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Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia: Baseline
Public Disclosure Authorized
Public Disclosure Authorized
Public Disclosure Authorized
Public Disclosure Authorized
46548
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and
PNPM-Generasi
June 2008
THE WORLD BANK
Jakarta Stock Exchange Building Tower II/12th Fl.
Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav. 52-53
Jakarta 12910
Tel: (6221) 5299-3000
Fax: (6221) 5299-3111
Printed in 2008.
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and
PNPM-Generasi
June 2008
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Acknowledgements
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Acknowledgements
This report has been prepared by the World Bank Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) Team. Susan Wong led the
CCT Baseline Survey work as World Bank Task Team Leader, together with a core survey team consisting of:
Junko Onishi, Gregorius Pattinasarany, Yulia Herawati, Scott Guggenheim, Menno Pradhan, Vivi Alatas, Kathy
Macpherson, Imad Saleh (World Bank Indonesia), Ben Olken and Jusuf Neggers (Harvard University, Boston).
The team preparing the baseline survey report includes: Robert Sparrow (Institute of Social Studies, The
Hague) as lead coordinator, Jossy P. Moeis and Arie Damayanti (LPEM, University of Indonesia, Jakarta), and
Yulia Herawati (World Bank Indonesia). The team was assisted by Hendro Tuhiman (World Bank, Indonesia) and
Dhaniel Ilyas (LPEM, University of Indonesia, Jakarta).
The University of Gadjah Mada (UGM), Center for Public Policy Studies, implemented the field survey. The team
would like to express its appreciation to Pak Sukamdi, the Director, and his UGM team of some 800 enumerators,
data entry operators, and management staff for their excellent work.
Financial support for the overall CCT program and this survey comes from the Government of Indonesia, the
Decentralization Support Facility, the Royal Embassy of the Netherlands, and the World Bank.
Significant support and contributions to this report were made by Budi Hidayat, Vic Paqueo, and William Wallace
(World Bank Indonesia).
Peer Reviewers were Deon Filmer, Margaret Grosh, and Emmanuel Skoufias (World Bank, DC).
The Government of Indonesia through the Ministry of Planning Agency (Bappenas), the Coordinating Ministry
for Economy and Social Welfare (Menkokesra), and the Ministry of Home Affairs has provided tremendous
support to the program and baseline survey over the past year. Special thanks to Sujana Royat (Menkokesra),
Bambang Widianto, Prasetijono Widjojo, Endah Murniningtyas, Pungky Sumadi, Vivi Yulaswati, and Woro
S. Sulistyaningrum (Bappenas), Ayip Muflich, Eko Sri Haryanto, Bito Wikantosa, and Prabawa Eka Soesanta
(Ministry of Home Affairs) for their generous support of the CCT program and, more specifically, the baseline
survey work.
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June 2008
Table Of Contents
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Table Of Contents
Acknowledgements
Table Of Contents
ii
iii
Chapter 1 Introduction
1
Chapter 2 Program Design
2.1 Motivation and background
2.2 Transfers and conditionalities
3
4
7
Chapter 3 Baseline Survey Methodology
3.1 Survey design
3.2 Sampling for the baseline survey
3.3 Weights
9
10
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12
Chapter 4 Evaluation design and Baseline analysis
4.1 Evaluation design
4.2 Baseline analysis
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16
17
Chapter 5 Results of the Baseline Survey
5.1 Education
5.1.1 Regional patterns
5.1.2 Determinants
5.1.3 Mean comparison tests
5.2 Health indicators
5.2.1 Regional patterns
5.2.2 Determinants
5.2.3 Mean comparison tests
5.3 Household and individual characteristics
5.4 Village characteristics and service provider characteristics
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25
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29
Chapter 6 Conclusions and Recommendations
31
References
Tables
A.1 Baseline survey sample
A.2 Regional variation
A.3 Mean comparison tests education and health
A.4 Regression results
A.5 Mean comparison tests households, villages, health care providers and schools
Figures
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June 2008
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Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
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June 2008
Introduction
Chapter 1
Introduction
01
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Chapter 1 Introduction
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
In the second half of 2007, a large pilot project of two Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) programs was initiated
by the Government of Indonesia. This pilot project, fitting in an overall national poverty reduction strategy, was
motivated by concerns that Indonesia is still lagging behind in a number of health and education outcomes,
and that poverty remains a reality for a large part of the Indonesia population.
The main aim of the pilot is (effectively) short term poverty alleviation through cash transfers and improving
access to health and education services, with the aim of long term poverty alleviation through increasing
investment in human capital. Previous experience in other countries has found conditional cash transfers to
be a successful policy instrument for achieving such objectives. The Indonesian CCT pilot project follows this
example, but also introduces a novelty to the CCT approach. The Indonesian pilot consists of two independent
programs. In addition to a household CCT program (Hopeful Families Program or Program Keluarga Harapan
– PKH), comparable to those conducted in other countries, a community CCT program (PNPM Generasi) targets
block grants to communities, allowing these communities to formulate and implement their own activities
in order to meet the program targets. The pilot has been launched in seven provinces in Indonesia, targeting
500,000 households for the PKH transfers and 1,625 villages for participation in PNPM Generasi.
An integral part of the program is the evaluation design. Participation in the CCT programs has been randomized
over sub-districts to directly measure impact, following the example of CCT programs elsewhere in the world
(most notably in Latin America). In theory, randomization over sizable geographical units such as sub-districts
solves the problem of selection bias in the impact evaluation.
The first stage of the evaluation process is the baseline analysis. To this end, a baseline survey was conducted
in the treatment and control sub-districts several months prior to implementation of the programs. The survey
was conducted in 660 sub-districts, covering 26,326 households, 658 health centers, 1,861 junior high schools
and 2,564 midwives, from June to August 2007. This paper presents an analysis of the baseline survey, focusing
in particular on the result of randomization in eliminating any systematic differences between treatment and
control groups.
Overall, we found the treatment and control groups to be balanced. Some minor discrepancies appear, in
particular in child height, gross school participation rates, school travel costs and domestic work activities.
However, these disparities are rare and do not show a clear pattern, indicating that there is no systematic
bias in education or health status, hence controlling for pre-intervention differences should be sufficient to
retrieve unbiased impact estimates. We also find no difference is health and education supply at village level,
although we do find some significant differences between schools and health care providers, which warrant
consideration for future impact evaluation.
The paper is structured as follows. The next section sets the context for the study, discussing the motivation,
background and design of the two CCT programs. Section 3 provides details on the survey design, while the
methodology for this baseline analysis is explained in section 4. The empirical results are presented in section
5. The results are presented separately for the CCT target indicators, key health and education outcomes,
individual and household characteristics, village characteristics and social service delivery. Finally, section 6
concludes with some recommendations for the follow up surveys.
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June 2008
Introduction
02
Chapter 2
Program Design
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Chapter 2 Program Design
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
2.1 Motivation and background
Motivation
Addressing lags in key human development indicators and poverty alleviation
The key motivation driving the CCT pilot programs is to investigate whether these interventions are an effective
means to bring about long term increase in human development indicators in combination with short term
poverty alleviation, and hence, reducing scope for dynamic poverty traps.
This is relevant for Indonesia since some indictors of the Millenium Development Goals in Indonesia have
lagged behind, despite significant economic progress since the economic crisis of the late 1990s. For example,
some areas of concern are:
•
Maternal health, which does not keep up with comparable countries in the Southeast Asian region.
In Indonesia 72 percent of births are attended by skilled attendants, while 86 percent of births are
attended in the region (UNICEF 2006). Indonesia’s maternal mortality rate (307 deaths in 100,000
births) is three times that of Vietnam and six times that of China and Malaysia (World Bank, 2006).
•
Service coverage and child health outcome indicators, which are lower than countries in the region.
The infant mortality rate in Indonesia (30 per 1,000 live births) is almost double that of Vietnam and
three times that of Malaysia (World Bank, 2006). Malnutrition rates are high and have risen in recent
years: a quarter of children below the age of five are malnourished in Indonesia, with malnutrition rates
stagnating in recent years despite reductions in poverty. The prevalence of underweight children under
five in Indonesia between 1996 and 2004 is estimated to be 28 percent, compared to the regional rate
of 15 percent during the same period (UNICEF, 2006). Immunization coverage is considerably lower
than the regional average for 2004: in Indonesia 82 percent of one-year old children were immunized
against BCG, 70 percent against polio, and 70 percent against measles, while in the region 92, 87 and
83 percent were, respectively (UNICEF, 2006).
•
Weak education outcomes. While there has been much progress in primary school enrollment, currently
at 94 percent, transition rates from primary to secondary school are low, with net junior secondary
school enrollment of 65 percent. On average, Indonesia has the capacity to provide junior secondary
education to only 84 percent of the potential students in the 13 to 15 age group (World Bank, 2006).
For all these indicators, there is a strong correlation with poverty, suggesting that a program that targets the
poor, and provides the means to access basic health and education services could be an important component
of a poverty strategy for Indonesia. In this context, conditional cash transfer can play a role, through income
assistance for households and communities, conditioned on investment in health and education.
Substitute for Unconditional Cash Transfers as social protection for the poor
In August 2005, the Government of Indonesia implemented an Unconditional Cash Transfer (UCT) program to
help mitigate the negative effects of fuel price increase for poor households. Some 19.2 million households
received approximately US$120 in four installments over the course of one year, ending in September 2006.
The total annual budget for the program is estimated to be close to US$2.4 billion. Later assessment of the
program revealed that targeting was disappointing in that a significant portion of the transfers were allocated
to the non-poor. In addition, the program was also criticized for creating dependency on government support
(World Bank, 2007a). This led to calls for a different cash transfer program designed to effectively reach the
poor and simultaneously address the many dimensions of human capital, supporting the idea for testing the
implementation of a Conditional Cash Transfer program in Indonesia.
CCT programs have become the dominant social protection strategy in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC)
over the past decade. The rapid replication of CCT programs in the late 1990s is due largely to the successes of
4
June 2008
Chapter 2 Program Design
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
the two largest CCT programs: the Bolsa Familia Program in Brazil and the Progressa Program in Mexico1 with
annual budgets of $2.1 billion and $2.5 billion respectively (Handa and Davis, 2006).
Several features make these programs distinct from earlier poverty alleviation programs. The traditional model
for CCT programs provides cash to households with the dual objectives of short-term poverty alleviation
and investments in long-term human capital. CCT programs generally have two components: an education
component and a health and nutrition component and so addressing various dimensions of human capital
simultaneously. Unlike the unconditional cash transfer, with CCTs the benefit (a cash transfer) is made to a poor
household conditional that the household performs certain obligations related to health and/or education
aspects. For example, Progresa in Mexico links monetary educational grants to school attendance of children
so that if a child misses more than 15 percent of school days in a month for unjustified reason, the family will
not receive the grant that month. To receive monetary support for improved nutrition, families must complete
a schedule of visits to the health care facilities. A distinct feature is the mechanism for delivering the benefits.
Recognizing the potential of mothers to effectively and efficiently use resources in a manner that responds to
the family’s immediate needs, Progressa gives benefits exclusively to mothers (e.g. Skoufias and Parker, 2001).
However, CCTs cannot operate in areas with supply-side constraints. In areas where distances to schools and
health facilities are large, transportation infrastructure is deficient, and quality of services are poor, CCTs cannot
effectively address the bottlenecks to improve service usage. In such areas, it is not the lack of willingness on the
part of the users but the supply-side deficits that limit poor households and communities to use basic health
and education services. In such a setting, providing grants to communities that can be used to address specific
supply-side problems within the community may work more effectively than transfers to households in order
to increase health and education outcomes. Under such a community grant scheme, resources are provided to
communities who will decide how best to use the block grant to reach several education and health targets.
