreng
Temminck's Babbler
Chesnut-backed Scimitar Babbler
Horsfield's Babbler
Eye-browed Wren-Babbler
Pygmy Wren Babbler
White-breasted Babbler
Crescent-chested Babbler
Chesnut-fronted Shrike Babbler
Pelanduk Bukit
Cica Kopi Melayu
Pelanduk Semak
Berencet Berkening
Berencet Kerdil
Tepus Dada Putih
Tepus Pipi Perak
Ciu Kunyit
Lesser Shortwing
White-browed Shortwing
Lesser Forktail
White-crowned Forktail
Blue Whistling-Thrush
Siberian Thrush
Cingcoang Coklat
Cingcoang Biru
Meninting Kecil
Meninting Besar
Ciung Batu Siul
Anis Siberia
Golden -bellied Gerygone
Sunda Warbler
Yellow-bellied Warbler
Arctic Warbler
Mountain Leaf-Warbler
Striated Grassbird
Olive-backed Tailorbird
Bar-winged Prinia
Brown Prinia
Javan Tesia
Remetuk Laut
Cikrak Muda
Cikrak Bambu
Cikrak Kutub
Cikrak Daun
Cica Koreng Jawa
Cinenen Jawa
Perenjak Jawa
Perenjak Coklat
Tesia Jawa
Indigo Flycatcher
Mugimaki Flycatcher
Little Pied Flycatcher
Yellow-rumped Flycatcher
Blue-and-White Flycatcher
Pale Blue-Flycatcher
Hill Blue-Flycatcher
Grey-headed Flycatcher
Rufous-tailed Fantail
Pied Fantail
Black-naped Monarch
Sikatan Ninon
Sikatan Mugimaki
Sikatan Belang
Sikatan Emas
Sikatan Biru Putih
Sikatan Biru Muda
Sikatan Cacing
Sikatan Kepala Kelabu
Kipasan Ekor Merah
Kipasan Belang
Grey Wagtail
Kicuit Batu
White-breasted Wood-swallow
Kekep Babi
Long-tailed Shrike
Bentet Kelabu
Asian Glossy Starling
Perling Kumbang
Plain throated Sunbird
Ruby-cheeked Sunbird
Olive-backed Sunbird
White-flanked Sunbird
Crimson Sunbird
Scarlet Sunbird
Little Spiderhunter
Grey-breasted Spiderhunter
Burung Madu Kelapa
Burung Madu Belukar
Burung Madu Srigati
Burung Madu Gunung
Burung madu Sepah Raja
Burung-Madu Jawa
Pijantung Kecil
Pijantung Gunung
Crimson -breasted Flowerpecker
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker
Blood-breasted Flowerpecker
Scarlet-headed Flowerpecker
Pentis Pelangi
Cabai Bunga Api
Cabai Gunung
Cabai jawa
Oriental White-eye
Javan Grey-throated White-eye
Kacamata Biasa
Opior Jawa
Pin-tailed Parrotfinch
Javan Munia
Jumlah
Bondol Hijau Binglis
Bondol Jawa
Status
KL LA SN SK BK LR BD TB KT
l
R-r
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
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l
l
l
l
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l
l
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l
l
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l
l
l
l
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l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
R-r
l
l
R-r
R-r
l
GD
l
l
VU/R-r
R-r
l
KL
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
R-r
l
l
l
R-r
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
54
l
58
l
l
61
l
57
l
50
l
50
l
66
66
l
l
l
58
Keterangan:
EN=Endangered/ Genting; VU=Vulnerable/ Rentan; R-r=Restricted-range/Sebaran
terbatas
KL= Kembang langit; LA= Linggo Asri; SN=Sinalum; SK=Sokokembang; BK= Bantar Kulon; LR=Laren; BD=
Bedagung; TB= Tombo; KT= Kali Tengah
KL= Klindon; GD= Gondang
Ket: l = dijumpai pada waktu survey.
P = dilindungi sistem perundangan Indonesia; V = vulnerable (rentan) menurut IUCN dalam Red Data Book
Y
P
A
L
(Yayasan Pribumi Alam Lestari)
adalah LSM yang bergerak dalam
pelestarian dan pemanfaatan sumber
daya alam berkelanjutan di Indonesia.
Tujuannya untuk 1). Meningkatkan
kualitas sumber daya manusia
terhadap lingkungan dan konservasi,
serta 2). Memaksimalkan pelestarian
dan pemanfaatan sumber daya yang
berkelanjutan yang didasarkan pada
konservasi burung dan hidupan liar.
ISBN 979-9319-04-8
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