Indonesia will be the first country to test this type of CCT (World Bank, 2007a).
The Indonesian CCT program
Household CCT: Program Keluarga Harapan (PKH)
The Household-CCT program known as Program Keluarga Harapan (PKH) provides cash transfer to households
similar to the traditional CCT program in Latin American and Caribbean countries. Eligible households must be
classified as poor (Rumah Tangga Sangat Miskin) with children aged 6-15 years or less than 18 years but who
have not completed basic education, or children aged 0-6 years or pregnant/lactating mother. Cash transfers
are made to households under the condition that certain health and education related obligations are met. The
Ministry of Social Affairs is the implementing agency and the Post Office carries out the transfer of funds.
The PKH household CCT program was implemented in 48 districts in seven provinces, targeting 500,000
households.2 Selection of provinces is such that various types of areas are represented, e.g. high/medium/low
poverty rate, urban/rural areas, coastal-areas/islands, accessible/difficult-to-access areas. Beneficiary households
are determined by combining geographic and household level targeting. Locations are first selected to meet
several criteria: high incidence of poverty, high incidence of malnutrition, low transition rate of education from
primary to secondary school, adequate supply of health and education facilities, and approval from the local
government to participate in the CCT pilot project.
The selection process of eligible households in sub-districts where PKH is implemented consists of two steps.
An initial roster of beneficiaries was created using the Unconditional Cash Transfer beneficiaries list and then
applying a proxy means test. It was further verified that only households in poverty would be selected for the
program. To minimize any exclusion error, households not on the UCT list but deemed severely poor were also
1
In March 2002, Progressa changed name to Oportunidades.
2
The provinces of West Java, East Java, West Sumatra, North Sulawesi, Gorontalo, East Nusa Tenggara, and DKI Jakarta.
June 2008
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Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Chapter 2 Program Design
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
considered.3 Finally, households identified in the first step were verified in terms of eligibility to the program, i.e.
whether they have children aged 6-15 years or less than 18 years but who have not completed basic education,
children aged 0-6 years or pregnant/lactating mothers.
Community CCT: PNPM Generasi Sehat dan Cerdas
The Community CCT scheme PNPM Generasi Sehat dan Cerdas (PNPM Generasi) builds on the project
infrastructure and capacities developed through the experiences of the Kecamatan Development Project
(KDP). PNPM Generasi is implemented as part of the Government’s new flagship poverty program, the National
Community Empowerment Program or Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat (PNPM). The Ministry
of Home Affairs implements both KDP and PNPM Generasi (World Bank, 2007a).
PNPM Generasi differs from the household CCT in that the cash transfers are allocated to communities, not
households. A condition for participation in the program was that communities have to commit to improve
health and education conditions. While PNPM already allows for education and health activities, PNPM
Generasi places a stronger emphasis on such activities, emphasizing investments in certain lagging health and
education outcomes. Communities will raise proposals to fund certain activities or investment (World Bank,
2007b). Examples of activities or investment include but are not limited to:
• Paying transportation costs for midwives and nurses to provide outreach services
• Improve posyandu (village health groups) organization and management to ensure that immunization,
vitamin A and weighing services are efficiently carried out
• Procuring weighing scales and height measures for growth monitoring
• Building infrastructure for health posts
• Contracting private providers or NGOs to provide services in villages
• Contracting midwives or nurses to provide services in villages
• Arranging health education in terms of what preventative services people must receive
• Supporting community mobilization and social pressure towards current non-users
• Small access infrastructure such as roads and bridges which lead to education and health service
• Assisting with transportation costs and education materials for primary and junior secondary
schooling.
A cycle of PNPM Generasi takes 12 - 14 months to complete. The cycle consists of four main stages: socialization,
village planning, village implementation and performance measurement. The village implementation stage
takes approximately nine months. Communities are expected to use the block grants through a facilitated
participatory planning process including social mapping, problem identification focus groups, hamlet level
discussions, village level discussions, and sub-district level discussions with providers. Communities are
also allowed to select their priority conditionalities (the same list of conditionalities as the PKH and will be
described below). Although the block grants can be used for anything villagers collectively agree upon, the use
of funds must be designed to improve at least one of the conditionalities. Service use and coverage of these
conditionalities will be closely monitored and recorded (World Bank, 2007b).
In 2007, 1625 villages are participating in PNPM Generasi. They are located in 129 sub-districts in 20 districts in
five provinces.4 Target beneficiaries of the Community-CCT are largely rural communities in areas with relatively
inadequate supply of health and education service. Priority was put on areas that have been exposed to KDP for
at least two years and thus have some experience with village level planning.
6
3
The Central Statistics Office constructed the initial roster of beneficiaries based on a health and education basic service survey
(Survey Pelayanan Dasar Kesehatan dan Pendidikan).
4
The provinces of West Java, East Java, North Sulawesi, Gorontalo and East Nusa Tenggara.
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Chapter 2 Program Design
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
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Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
2.2 Transfers and conditionalities
Household CCT
The Household CCT program aims to improve health and education outcomes, as well as increase consumption
of the poor by transferring cash directly to mothers on a quarterly basis through the post office. Internationally,
household CCT programs are designed to provide cash amounts of approximately 15 to 20 percent of
consumption of poor households. In the case of Indonesia, per household transfer amount depends on the
number children and their ages. The support scenario and amount of transfers are presented in Table 1.
If a mother is pregnant and/or has children aged 0-6 years, she will receive Rp 1,000,000 per year or Rp 250,000
per quarter, regardless of the number of under-five children. If a mother has two primary-school aged children
(6-12 years) and one secondary-school aged child (13-15 years) and these children are attending school, she
will receive Rp 1,800,000 per year or Rp 450,000 per quarter. A mother with children 0-6 years and three primary
school-aged children will receive Rp 2,200,000 per year.
A mother will continue receiving cash transfers in quarterly tranches so long as she meets the health and
education conditions set by the project and goes to the post office to pick up the funds. If the mother fails to
comply with the conditionalities, subsequent transfer payment is reduced. Cash transfers will be halted after a
series of warnings. The conditionalities set by the project are as follows (World Bank, 2007b):
Target households with children aged 0-6 years and/or pregnant or lactating mothers have to follow the protocols
of preventive health care at public health facilities set by the Ministry of Health (MOH). These include:5
For pregnant or lactating mothers
• Four antenatal care visits and taking iron tablet during pregnancy
• Birth assisted by a trained professional
• Two postnatal care visits for lactating mothers
For children 0-6 years:
• Complete childhood immunization and Vitamin A capsules twice a year
• Monthly growth monitoring for infant 0-11 months and quarterly for children 1-6 years
For target households with children aged 6-15 years (or children aged 15-18 years but not yet completed
primary and secondary school), the education conditions are:
• Enrollment and attendance of a minimum of 85 percent of school-days for primary school
children.
• Enrollment and attendance of a minimum of 85 percent of school-days for junior secondary school
children.
• Poor household with children aged 15 -18 years who have not completed 9 years basic education can
be eligible if the children are enrolled in an education program to complete 9 years equivalent.
Community CCT 6
The size of the block grants provided to Community CCT sub-districts are pre-determined by the population
size of the sub-district and poverty level. The average amount for the 2007 program is USD 8,400 (equivalent
to Rp. 76,440,000 using exchange rate 1 USD = Rp. 9,100) per village. All participating villages also receive
technical assistance in the form of facilitators and training.
5
Government of Indonesia, 2007.
6
Source: World Bank, 2007a.
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Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Chapter 2 Program Design
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Two variants of Community CCT are piloted. Half of the Community CCT groups will receive the performancebased incentives variant in year two, while the other half will receive the non-performance based, non-incentives
variant. The implementation of the two variants allows for assessment of the effectiveness of financial incentives
and conditioning of funds.
The first-variant of Community CCT program makes the second years’ block grant conditional on first year’s
performance. The conditionalities will be imposed through financial incentives to the communities. In the
second year, villages will receive a bonus amount, on top of a fixed base amount. The size of the bonus depends
on per-village performance the use and coverage of services identified by the conditionalities. The budget for
the village bonus grants is fixed at the sub-district level, creating inter-village competition for the awarding of
grants. Health service indicators are collected through village level record-keeping while school attendance is
collected from regular classroom attendance records. In the second-variant Community CCT, the second years’
block grant is independent of first years’ performance.
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June 2008
Introduction
Chapter 3
Baseline Survey
Methodology
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Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Chapter 3 Baseline Survey Methodology
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
3.1 Survey design
7
Three waves of evaluation surveys will be used to evaluate the impact on health and education indicators,
consumption, and targeting of the two CCT schemes. The first of the three waves is the baseline CCT evaluation
survey, carried out in 2007, prior to the implementation of the CCTs.8 Two follow-up surveys are planned for
2008 and 2009, and if the program continues, additional impact surveys will be added for future years. The
World Bank provides technical assistance to the Government for the CCT program, including the design and
implementation of the baseline survey.
The follow-up surveys will revisit the respondents of the baseline survey creating a longitudinal panel. The
advantage of this approach is that allows us to go beyond estimating average treatment effects, but also
behavioral responses of individuals and households. The draw back is that panel data may suffer from attrition.
If attrition is not random (i.e. attrition differs systematically for treated and controls, or poor and non-poor) then
this could introduce a new source of bias to the impact analysis.
The overall objective of the three waves of evaluation surveys is to evaluate the impact and effectiveness of the
two Conditional Cash Transfers, the Household CCT and the Community CCT. The objective of the CCT baseline
survey is to provide reference indicators to evaluate the impact of the two CCT approaches, specifically to
collect baseline data on:
• Coverage data of targeted and non-targeted basic health services
• School enrollment and attendance
• Provision of health and education services
• Household consumption
• Household and community characteristics in target project locations
The baseline survey conducts interviews with households, mothers, heads of villages or wards, health and
education providers, and midwives, in order to collect information on the health and education status of children
and their mothers, their use and experiences with health and education services, and the conditions of service
providers. The questionnaires consist of five modules, each gathers information from a specific respondent.
Module 1 comprises five books: Book 1A Household Core; Book 1B Married Women aged 15-49 years; Book 1C
Children aged 6-15 years; Book 1D Children aged 5 and under; and Book 1E Education test for reading and math
of children aged 6-15 years. Modules 2 to 5 each consist of one book; the respondents are village/ward heads
(Book 2 Village Characteristics), heads of health center (Book 3 Community Health Facility), midwives (Book 4
Midwife) and headmasters (Book 5 School).
3.2 Sampling for the baseline survey
Randomization
For impact evaluation purposes, participation in the pilot programme has been randomized over sub-districts.
The CCT pilot was implemented in sub-districts that have been randomly assigned to the treatment group.
The control sub-districts then reflect the counterfactual of the treatment group, and impact of the program
can simply be derived by comparing the treatment and control groups before and after the pilot has been
implemented.
The different natures of PKH and PNPM Generasi called for different selection processes for eligible sub-districts
that would be subject to randomization. First, within each province, the 20 percent richest districts were excluded
10
7
Source: World Bank, 2007b.
8
The baseline survey was fielded between June and August 2007 by Gadjah Mada University.
June 2008
Chapter 3 Baseline Survey Methodology
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
for both CCT programmes (based on school transition rates, malnutrition and poverty). Districts receiving KDP
were eligible for PNPM Generasi, from which 20 were selected and stratified by province. In NTT, East Java, and
West Java selection was random, in Gorontalo and North Sulawesi all eligible districts were selected. Within the
selected districts, sub-districts were not eligible if they had participated in the Urban Poverty Program (UPP) or
where less than 30 percent of the villages (desa) and urban precincts (kelurahan) are considered as rural by the
national statistics office, BPS. This final screening yielded 300 PNPM Generasi eligible sub-districts, which were
randomly assigned to incentivized treatment (hereafter referred to as treatment I), non-incentivized treatment
(hereafter treatment II) and the control group. Randomization was stratified by district.
The remaining districts were considered for PKH. The sub-districts that were deemed as “supply-side ready”
were then randomly assigned to the PKH treatment and control groups. The supply side-readiness criteria were
based on a statistical analysis of existing health and education facilities and providers in these sub-districts
(World Bank, 2007a).
The selection and randomization procedures are summarized in Figure 1.
Sampling
The baseline survey was conducted in 660 sub-districts in six provinces where the PKH household CCT and
PNPM community CCT program are implemented. The household CCT baseline survey covers six out of the
seven provinces that participate in the 2007 pilot project (excluding West Sumatra) while the community CCT
baseline survey covers all five provinces of the pilot. The sampled PKH sub-districts are located in 44 districts
(out of 48 districts in the pilot). The PNPM sub-districts cover all 20 participating districts.
For the baseline survey, all 300 PNPM treatment and control sub-districts were included, while a subset of 180
sub-districts was randomly sampled from the PKH treatment and control group each, yielding a PKH sample of
360 sub-districts. The PKH sample draw was stratified by urban and rural classification.9
Within all sub-districts, eight villages were sampled, within each village one ward (dusun) was randomly drawn,
and from each ward, five households were sampled. But the selection process for villages and households differs
between the PKH and PNPM samples.
For the PNPM villages and households, the selection process was straightforward. The villages were randomly
selected from the full list of villages. Households in a ward were categorized into three groups: (i) households
with pregnant/lactating mothers or married women who were pregnant in the last two years; (ii) households
with children age 6 to 15 years; and (iii) remaining households. From these groups, five households were
randomly selected: two from group (i), two from group (ii) and one from group (iii).
With the PKH survey, there was a concern that random sampling of households could possibly yield a relatively
small number of treated observations in the sample, if programme coverage would be small relative to the
population size. Therefore a purposive sampling strategy was adopted, whereby the sampling procedure
targeted UCT eligible households, as this is the subset of the population that would be considered as eligible
for the PKH transfers. Since the UCT program itself suffered from leakage to the non-poor, a proxy means test
was employed to select the poorer households on the UCT household list. One implication of this sampling
strategy is that the PKH sample will be perceived as relatively poor, compared to the actual population of the
PKH localities.
Villages in PKH sub-districts were first screened on UCT eligibility of all households. Only villages with at least
five UCT eligible households per ward were considered for sampling. Thus, it is possible that less than eight
villages were sampled for some sub-districts. In this case additional wards would be randomly selected from
9
A sub-district is here classified as rural if the share of urban precincts (kelurahan) is less than 30 percent of the total of urban precincts and rural villages, according to the 2005 PODES.
June 2008
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Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Chapter 3 Baseline Survey Methodology
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
the remaining villages, as to balance the number of sampled wards in the sub-districts. Within a ward the UCT
eligible households were classified similar to the PNPM households. Among the UCT eligible households five
households were randomly selected from group (i) and (ii) only: two from group (i) and three from group (ii).
The different steps in the sampling procedures for the PNPM and PKH baseline surveys are shown graphically
in Figure 2 and Figure 3, respectively.
Sampling health and education providers
For each sub-district in the PKH and PNPM samples, one community health center (Puskesmas) was randomly
selected from a list of all community health centers operating in each sub-district. For sub-districts without
community health centers, the sampling frame covered Puskesmas located in other sub-districts whose
working area includes sub-districts without Puskesmas. Per sub-district three secondary schools were randomly
selected from all secondary schools (public, private, regular/vocational, or other type of equivalent school)
located in the sub-district.
The sampling frame for midwives was constructed from two sources: a list of midwives working for health
community centers in each sub-district who also had a private practice, and a list of private midwives. Information
for the latter list was obtained directly from households. In each sub-district, two midwives are selected from
the first list and two from the second list, yielding a sample of four midwives from each sub-district.
Sample size and non-response
The final sample size is given in Table 2, broken down by type of respondent. The sample includes 14,326 (7,195
treated and 7,131 control) households from the PKH sub-districts and 12,000 households from the PNPM subdistricts (4,000 for treatment I, II and control group each). Besides households, the survey modules covered
10,899 children younger than 3 years, 28,397 children age 6 to 15 years, 25,567 married women age 16 to 49,
658 community health centers, 1861 midwives and 2564 schools. Non-response rates are low, well below one
percent for individual household members, as shown in Table 3. However, we see very high non-response for
the language and math test results, with 57 percent of children age 7 to 12 and 52 percent of children age 13 to
15 not completing the test modules.
3.3 Weights
Weights were constructed so as to translate the survey data to a representative depiction of the reference
population for the survey. In the case of the PKH survey, this is the group of households considered as poor
among the UCT beneficiaries living in PKH eligible sub-districts. For PNPM Generasi, this is the entire population
of the treatment and control sub-districts. Weights are also constructed for the schools, community health
centers, and midwives. These facility weights should reflect the probability that a random individual living in
the target area is exposed to the social service supplied by the specific school or health care provider. The
weights are constructed in similar fashion except for the community health centers. Weights for households,
villages, midwives, and schools reflect the probability of being sampled, while community health centers reflect
the coverage area.
The household weights are calculated as the inverse of the sampling probability
Pr(household) = Pr(sub district) × Pr( village| sub district )
× Pr( ward| village) × Pr(household | ward)
That is, the probability that a particular household is sampled given that it resides in a treatment and control
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Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
area (and is considered as UCT eligible, in case of the PKH survey). Below we elaborate on how each element in
the sampling probability has been constructed.
The sample probability of sub-districts, Pr(sub-district), is equal to 1 for the PNPM sample as all treatment and
control areas are included in the survey. The sampling probability of PKH sub-districts is simply the ratio of the
number of selected sub-districts in each of the 20 selected districts over the total number of eligible (“supply
side ready”) sub-districts in a district. The probabilities are stratified by urban/rural and treatment/control
status.
The village sampling probabilities, Pr(village | sub-district), are based on the probability that a village is sampled
from a specific sub-district, conditional on being located in a sampled sub-district. For PNPM this is the ratio of
the number of selected villages over the total number of villages, according to the PODES 2005 data base. For
PKH this is the ratio of the number of selected villages in a sub-district over the total number of villages that
have at least 5 UCT eligible households per ward. In some PKH sub-districts less than 8 villages were sampled as
results of the UCT eligibility sampling restriction, in which case Pr(village | sub-district) = 1.
The construction of the conditional sampling probability for wards, Pr(ward | village), is similar for PKH and
PNPM, since they were drawn randomly for both samples: the ratio of the number of selected wards over the
total number of wards in a village.
The probability of sampling households from the selected wards, Pr(household | ward), is based on the
classification of households into the three categories mentioned above in the sampling section. In each ward,
the probability of selecting a household is calculated as the ratio of the number of sampled households from
one of the three specific categories over the total number of households in those categories in a ward. Note
that the PNPM sample includes all of the categorized population groups, while the PKH sample is restricted
to households with pregnant/lactating mothers, married women who were pregnant in the last two years, or
children age 6 to 15 years. Thus:
Pr(household | ward, PK H ) =
# typei / ii sampledhouseholdsin PK H ward
# typei / ii householdsin PK H ward
Pr(household | ward, PNPM ) =
# typei / ii / iii sampledhouseholdsin PNPM ward
# typei / ii / iii householdsin PNPM ward
Similar to the household weights, weights for schools and midwives are constructed by multiplying the subdistrict sampling probability with the probability that a school or midwife is sampled from the sub-district:
Pr(education/ healthfacility) = Pr(sub district) × Pr(facility| sub district)
The probability contribution Pr(facility | sub-district) is based on the lists used as sampling frame. In case of
community health facilities, we use the fraction of the sub-district population falling within the service area
of the health facility, reflecting the probability that a random household in a sub-district is covered by this
facility.
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Chapter 3 Baseline Survey Methodology
Introduction
04
Chapter 4
Evaluation Design
and Baseline Analysis
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Chapter 4 Evaluation Design and Baseline Analysis
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
4.1 Evaluation design
The nature of the CCT programmes is such that simply comparing CCT participants with non-participants will
provide an inaccurate estimate of the programs’ impact. Eligibility for PKH participation is based on household
and regional indicators of relative deprivation, while targeting of PNPM Generasi is based on relative conditions
and performance of public services in villages. Naive impact estimates would therefore suffer from classic
selection bias: the treated sub-districts have worse outcome indicators to begin with; hence the impact of both
CCT programmes will be underestimated.
Another problem for identifying the impact of the CCT programs is that non-participants can be affected by the
intervention. Such spill-over effects, or externalities, could occur within localities. For example, if local service
provision is effected by changes in demand for these services as a result of the household CCT; if the village
economy is affected by the influx of household CCT funds; or if household change their behavior in order to
be eligible for participation. But externalities can also come about between localities, for example if improved
public services in a PNPM Generasi village are also available to individuals outside that area or if the program
induces migration. In all these examples, non-participants can benefit or suffer from CCT participation by
others.
Bearing these potential sources of bias in mind, the empirical strategy for estimating the impact of the two
CCT programmes builds on the hypothesis that random selection of sub-districts has removed any structural
difference between treatment and control groups, such that, on average, they share the same characteristics and
outcome indicators in the absence of the program. On this basis, any differences observed after implementation
of the programs can be attributed to the respective CCT interventions. Randomizing over larger geographical
units such as sub-districts (and not households or villages) reduces the scope for spill-over effects between
sub-districts. Since we will be comparing treatment and control sub-districts, any bias from intra- and intervillage spillover effects is eliminated.
In terms of internal validity of the impact estimates, any selection bias will be removed due to randomization.
For the PNPM survey the evaluation design will then be straightforward. With treated units being sub-districts
and their populations, treatment effects are identified by the differences in average outcomes between the
sampled individuals from the treated and non-treated sub-districts. Baseline data can be used to verify whether
the treated and non-treated are indeed identical in absence of the CCT, and if necessary control for any preintervention difference.
For the PKH study the impact evaluation will be less straightforward, as sub-district treatment status is
randomized but individual selection is not. At the time of the baseline survey it was not yet known which
households in the sample would be eligible for participation. In PKH sub-districts participation in the program
was later determined by a selection process which involved both BPS and the Ministry of Social Affairs. Part of
this process entailed selection on statistical grounds, and part on interaction with the communities themselves.
Because this process was clearly not random, comparing PKH participants in treatment areas with all sampled
households in control areas is likely to yield biased results. For a future impact evaluation we would therefore
like to know which households in the PKH control sample would have been eligible if the same selection
procedure would have been conducted in the control sub-districts. But since this is unknown, and due to the
danger that not all elements of the selection procedure could be controlled for with the survey data, other
techniques are called for.
One approach could be to take estimate the intention to treat (ITT) effect, by adopting the same estimation
method as for the PNPM experiment, and look at differences in average outcomes for the full samples of
treated and control sub-districts. The ITT basically reflects a weighted average of the direct effect of CCTs on
participating households and the external effects for the whole population. The advantage of this approach
is that it exploits the only true random variation in treatment assignment. The drawback is that it will not be
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Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
possible to isolate the direct effect of the PKH. The difference between the ITT and the direct effect will become
larger as the fraction of treated households in the sample decreases.
There are some concerns regarding external validity of the impact study. The first relates to generalizing impact
estimates. One should be cautious with drawing conclusions regarding expected effects of scaling up the CCT
program, based on the estimated treatment effects from the impact evaluation, because of the distinct nature
of experimental areas. For example, the study areas have been selected based on specific criteria regarding
poverty and supply side characteristics. As we find in section 5, some key health and education outcomes for
the sub-districts in the survey differ from the national trends. Hence, we could expect that the CCT programs
will have a different effect in the study areas compared to other areas of Indonesia. A related problem affects
comparison of the PKH and PNPM schemes. Not only the different characteristics of PKH and PNPM sub-districts,
but also the sampling strategy for PKH survey, makes it hard to directly compare impact estimates of both
interventions, and interpret any differences.
4.2 Baseline analysis
The goal of the baseline survey is therefore twofold:
1.
2.
To evaluate the balancing hypothesis: test for any pro-program differences in key outcome indicators
and relevant characteristics.
To control for any observed pre-program differences in key outcome indicators, if these may occur in
the impact evaluation.
The baseline analysis presented in this report is mainly focused on the first point raised above: testing for
differences between treatment and control areas. The results of this analysis will serve as input for future impact
evaluations, and indicate whether any baseline controls are required.
An initial aim of the baseline study was to analyze targeting of PKH transfers. But this had to be abandoned
since data on the PKH beneficiaries was not yet available. But even if that data had been available for this
study, it would not have been possible to provide a complete picture on PKH targeting, since the PKH
respondents are not representative of their respective sub-district populations. In the final section of this
report we discuss how this problem could be addressed in the follow-up survey.
Besides the balancing test, we will look at the main determinants driving the key outcome indicators, by
regressing these on a number of individual and household characteristics, and supply side variables. We include
district fixed effects as to control for differences in local health and education policy. It has to be stressed that
these regression results are merely correlations and cannot be interpreted as casual effects.
In addition to this, these regressions can help shed some light on the scope for externalities. Although the
possibilities for this are limited due to methodological problems and the many confounding effects that hamper
identification of the extent of externalities, the data does allow us to investigate the relevance of potential
conduits through which externalities could occur. Such conduits include prices (as the CCT program may bring
about behavioral responses by health care providers and fees charged for their services), migration, congestion
and crowding out effects, peer effects, and fertility. Note that migration, fertility and peer effects through
women’s decision-making power are based on information in the household survey, and regional averages can
only be calculated for the PNPM sample as this is representative for the sub-district population, while the PKH
data is not.
We can also investigate potential externalities by looking at evidence from other health and education
programs. For example, the survey provides information on individual participation in scholarship programs
and a pro-poor targeted public health insurance (Askeskin), as well as aggregate coverage of these schemes
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Chapter 4 Evaluation Design and Baseline Analysis
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
(in schools and villages, respectively). Absence of spill-over effects would not rule out externalities due to
the CCT programs, of course. But any negative correlation of health and education outcomes with aggregate
participation in existing programs (while controlling for individual participation), would suggest that health
and education services are sensitive to congestion and crowding out effects.
In the empirical analysis presented in the following sections we will first sketch the context for health and
education outcomes in the survey areas by comparing a selection of indicators to national outcomes, and
discussing the results of the multivariate analysis for possible determinants of the key outcomes and scope for
externalities. The balancing properties of the sample will then be evaluated by mean comparison tests between
treatment and control areas on
• Target service coverage indicators in health and education
• Key outcome indicators in health, education and child work
• Individual and household characteristics
• Health and education service provision
• Village characteristics
In the analysis standard errors have been adjusted for sampling design and clustering at sub-district level.
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Introduction
Chapter 5
Results of the
Baseline Survey
05
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Chapter 5 Results of the Baseline Survey
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
This section presents the empirical results regarding the balancing properties of treatment and control groups.
The first two subsections discuss the results for the target service coverage indicators and key education
and health outcome indicators. Then we compare balance in other individual, household, village and service
provider characteristics.
5.1 Education
5.1.1 Regional patterns
We compare net enrollment rates of primary and junior secondary school in the treatment areas of PKH and
PNPM Generasi baseline survey to Susenas 2004 survey. Table 4 summarizes net enrollment rates by province in
the baseline survey and for Susenas 2004. The figures for the treatment sample areas are presented separately
by PKH and PNPM Generasi areas. Net primary enrollment in the PKH areas is 85.6 percent, which is lower than
the average net enrollment rate according to Susenas 2004, reflecting the relatively poor population covered
by the CCT pilot. Both the PKH sample and the Susenas show primary enrollment outside Java to be higher in
rural areas. For Java enrollment is higher for urban PKH areas, while we see the opposite for the full population
of West and East Java. Primary school enrollment in PNPM Generasi is higher than in PKH areas, except for
North Sulawesi and Gorontalo.
Net junior secondary school enrollment in PKH areas is 51.9 percent, which is considerably lower than the
national average of 65 percent. A pattern we also observe across provinces. In PNPM Generasi areas, the
enrollment rate is 62 percent (Table 5), closer to that of Susenas 2004. But in three provinces (North Sulawesi,
Gorontalo and East Nusa Tenggara) the PNPM Generasi baseline data generate higher net enrollment.
Table 6 provides the transition rates to junior secondary schools by province obtained from the Ministry of
National Education. It is calculated as the proportion of the number of new entrants to grade one in junior high
schools within a year of primary school graduation. The transition rates for a province can be higher than 100
percent partly because new entrants in a province may come from primary school graduates in other provinces
who moved into this province.
The CCT baseline figures cannot be directly compared to that of the Ministry of National Education due to
differences in data and formulae to derive transition rates. Table 6 also suggests that the transition rates may
change substantially over time, with the province figures looking particularly volatile. We could not calculate
reliable transition rates from primary to junior secondary school with the data, as the timing of the survey
(June to August) overlaps with the transition of academic years, which is the very moment that the decision
transitions are (being) made. In itself this is not a problem for the impact evaluation, as long as randomization
balances pre-program primary school enrollment rates. Nevertheless, we do want to get an indication of the
(balance in) current transition rates, as the transition from primary to juniors secondary is the main source of
concern regarding the government’s nine years basic education ambitions. We therefore include a very rough
proxy of transition to secondary school: the junior secondary school enrollment rate conditional on having
completed primary school. The drawback of this measure is that it is not fully comparable with national statistics
on transition rates. The advantage of this indicator is that it captures the transition from primary to secondary
school and junior secondary drop-out, both of which are key barriers to achieving a universal nine year basic
education target.
Transition to junior secondary education is higher in urban areas, with large variation between provinces: low
in West Java, high in Jakarta, Gorontalo and Nort Sulawesi. Particularly striking is the large disparity between
urban and rural areas in East Nusa Tenggara. Overall, transition rates are higher for PNPM than for PKH areas.
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Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
5.1.2 Determinants
Correlations of education and child work indicators with socio-economic, village, school and sub-district
characteristics are given in Table 36 for children age 7 to 12, Table 37 for children age 13 to 15, and Table 38
for math and Indonesian language test scores. Enrollment is expressed as the gross participation rate, which
reflects enrollment among a specific age group, irrespective of the level of enrollment. Child work is defined by
any work activity that involves earning income or being compensated in kind (referred to as economic work)
and domestic work. The tables show regression results controlling for district fixed effects. It is important to
reemphasize that these results serve a descriptive purpose and cannot be interpreted as causal effects due to
potential confounding factors and endogenous variables. Nevertheless they can show us patterns in the main
determinants of education outcomes and conduits of externalities. The latter could be captured by variables
reflecting congestion (average class size in junior secondary school; spill-over effects from other interventions,
by including scholarship coverage in schools, controlling for individual participation), peer effects (average
school absence; average national school test scores in the sub-districts), and migration. School fees are not
included as these are generally low under the BOS program.
The results show that there is no gender gap in enrollment, but that girls are more diligent, do more domestic
work than boys, and less economic work. They also perform better in math and language tests. In PNPM areas,
young children from households that rely on agriculture for their main source of income do relatively more
economic and domestic work than children of the same age from other households, while older children
attend school less. Note that this does not reflect local affects as we already control for the rural status of the
villages (which shows no significant correlation). Children in agricultural households perform lower on all tests,
for all age groups and samples. In contrast to this, we find that students score relatively high on Indonesian
language tests in rural PKH villages. Surprisingly, for schooling and work we find little correlation between
with expenditure quintiles or parental education, and where we do find significant results, the coefficients do
not show a consistent pattern. However, both household expenditure and parental education are positively
associated with test scores. Among children from households with relatively many small children, we see lower
enrollment and higher work incidence. But in households with relatively older children, the prevalence of child
work is lower. Children achieve lower test scores if they live in households with a high number of children
overall. We see little correlation between the number of schools and enrollment, but we do see lower work
incidence.
Regarding potential externalities, in-migration is associated with more work, decreased enrollment and lower
tests scores. But the standard errors are large. If we look at externalities form other interventions, there seems
to be no evidence that scholarship coverage in schools has affected education of other children. However,
scholarship coverage is associated with lower outcomes, but again, standard errors are large here. There is some
correlation with peer effect variables. High average student absence in junior secondary schools is associated
with lower individual attendance and higher economic work incidence for younger children. For test scores we
find that individual performance is better for math and Indonesian language if the average school performance
in national exams is relatively high for math, but low for English.
5.1.3 Mean comparison tests
Education target indicators
The mean comparison tests for education target indicators are presented in Table 18 (PKH) and Table 20 (PNPM)
for children age 6 to 12, and Table 19 (PKH) and Table 21 (PNPM) for children age 13 to 15. Note that the latter
age group reflects the junior secondary school reference population, while the former is broader than the
primary school age reference group, which in Indonesia typically is 7-12 years. However, in practice, school
enrollment in Indonesia is not negligible among 6 year olds. This is also reflected in the baseline survey data,
with an average enrollment rate of 56 percent. We therefore include schooling of 6 year old children in the
mean comparison tests, except for some age specific indicators (such as net enrollment rates).
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Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Net primary and junior secondary school enrollment rates are balanced across treatment and control groups.
Net primary enrollment lies below 90 percent for all groups (between 85 and 89 percent), which is low compared
to the national average 93 percent (in 2004). Net junior secondary enrollment lies also below the 2004 national
average of 65 percent, but there is large variation between PKH and PNPM groups: 52 to 54 percent, and 60 to
64 percent, respectively.
For gross participation rates we see some statistically significant imbalances for children age 7 to 12 in the PNPM
sample, and children age 13 to 15 in the PKH sample. Gross participation is close to universal for the youngest
age group, ranging from 93 to 96 percent. For the older age group gross participation is lower, between 69 and
86 percent, but still well above the net junior secondary enrollment rate, indicating high repetition rates and
delayed enrollment in primary school.
Table 18 and Table 20 show the absorption rate of new pupils in primary schools. This measure assesses the
number of newly enrolled primary school students as a fraction of the number of children aged 7 years old (the
official primary school enrollment age). We calculate this at the sub-district level, taking weighted population
means. We do not find statistically significant differences, but it has to be noted that standard errors are likely to
be large given the relatively few observations (i.e. the number of sub-districts). Our proxy for junior secondary
transition rates among 13 to 15 year olds is given in Table 19 (PKH) and Table 21 (PNPM). Junior secondary
school enrollment varies from 80 to 89 percent, being slightly higher for PNPM children, but with no statistically
significant differences between treatment and control groups.
School attendance rates are high, with 92 to 95 percent of enrolled children age 6 to 12 meeting the 85 percent
attendance target (irrespective of a 1 or 2 week recall period). Full attendance rates are slightly lower. For the
PKH samples there are no statistically significant differences in attendance, but for the PNPM we see some
imbalance for the treatment I and control groups (87 against 92 percent). For the older age group we see
significant differences in the school attendance target performance (2 week recall) in the PNPM sample: 94
percent in the treatment I group achieved the 85 percent attendance target, against 90 percent in the control
group.
Child work, costs of schooling and education outcomes
Mean comparison tests for child work indicators and costs of schooling are presented in Table 22 (PKH) and
Table 25 (PNPM) for children age 6-12, and in Table 23 (PKH) and Table 26 (PNPM) for children age 13-15. We
look at different levels of intensity in work: at least one hour of work in the last week and at least 20 hours of
work. Overall, incidence of child work seems quite balanced, but we find statistically significant differences for
the age group 13 to 15 in domestic work activities, for both PKH and PNPM. In this age group 71 to 87 percent
of children report domestic work activities and 22 or 30 percent are engaged in work activities that generate
some kind of income, with 11 to 16 percent working at least 20 hours per week.
For students below 13 there is no noticeable difference between treatment and control groups in distance
(minutes) and costs (Rp.) of travel to school. But for older students there are statistically significant differences
in the PKH and PNPM treatment and control groups. There appear to be no imbalances in the fraction of
scholarship recipients.
Education test scores are presented in Table 24 (PKH) and Table 27 (PNPM). The see tables show the percentage
of correctly answered questions for a set of home-based math and language, test for two separate age groups
(7 to 12 and 13 to 15) irrespective of enrollment status. Children’s test performance was similar in treatment and
control groups. Children in PNPM areas performed slightly better than in PKH areas, in particular for children
age 13 to 15.
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5.2 Health indicators
5.2.1 Regional patterns
Immunization rates
Immunization rates vary greatly between provinces and samples. Table 7 shows the percentage of children
age 0-36 months that received complete immunization at specific ages. Immunization is more prevalent in the
PNPM Generasi than the PKH intervention areas. For the latter, complete immunization rates are low on Java
compared with the other provinces, with particular low rates on Java, where less than a quarter of children in the
PKH sample have received the required immunization given their age. For children in the PNPM we see higher
immunization rates and a contrasting pattern, with relative low rates in Gorontalo and East Nusa Tenggara.
The IDHS figures apply a different reference group. It shows that more than half of children age 12-23 months
have been fully vaccinated; that is, they received immunizations against tuberculosis, three doses against
diphtheria, pertusis, tetanus, and three doses against polio, and measles. Over 60 percent of children in East
Java, North Sulawesi and East Nusa Tenggara have received all their vaccinations, compared to only 41 percent
of children in West Java. This corresponds with findings in the PKH sample, that immunization in West Java lags
behind other provinces
Child morbidity
The baseline survey collected information on self-reported illness and symptoms in the last month preceding
the survey for children age 0-3 years. The prevalence of some illnesses (diarrhea, high fever, cough, and
acute respiratory infection (ARI)10) in different provinces is provided in Table 8. DKI Jakarta has a quite higher
prevalence of diarrhea, fever and coughing symptoms than other provinces while prevalence of ARI is relatively
high in North Sulawesi and East Nusa Tenggara. Child morbidity is relatively low in East Java.
Note that comparison of these morbidity rates requires some caution, as self-reported illness is biased upward
when set against income. Self-reported illness typically depends on the affordability of care, as the rich reporting
illness more often than the poor, which is surely not a result of the rich having a worse health status than the
poor. On average, self-reported morbidity rates are higher with PNPM respondents, but this is not consistent
across provinces. Since the PKH sample is expected to be (on average) poorer than the PNPM sample, due to
purposive sampling in PKH sub-districts, it is not clear whether difference in morbidity rates reflect differences
in health status or reporting bias.
Table 9 shows the percentage of children who suffered from ARI or diarrhea in the month before the baseline
survey and who sought treatment at a health facility or with visiting health officers. Despite the high prevalence
of child morbidity, 70 percent of cases with ARI symptoms were treated in Jakarta. The treatment rate is also
high in East Java and North Sulawesi, in contrast to Gorontalo (PKH) and East Nusa Tenggara (PNPM).
The 2002-2003 IDHS survey reports higher incidence and treatment rates for ARI and diarrhea compared to the
CCT pilot (Table 10). Particularly striking are the regional difference so high morbidity and low treatment rates
in Gorontalo, against low incidence and high treatment rates in Jakarta and East Java.
Child nutritional status
Children’s nutritional status is reflected by the incidence of child stunting, wasting, and underweight. The
indicators are anthropometric z-scores computed following the WHO Child Growth Standards. Stunting, based
on a child’s height and age, is a measure of chronic nutritional deficiency. Wasting, based on a child’s weight
10
The symptoms of ARI are fever, coughing, accompanied by short, rapid breathing.
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Chapter 5 Results of the Baseline Survey
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
and height, is a measure of acute nutritional deficiency while underweight, based on weight and age, is a
composite measure of both acute and chronic malnutrition. Table 11 shows the percentage of children age 0-36
months that are malnutrition and severe malnutrition, according to WAZ, HAZ and WHZ scores.11
All indicators show that, overall, the extent of malnourishment is higher among children in PKH compared to
PNPM. With some exceptions (notably severe underweight in North Sulawesi and East Java) this pattern is also
observed in the different provinces. Stunting is more prevalent among the children in the survey than wasting.
About half of the children aged 0-36 months are stunted, and around a third are categorized severe. There are
strong regional disparities between provinces in Java, which have better children nutritional status, and nonJava. An exception is DKI Jakarta, which again has a higher prevalence of children underweight, stunting and
wasting.
Assistance during birth
Information on birth deliveries by various types of assistance within the last two years preceding the survey
is collected in the baseline survey from married women aged 16-49 years. A delivery is considered as assisted
by a trained professional if it was attended by a doctor or midwife. Table 12 shows that the percentage of
professionally assisted deliveries is higher among women in PKH areas compared to PNPM Generasi, most
likely because of the sub-district supply-side restriction for PKH participation and because PNPM Generasi
covers relatively rural sub-districts. Compared to the IDHS 2002-2003, the percentage of professionally assisted
deliveries in both CCT pilot schemes is lower, which can be explained by the pro-poor design of the pilot.
Professional assistance with deliveries is more prevalent in Jakarta, East Java and North Sulawesi, according
to the CCT baseline survey and IDHS. Both data sources show that a large number of mothers in East Nusa
Tenggara and West Java tend to choose a traditional birth.
Antenatal and postnatal care
According to the 2002-2003 IDHS, 92 percent of mothers who had a live birth in five years preceding the survey
received at least one antenatal checkup at a health care provider. Further, 81 percent of mothers had four or
more antenatal care visits, as is recommended by the Indonesian maternal health program (Central Bureau of
Statistics Indonesia et al., 2003).
The CCT baseline data reports that at least four antenatal care visits were made in 69 percent of pregnancies
in PKH areas and 79 percent pregnancies in PNPM Generasi areas, during the 24 months preceding the survey
(Table 13). On average, pregnant women in the PNPM Generasi intervention villages had 7.9 visits compared to
only 6.6 visits in PKH villages. At province level we also see higher frequency of antenatal care visits for PNPM
Generasi compared to PKH areas. Antenatal care is more frequent on Java than outside Java, with North Sulawesi
having the lowest share (56 to 60 percent) of pregnant women meeting the CCT target of four antenatal visits.
Distribution of iron supplements is an important component of antenatal care. According to the 2002-2003
IDHS, 78 percent of women who received antenatal care received iron tablets. Three in ten of these women
took the recommended 90 or more tablets during pregnancy. According to the CCT baseline data 82 and 86
and percent of pregnant women in PKH and PNPM Generasi treatment areas, respectively, received iron pills
during their pregnancy. These figures are higher than suggested in the 2002-2003 IDHS. However, only for
11.7 and 16.9 percent of pregnancies did women receive 90 or more iron pills during pregnancy, compared to
30 percent indicated in the IDHS data (Table 14). Incidence of having received the recommended 90 iron pills
during pregnancy varies across province. For PKH areas it is particularly low in Gorontalo (3.6 percent) and West
Java (8.7 percent), compared to East Java (14.3 percent). The percentages in PNPM Generasi areas are higher
(ranging between 11 – 18 percent) than in PKH areas (3 – 14 percent).
11
24
Malnutrition (underweight, stunted, or wasted) is indicated by a z-score equal to or below -2, and severe malnutrition by a z-score
equal to or below -3.
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Chapter 5 Results of the Baseline Survey
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Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
The CCT baseline survey also inquired about postnatal service from health care providers during the first 40
days after delivery. In PKH and PNPM Generasi areas, the average numbers of postnatal visits are comparable
(3.5 and 3.6 visits) yet the distribution varies widely by province. On East Java, the average number is 4 postnatal
visits, compared to less than 2 visits in East Nusa Tenggara. These frequencies translate to low average rates
of meeting the CCT target of at least 2 postnatal care visits: 43 percent of live births in PKH and 52 in PNPM
Generasi intervention areas, and go as low 25 percent in East Nusa Tenggara (PKH) and 35 percent in North
Sulawesi (PNPM).
Overall, the results show large scope for improvements in ante- and postnatal care in the CCT pilot areas, as the
extent of care and iron supplements provided falls well short of recommended amount and the CCT targets (on
average), with large variation between provinces. We would therefore expect a large potential impact of the
CCT interventions.
Mortality rates
Some early childhood mortality rates calculated from the CCT baseline survey are presented in Table 16. They
are neonatal mortality rates (children less than 30 days old) and infant mortality rates (younger than 12 months).
The difference between the two is referred to as the post-neonatal mortality rate (age 1 to 11 months).
Overall, the baseline data shows neonatal mortality rates of 41 deaths per 1000 live births in PKH intervention
areas and 34 in PNPM Generasi areas. The infant mortality rates lies at 80 and 81 for the PKH and PNPM Generasi
areas, respectively. This is considerably higher than the mortality rates derived from the IDHS data, shown in
Table 17. This shows neonatal mortality rates ranging from 16 to 31 and infant mortality rates from 25 to 77 per
1000 live births, all well below the averages in the CCT intervention sub-districts.
This difference could reflect the relative high degree of deprivation in the CCT pilot areas, due to the pro-poor
design. It should also be noted that the reference period applied the IDHS 2002-2003 survey for calculating
mortality rates is 10 years before the survey date, while for the CCT baseline survey we use retrospective
information for 5 years prior to the survey.
According to the IDHS data, in general neonatal mortality is high East Nusa Tenggara and East Java, and
relatively low in Jakarta and North Sulawesi, while post-neonatal mortality is relatively high in Gorontalo and
East Nusa Tenggara. The mortality rates calculated from the CCT pilot survey show a very volatile pattern across
provinces, much stronger than is observed in the IDHS survey. The most likely explanation is that the number
of observations in the CCT survey is not large enough to decompose indicators for such low frequency events
by province.
5.2.2 Determinants
The regression results are given in Table 39 and Table 40 for children’s health target indicators and outcomes,
respectively. Table 41 presents regressions for outpatient utilization and Table 42 for target indicators for
married women age 16 to 49. We include potential externality variables that could capture effects from
behavioral response of health service providers (prices) and migration. We also include individual and average
village participation in the Askeskin program, to investigate experiences with spillover effects in other public
health programmes. In case of target indicators for married women we also include fertility (the crude birth
rate per 1000 inhabitants over the last 24 months) and women’s decision making power indices. Two indices are
constructed based on as set of questions on whether women have a say on decisions regarding their children
and household consumption. The indices range from 0 to 1, with a value of 1 indicating that a woman has
decision making power on all issues raised in the questionnaire. We include the individual indices and a subdistrict average, to capture peer effects.
June 2008
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Chapter 5 Results of the Baseline Survey
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Girls show better nutritional status (in both height and weight) than boys. Parental education shows a strong
positive correlation with self-reported morbidity and health targets for immunization and weighing. But health
status and the programs’ targets are only weakly correlated with agricultural activities of households or per
capita household expenditure. A large share of children in the household is associated with a higher degree of
malnutrition, and lower incidence of meeting immunization and weighing targets. Askeskin beneficiaries show
higher morbidity and lower nutrition, which could reflect pro-poor targeting or indicate selection on needs. On
the other hand, they are more likely to meet the target of monthly weighing. We see no evidence of spillover
effects from the Askeskin program at village level. Regarding other conduits for externalities, in-migration
and crude birth rates show negative correlation with immunization and frequency of weighing, suggesting
potential spill-over effects through increased pressure on public services. The results for supply side factors and
prices are hard to interpret, with both positive and negative correlation and incidental statistical significance.
Outpatient care is higher for females, and lower amongst households for whom agriculture is their main economic
activity. We also see a strong positive correlation with per capita household expenditure and education of the
head of household. This holds for health care from public, private and traditional providers. There are also clear
patterns for household composition. Utilization is lower for larger households, with a large share of children
age 3 to 15 years, relative to adults (while controlling for individual age). Individuals from households with
infants and toddlers, on the other hand, use more public and private care. Participating in Askeskin clearly
increases pubic health care utilization. The size of the coefficients suggests a net effect on utilization and a
substitution from private to public. The reported results are likely to be underestimates, given that they are
not cleansed from possible selection effects. The supply side variables show some positive correlation with
utilization of public and private outpatient care in PNPM sub-districts. We see potential for external effects on
public care through in-migration. As with the earlier results for health outcomes, there appear to be no village
level externalities due to the Askeskin programme.
Women from agricultural households tend to make less use of professional assistance with births, and have
less postnatal visits. Per capita expenditure and the level of education of the households head is positively
correlated with target indicators for married women. Pregnant women in households with a large share of
children younger than 2 years are more likely to have at least 4 antenatal visits and receive 90 iron pills. But
young mothers in these households are less likely to meet the target for postnatal care.
Women in households with relatively larger number of older children are less likely to meet the target on
postnatal care or have professionally assisted deliveries. Having Askeskin insurance is positively associated with
receiving the required iron supplements, professional assistance at birth and postnatal care. But the results
suggest the Askeskin does not lead to externalities. Women’s influence on decisions regarding their children
is positively correlated with meeting postnatal care targets. For women’s decision-making power regarding
household consumption, we find conflicting results between PKH and PNPM samples for receiving iron pills.
However, the results do not give us a clue on how peer effects through increased women’s decision-making
power would play a role in meeting ante- and postnatal care, as we see both negative and positive coefficients
for the sub-district averages. The crude birth rate is negatively correlated with assisted deliveries in PNPM areas,
suggesting that if the community transfers induce fertility rates, this could increase pressure on services by
midwives. Correlation with supply side factors and prices are again hard to interpret with both positive and
negative correlation.
5.2.3 Mean comparison tests
Health targets indicators
The target indicators for preventive health care for pregnant women and mothers are given in Table 28 (PKH)
Table 30 (PNPM). For both CCT programs the treatment and control samples are balanced. There are minor
differences, but these are not statistically significant. But there are differences between the PKH and PNPM
samples. Among pregnant women in the PKH sample about 70 percent have had at least 4 antenatal visits and
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Chapter 5 Results of the Baseline Survey
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Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
12 percent have received at least 90 iron pills. In the PNPM sample these numbers are higher, with almost 80
percent meeting the target for antenatal visits, and 17 percent for iron pills. The PNPM sample also performs
better on targets for postnatal care, with around 52 percent having at least two visits, against 44 percent for
PKH. There are no statistically significant differences between any of the samples for the percentage of deliveries
assisted by a trained professional (ranging between 58 and 62 percent).
Table 29 and Table 31 present the target health service coverage indicators for children aged 0 to 36 months in
the PKH and PNPM samples, respectively. While the PNPM sample is balanced for all outcomes, the PKH is not
balanced for the frequency of weight monitoring at health facilities and vitamin A receipt. The children in the
PKH treatment sample have been weighed at a health facility slightly more often in the last two months than
those in the control group. While the difference in the average frequency is not statistically significant (1.10
and 1.04, respectively), the difference in the percent of children that was weighed at least twice (34 and 28), is.
Children in the PNPM treatment and control sample are weighed more often, ranging from 1.25 to 1.34 visits in
the last two months.
The PNPM sample also shows higher immunization rates and vitamin A uptake. Complete immunization
of children, given their age, is just below 40 percent in the PKH areas, and just above for PNPM. The higher
immunization for PNPM as compared to PKH holds for all immunization types: BGC, Polio, DPT, Measles, and
Hepatitis B. Vitamin A intake for children aged 6 to 36 months ranges from 36 and 38 percent in the PKH
treatment and control groups, respectively, to 37, 40 and 42 percent in the PNPM treatment I, treatment II
and control groups, respectively. These patterns of vitamin A intake translate to approximately 50 percent of
potential intake, based on the biannual national distribution of vitamin A capsules.
Health outcomes
Key health outcomes that we will discuss here are morbidity of childhood diseases, malnutrition and mortality
among young children, and health care utilization rates for public, private and traditional curative outpatient
care.
We observe statistically significant differences in treated ARI for the PNPM treatment and control groups, while
for the PKH groups there are differences in average height for age of children age 0 to 36 months, and overall
outpatient contact rates. Morbidity, malnutrition and mortality rates are reported in Table 32 (PKH) and Table 34
(PNPM). Malnourishment in terms of the Height-for-Age Z-score for children under 3 years old is slightly higher
in the PKH control group compared to the treatment group. The other malnourishment indicators (Weight-forAge and Weight-for-height) seem balanced. Incidence of malnourishment is slightly higher in PKH sub-districts
compared to PNPM sub-districts.
Self-reported incidence of diarrhea and acute respiratory illness amongst young children is balanced between
treatment and control groups. These morbidity rates are slightly higher in the PNPM areas compared to PKH.
Incidence of diarrhea in the last month ranges from 25 to 30 percent among children under 36 months. ARI is
reported for 18 to 22 percent of children.
Neonatal mortality rates are also statistically balanced between treatment and control groups, varying between
27 and 45 deaths per 1,000 live births. While the differences between the treatment and control groups seem
sizeable, the standard errors are relatively large, such that null hypothesis of no difference can not be rejected.
We do see a statistically significant difference for infant mortality in the PKH sample: the high mortality rate
among children younger than 1 year in the PKH treatment area (81 per 1000 live births) is not matched by the
control group (54).
Outpatient utilization and contact rates are shown in Table 33 (PKH) and Table 35 (PNPM). These indicate the
average number of visits to a health care provider in the last month, and the fraction of the population that
visited a provider at least once. There are no statistically significant differences between treatment and control
groups. On average, an individual in a PKH sub-district has 0.14 to 0.15 visits to a public or private health care
June 2008
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Chapter 5 Results of the Baseline Survey
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
provider (excluding traditional care), with 0.18 to 0.20 visits for a person in a PNPM sub-district. Roughly a 27
to 36 percent of modern care takes place at a private health care provider, and 30 to 33 percent at a public
community health facility (Puskesmas). We see similar patterns for contact rates, with the exception that there
is a statistically significant difference for overall modern care (public and private) in the PKH treatment and
control group.
5.3 Household and individual characteristics
Household and individual characteristics are presented in Table 43 (PKH) and Table 44 (PNPM).
Age and demographic profile
The age profile shows the average age of respondents in the different modules of the baseline survey: the
average age in months of children younger than 3 years (Book 1D), the average age in years of children 6 to
15 years old (Book 1C), married women 16 to 49 years old (Book 1B) and the average age of all household
members (Book 1A). We see no statistically significant differences. Average household size is balanced, with
PKH households at 5.4 people and PNPM households around 4.4.
Education attainment
Educational attainment of the population age 10 years and older is not balanced: among the PNPM controls
we see there is a higher share of the population with no degree and less with just primary schooling education,
compared to the treatment groups. Higher levels of education attainment do seem balanced. Education
attainment is higher in PNPM areas compared to the PKH sample.
Social programmes
The survey also asks about participation in social programmes and insurance schemes, such as Askes social
health insurance for civil servants, Askeskin health insurance for the poor, SLT/BLT unconditional cash transfer
schemes and Raskin rice subsidies. Consistent with PKH sampling strategy, almost all PKH households receive
SLT/BLT assistance. Since the PNPM is a representative sample of the population, the SLT/BLT is much lower,
around 34 percent.
Household expenditure
Household expenditure is expressed as per capita monthly household spending, broken down by food and
non-food spending. In addition to these aggregates, we specify per capita health and education spending. For
al types of spending, the treatment and controls are balanced. This is reflected in the mean comparison test and
a graphical account of the full distribution of household spending. Figure 4, Figure 5, and Figure 6 graph the
distribution of per capita total household spending, and education and health spending, respectively, for each
treatment and control group. For PKH households average expenditure is just below Rp. 200,000 per head per
month, and between Rp. 325,000 and 340,000 for PNPM households.
Head of household
We observe some statistically detectable differences for the characteristics of heads of households. Among
PNPM households, 5 percent of heads of household in the treatment I group are female, compared to 8 percent
for treatment II and 7 percent for the control group households. Education attainment in the control group
differs from both treatment groups, in particular with a higher incidence of non-educated heads of household
(17, 18 and 22 percent for treatment I, II and control group, respectively) and a smaller share with only a primary
school degree (52, 51 and 46 percent, respectively). Similar to overall education attainment, we see that, on
average, heads of household in PNPM households enjoy a higher level education than those in PKH households.
For all groups, cultivation of rice and secondary crops is the main source of income for the head of household,
ranging from 61 to 66 percent.
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Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Living conditions
The household survey collects information on an array of living conditions. These include characteristics of the
house or dwelling (such as the construction material of the roof, walls and floor), accessibility to clean drinking
water and the source of water, sanitary facilities (such as type of toilet, waste disposal), cooking facilities. We
find no statistical differences between treatment and control groups. On average living conditions are better
for PBPM households than the sampled PKH households.
Assets
While we found expenditures to be balanced between treatment and control groups, we do see the occasional
difference in the accumulation of assets. The information on assets in the survey includes type of land (such as
irrigated rice and non-irrigated rice land, dry land, housing land), land area (ha), household appliances (such as
television, radio, refrigerator), means of transportation (such as bicycle, motorcycle, car, boat) and livestock. For
the PNPM households, asset ownership balances between treatment and controls, but for the PKH groups, the
treatment households own considerably less land (on average 0.22 and 0.39 ha, respectively) and own a car or
motor boat less often compared to control households (0.2 and 0.5 percent, respectively).
Community participation
Participation in community activities and organizations does not differ significantly between control and
treatment groups, for either CTT program.
5.4 Village characteristics and service provider
characteristics
Village characteristics
The village characteristics are remarkably balanced between treatment and control groups (PKH villages in
Table 45 and PNPM villages in Table 46). While we do observe differences, they are never statistically significant
because the standard errors are large. The only significant difference is found with the percentage of households
working in agriculture.
An important result for the CCT baseline is that village level variables that relate to the supply of education
and health services are balanced. The effects of the CCTs crucially depend on the supply of basic health and
education services. Any difference in the supply of schooling and health services could cause heterogeneity
in (latent) treatment effects, even when initial target and key outcome indicators are balanced ex ante. Other
possible confounding effects could be caused by imbalances in health insurance coverage.
Other relevant variables that are reported in Table 45 and Table 46, and where we find no statistically significant
differences, include population size, religious composition, waste drainage systems used in the villages,
availability to communication and media services, welfare and infrastructure indicators, and local wages for
non-skilled workers.
Community health facility and midwives
Unlike the village characteristics, which show that treatment and control groups enjoy similar supply of health
services in terms of the number of facilities, we find a number of significant differences when we look at the
supply and quality of health care at individual health care providers. Table 47 to Table 50 show characteristics
of community health centers and village midwives sampled for the survey. The questions in the survey provide
very detailed information regarding physical aspects of the health care facilities (such as rooms, water supply,
sanitation, etc.), staffing, instruments and materials, stock of medicine, details on care recently provided, and
prices. The tables list a large number of characteristics, but here we will only point out the most important
variables for which we found statistically significant differences between treatment and controls.
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Chapter 5 Results of the Baseline Survey
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
For the community health center, we see similar patterns in imbalanced variables with both the PKH and PNPM
facilities. Most notable are the differences between treatment and control groups in the number of staff, water
source, toilet facilities, number of rooms (in particular treatment and inpatient rooms), frequency of vaccination
of infants (DPT for PKH and BGC vaccination for PNPM), and frequency of weighing of children. Especially
worrying are the frequent the imbalance in availability in instruments and materials, and staffing, in particular
for the PKH facilities. We also see some differences in the available stock of medicine and unit price of treatment
for both CCT samples. However, these are minor and infrequent deviations.
For midwives, the PNPM sample shows many more imbalances than the PKH sample. Discrepancies in electricity
and water source, and the number of assistants is seen for both PKH and PNPM midwives, as are significant
differences in the availability in instruments, and the frequency of vaccinations for infants. There are also
price differences between treatment and controls for public and private services offered. In case of the PNPM
public and private midwives seem more expensive in the control group, while for the PKH the midwives in the
treatment group generally charge higher rates for their services.
Schools
An array of school characteristics are given in Table 51 (PKH) and Table 52 (PNPM). The variables presented
show characteristics, qualification, and experience of the teaching staff, type of school, results for national and
school exams, school class rooms and facilities, number of students per class room, drop out rates, changes
in enrollment, school attendance, scholarships recipients, and budgets and revenues. The treatment and
control groups are balanced in most variables. In this section we will only highlight the statistically significant
imbalances.
The observed difference that at first seems most worrying is the discrepancy between PNPM dropout rates.
However, this does not seem to be a systematic source of bias as the pattern in the discrepancies is not consistent:
dropout rates for second grade students in junior secondary school are higher in the treatment II group than in
the control group, while for the third grade the drop out rates are higher in the control group compared to both
treatment groups. Also the percentage of students with scholarships is lower in PNPM control schools.
Differences in the PKH schools that may reflect quality of schooling are the higher number of first grade students
per class room in the control group schools, while they have less funds available for infrastructure maintenance
and study-teaching and extracurricular activities.
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Chapter 6
Conclusions and
Recommendations
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Chapter 6 Conclusions and Recommendations
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
There are some differences in characteristics of the school principal. For PKH schools the principals in control
areas are more likely to be males compared to schools in treatment areas (91 and 87 percent, respectively),
while in PNPM control area schools they are younger on average (23.8 years compared to 31.8 and 35.6 to
the treatment I and II schools, respectively). The number of computers and students toilet facilities is larger in
PKH treatment groups and the level of school sanitation higher, compared to controls. In PNPM areas we see
significant differences in the number of rooms, leaks in the ceiling and blackboard and chalk markers.
This analysis of the baseline survey for the PKH and PNPM Generasi CCT pilot programs investigated whether
randomized assignment of treatment and control status over sub-districts managed to balance the key
outcome variables. The overall conclusion is that it does, and that it allows for an impact evaluation based on
experimental methods.
We divided the analysis by type and relevance of the variables with respect to the objectives of both CCT
programs:
•
•
•
•
•
Target service indicators that will describe the conditions for receiving the CCT benefits
Key health and education outcome indicators that reflect the key priority areas for social policy in
Indonesia
Individual and household indicators
Village characteristics
Education and health facility characteristics reflecting quality of social service delivery
For each of these categories, we found no systematic imbalances between treatment and control groups.
However, there are a few points of attention for forthcoming impact evaluations. There are differences in
height for age z-score between the PKH treatment and control group. In addition, for both CCT pilots we find
some discrepancies between treatment and control groups in gross participation rate, school travel costs and
domestic work activities. On the other hand, incidental statistically significant differences can be expected
in a randomized design. The observed discrepancies are scarce and are not unambiguously in favor of either
treatment or control groups, while other key health and education outcomes seem balances. This would suggest
that there is no systematic bias in education or health status. Nevertheless, controlling for initial differences
would be prudent.
But we do find a higher frequency of statistically significant differences when we look at the school and health
facility surveys. Although these differences seem, with no clear pattern in the imbalances, they do need to be
taken into account for the impact evaluation. It concerns key variables on quality and supply of services (such
as materials and supplies at health care facilities, the cost of midwife services, and national exam results) that
could affect impact of the CCT programs, and drive impact heterogeneity.
For the follow-up survey and subsequent impact evaluation, we can add to following notes and
recommendations:
It would be advisable to conduct a follow-up survey in the period after the start of a new academic year. This
would facilitate estimating the programs’ effect on transition rates. Household decisions regarding the transition
from primary to secondary school manifest themselves during the period around the start of the new academic
year. To conduct a follow-up survey in the period June to August, as is the case with the baseline survey, would
make it unnecessarily difficult (if not impossible) to translate answers from households to school transitions in
a consistent manner.
PKH impact evaluation poses some problems, given that we do not know latent eligibility status among
households in control areas. Unlike CCT programs in other countries, program eligibility was not determined
for households in control groups. Moreover, the process of establishing eligibility was based on statistical
32
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Chapter 6 Conclusions and Recommendations
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
grounds with some degree of local influence. Therefore, while there exists an experimental counterfactual
for the full sample in treatment sub-districts (i.e. eligible and non-eligible households), we do not have one
for the eligible households alone. With the availability of high quality baseline data it should be possible to
employ non-experimental methods (such as combining double difference and matching methods) to resolve
this problem. However, this would mean that we ignore the main feature of the survey, the randomized design.
Randomization gives us an unbiased estimate of the average overall effect of the program on the sampled
population, or the intention to treat effect. This observed effect would then be a weighted average of the direct
effect of CCTs on participating households and the external effects for the whole population. A key empirical
challenge that remains is to isolate the direct effect from the overall effect (i.e. the treatment effect on the
treated) while utilizing the random variation in treatment assignment.
Since the PKH respondents are not representative for the sub-district populations, but were selected by means
of purposive sampling, it is not possible to evaluate targeting performance of the household CCT. In so far as this
is of interest, it may be worthwhile to sample extra households in the follow up survey, to get a representative
image of the sub-district population. This additional sample could, for example, be women and children that
do not appear on the UCT roster, but would otherwise adhere to the CTT eligibility criteria relating to age,
pregnancy, lactating mothers, etc. Of course, caution would be required with including this extra sample for
impact evaluation. While in principle this would be possible since randomization has seemingly removed any
systematic differences between the treated and non-treaded district populations, absence of baseline data
would not make it possible to detect or correct any remaining coincidental discrepancies.
June 2008
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Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
References
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
References
Central Bureau of Statistics Indonesia, National Family Planning Coordinating Board, Ministry of Health, and
MEASURE/DHS+ (2003). Indonesia 2002-2003 Demographic and Health Survey Key Findings. Jakarta.
Government of Indonesia (2007). Pedoman Umum PKH 2007
Handa S, Davis B (2006). “The Experience of Conditional Cash Transfers in Latin America and the Caribbean”,
Development Policy Review 24 (5): 515-536.
Skoufias, Emmanuel and Susan W. Parker (2001). Conditional Cash Transfer and Their Impact On Child Work and
Schooling: Evidence from the Progresa Program in Mexico, FCND Discussion Paper No. 123, International
Food Policy Research Institute.
UNICEF (2006). State of the World’s Children 2006: Excluded and Invisible
World Bank (2006). Making the New Indonesia Work for the Poor.
World Bank (2007a). Indonesia Community Conditional Cash Transfer Project Concept Note.
World Bank (2007b). TOR CCT (Phase I) Baseline Survey.
World Bank (2007c). Metodologi Survei Dasar Rumah Tangga CCT 2007
PNPM Generasi Quarterly Update November 2007
34
June 2008
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Tables
Table 1
Table 2
Table 3
Table 4
Table 5
Table 6
Table 7
Table 8
Table 9
Table 10
Table 11
Table 12
Table 13
Table 14
Table 15
Table 16
Table 17
Table 18
Table 19
Table 20
Table 21
Table 22
Table 23
Table 24
Table 25
Table 26
Table 27
Table 28
Table 29
Scenario of cash transfers for the household CCT program
Sample size
Non-response rates for survey modules
Primary school net enrollment rates (percent) in CCT treatment areas and Susenas 2004
Junior secondary school net enrollment rates (percent) in CCT treatment areas and
Susenas 2004
Transition to junior secondary school (percent)
Percentage of children with complete immunization in CCT treatment areas and
IDHS Survey 2002-2003
Self reported child morbidity, age 0 to 36 months in CCT treatment areas
Treatment sought for ARI and diarrhea in CCT treatment areas (percentage)
Prevalence and treatment of ARI, fever and diarrhea, IDHS Survey 2002-2003
Nutritional status of children age 0 to 36 months in CCT treatment areas
Delivery assisted by doctor or midwife immunization in CCT treatment areas and
IDHS Survey 2002-2003 (percent)
Antenatal care in CCT treatment areas
Percentage of mothers that received at least 90 iron pills during pregnancy,
women age 16 to 49 in CCT treatment areas
Postnatal visit in CCT treatment areas
Infant mortality rates in CCT treatment areas
Infant mortality rates, IDHS Survey 2003-2003
Target service coverage indicators for children age 6-12 years for household CCT
treatment and control groups
Target service coverage indicators for children age 13-15 years for household CCT
treatment and control groups
Target service coverage indicators for children age 6-12 years for community CCT
treatment and control groups
Target service coverage indicators for children age 13-15 years for community CCT
treatment and control groups
Child work and cost of education for children age 6-12 years for household CCT
treatment and control groups
Child work and cost of education for children age 13-15 years for household CCT
treatment and control groups
Language and math test scores for household CCT treatment and control groups
(percentage of answers correct)
Child work and cost of education for children age 6-12 years for community CCT
treatment and control groups
Child work and cost of education for children age 13-15 years for community CCT
treatment and control groups
Language and math test scores for community CCT treatment and control groups
(percentage of answers correct)
Target service coverage indicators for married women age 16 to 49 in household CCT
treatment and control groups
Target service coverage indicators for children age 0 – 36 months for household CCT
treatment and control groups
38
38
39
39
40
40
41
41
42
42
43
43
44
44
44
45
45
46
46
47
48
48
49
49
49
50
50
50
51
June 2008
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Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Table 31
Table 32
Table 33
Table 34
Table 35
Table 36
Table 37
Table 38
Table 39
Table 40
Table 41
Table 42
Table 43
Table 44
Table 45
Table 46
Table 47
Table 48
Table 49
Table 50
Table 51
Table 52
36
June 2008
Target service coverage indicators for children age 0 – 36 months for community CCT
treatment and control groups
52
Health outcome indicators for children age 0-36 months for household CCT
treatment and control groups
53
Health care utilization for household CCT treatment and control groups
54
Health outcome indicators for children age 0-36 months for community CCT
treatment and control groups
54
Health care utilization for community CCT treatment and control groups
55
Education and child work regressions, children 7 to 12 years
56
Education and child work regressions, children 13 to 15 years
58
Test scores, children 7 to 15 years
60
Health target regressions, children 0 to 36 months
62
Health outcome regressions, children 0 to 36 months
64
Outpatient care regressions, all household members
67
Target indicator regressions for married women age 16 to 49
69
Household characteristics for household CCT treatment and control
71
Household characteristics for community CCT treatment and control
73
Village characteristics for household CCT treatment and control
75
Village characteristics for community CCT treatment and control
76
Community health facility characteristics for household CCT treatment and control groups
78
Community health facility characteristics for community CCT treatment and control groups 86
Midwife characteristics for household CCT treatment and control groups
94
Midwife characteristics for community CCT treatment and control groups
103
School characteristics for household CCT treatment and control groups
113
School characteristics for community CCT treatment and control groups
115
Figures
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Figure
Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Selection and randomization procedures
Baseline sample selection PNPM
Baseline sample selection PKH
Distribution of Ln per capita monthly expenditures for treatment and control groups
Distribution of Ln per capita monthly education expenditures for treatment
and control groups
Distribution of Ln per capita monthly health expenditures for treatment and
control groups
119
120
121
122
122
123
June 2008
37
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Tables
Table 1
Scenario of cash transfers for the household CCT program
Support scenario
Amount of transfer per household per year (Rupiah)
Fixed cash transfer
200,000
Cash transfer for per household with
a. Child age less than 6 years
800,000
b. Pregnant or lactating mother
800,000
c. Children of primary-school age
400,000
d. Children of secondary-school age
800,000
Average transfer per household
1,390,000
Minimum transfer per household
600,000
Maximum transfer per household
2,200,000
Source: Republik Indonesia, Pedoman Umum PKH 2007
A.1 Baseline survey sample
Table 2
Sample size
Household CCT
Treatment
Sub-districts
Control
Treatment
incentives
100
Treatment no
incent.
100
Control
180
180
Villages
1,369
1,354
768
768
777
Households
7,195
7,131
4,000
4,000
4,000
Individuals
36,801
36,762
16,446
16,375
16,739
Children under 3 years
3,076
3,077
1,592
1,534
1,620
Children age 6-15
9,356
9,550
3,108
3,128
3,255
Married women age 16-49
7,408
7,365
3,617
3,580
3,597
178
180
100
100
100
Puskesmas
38
Community CCT
100
Junior high schools
507
507
277
283
287
Midwife
702
705
385
385
387
June 2008
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Table 3
Non-response rates for survey modules
Survey module
Non-response rate (%)
Married women age 16-50 years
0.22
Children age 6-15 years
0.80
Language test, children age 7-12 years
57.44
Math test, children age 7-12 years
57.45
Language test, children age 13-15 years
52.47
Math test, children age 13-15 years
52.47
Children age 0-36 months
0.50
Community health facilities
0.15
Midwives
2.77
Schools
5.94
A.2 Regional variation
Table 4
Primary school net enrollment rates (percent) in CCT treatment areas and Susenas
2004
Total
PKH
PNPM
85.6
88.2
Susenas 2004
93.0
DKI Jakarta
87.8
91.9
West Java
83.2
89.6
93.4
East Java
86.5
86.9
93.7
North Sulawesi
80.8
79.0
88.3
Gorontalo
91.0
87.1
88.9
East Nusa Tenggara
87.5
89.3
90.8
Urban
85.0
92.7
DKI Jakarta
87.8
91.9
West Java
84.2
93.4
East Java
87.9
93.7
North Sulawesi
72.3
85.3
Gorontalo
83.4
87.4
East Nusa Tenggara
69.8
88.7
Rural
West Java
86.1
88.2
93.3
78.5
89.6
93.5
East Java
85.3
86.9
93.7
North Sulawesi
85.1
79.0
89.9
Gorontalo
97.9
87.1
89.3
East Nusa Tenggara
89.8
89.3
91.1
June 2008
39
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Table 5
Junior secondary school net enrollment rates (percent) in CCT treatment areas and
Susenas 2004
PKH
PNPM
Susenas
2004
Total/National
51.9
62.1
65.2
DKI Jakarta
34.7
West Java
41.4
72.2
61.7
East Java
60.2
64.4
67.1
North Sulawesi
50.2
75.0
67.9
Gorontalo
46.2
53.0
49.3
East Nusa Tenggara
39.9
48.4
43.3
Urban
50.7
72.7
DKI Jakarta
34.7
76.1
West Java
41.7
68.6
East Java
58.9
74.2
North Sulawesi
49.4
68.7
Gorontalo
42.3
68.7
East Nusa Tenggara
61.3
75.6
Rural
53.3
62.1
60.1
West Java
40.1
72.2
54.4
East Java
61.4
64.4
62.1
North Sulawesi
50.6
75.0
67.4
Gorontalo
48.5
53.0
42.5
East Nusa Tenggara
36.5
48.4
36.4
Table 6
Transition to junior secondary school (percent)
PKH
PNPM
National 2005/2006 a
Total/National
80.1
87.8
79.7
DKI Jakarta
100.0
102.2
West Java
66.2
93.3
69.5
East Java
84.2
89.3
77.3
North Sulawesi
90.5
100.0
96.7
Gorontalo
97.5
90.4
95.6
East Nusa Tenggara
75.0
70.5
99.4
a) Source: Ministry of National Education
40
76.1
June 2008
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Table 7
Percentage of children with complete immunization in CCT treatment areas and IDHS
Survey 2002-2003
CCT Baseline Survey a
Complete immunization given
age
PKH
DKI Jakarta
27.3
West Java
23.0
PNPM
IDHS Survey 200203 b
Complete immunization for
children age 10 months +
PKH
Complete
immunization: BCG,
Measles, 3 doses DPT
& 3 doses Polio
PNPM
36.7
50.8
67.0
28.7
62.7
41.4
East Java
47.4
38.3
57.6
47.3
64.2
North Sulawesi
39.0
47.1
42.5
58.9
68.6
Gorontalo
56.6
27.0
64.2
34.4
56.6
East Nusa Tenggara
37.8
38.2
50.2
48.4
62.7
a) Percentage of children aged 0-36 months.
b) Percentage of children aged 12-23 months.
Table 8
Self reported child morbidity, age 0 to 36 months in CCT treatment areas
Diarrhea
Fever
Cough
Acute Respiratory
Infection (ARI)
56.8
71.7
84.8
17.6
PKH
DKI Jakarta
West Java
40.4
57.9
54.4
25.4
East Java
22.5
36.0
47.6
11.7
North Sulawesi
31.2
47.1
67.3
22.6
Gorontalo
32.5
42.6
55.6
7.7
East Nusa Tenggara
28.1
48.8
61.5
20.9
PNPM Generasi
West Java
29.7
50.5
46.6
16.0
East Java
18.7
33.6
47.8
10.1
North Sulawesi
33.4
45.1
58.7
23.4
Gorontalo
44.6
58.5
76.7
33.3
East Nusa Tenggara
27.6
44.9
59.3
25.0
June 2008
41
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Table 9
Treatment sought for ARI and diarrhea in CCT treatment areas (percentage)
ARI treated
Diarrhea treated
PKH
DKI Jakarta
70.2
48.6
West Java
40.9
38.0
East Java
79.4
65.0
North Sulawesi
78.3
53.9
Gorontalo
26.4
37.1
East Nusa Tenggara
67.9
56.1
West Java
65.2
54.9
East Java
69.1
65.7
North Sulawesi
91.7
55.5
Gorontalo
62.0
67.6
East Nusa Tenggara
44.0
50.4
PNPM Generasi
Table 10
Prevalence and treatment of ARI, fever and diarrhea, IDHS Survey 2002-2003
Percentage of children with
42
ARI
Fever
Diarrhea
Percentage of children with
symptoms of ARI and/or fever got
treatment
National
7.6
25.9
11
56.8
DKI Jakarta
6.8
21.5
7.8
75.4
West Java
9.0
31.1
15.1
50.3
East Java
2.8
20.8
9.8
64.5
North Sulawesi
6.5
24.0
9.5
60.2
Gorontalo
13.8
32.6
12.2
41.0
East Nusa Tenggara
8.1
28.0
12.9
53.7
June 2008
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Table 11
Nutritional status of children age 0 to 36 months in CCT treatment areas
Underweight (WAZ)
Stunted (HAZ)
Wasted (WHZ)
Malnourished
Severely
malnourished
Malnourished
Severely
malnourished
Malnourished
Severely
malnourished
DKI Jakarta
24.9
10.3
72.7
43.8
19.2
7.1
West Java
20.5
7.1
48.4
32.9
13.4
7.4
East Java
18.2
4.6
45.8
29.2
11.9
6.8
North Sulawesi
26.9
9.2
46.9
20.8
16.2
9.1
Gorontalo
39.9
13.9
58.4
24.0
15.4
0.0
East Nusa
Tenggara
33.7
13.9
56.5
35.6
13.1
5.1
West Java
11.4
3.0
37.4
19.1
10.7
4.8
East Java
17.0
7.0
48.0
26.8
12.9
8.2
North Sulawesi
20.3
12.4
52.1
29.5
8.9
6.7
Gorontalo
33.2
8.5
43.2
23.4
17.4
5.1
East Nusa
Tenggara
31.6
10.2
59.6
37.5
14.3
3.5
PKH
PNPM Generasi
Table 12
Delivery assisted by doctor or midwife immunization in CCT treatment areas and
IDHS Survey 2002-2003 (percent)
PKH
PNPM Generasi
DHS Survey
Total
61.8
59.5
66.3
DKI Jakarta
86.9
94.3
West Java
42.1
72.6
48.7
East Java
82.8
80.5
80.7
North Sulawesi
71.2
78.1
85.7
Gorontalo
60.7
51.6
48.8
East Nusa Tenggara
33.1
36.0
36.4
June 2008
43
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Table 13
Antenatal care in CCT treatment areas
Average number of antenatal visits
At least 4 antenatal visits (percent)
Total
6.6
69.1
DKI Jakarta
7.0
84.2
West Java
6.1
63.7
East Java
7.5
77.4
North Sulawesi
6.2
60.8
Gorontalo
5.3
63.7
East Nusa Tenggara
5.6
61.5
Total
7.9
79.0
PKH
PNPM Generasi
West Java
8.5
85.2
East Java
8.5
86.7
North Sulawesi
5.1
56.3
Gorontalo
8.4
71.7
East Nusa Tenggara
6.8
72.4
Table 14
Percentage of mothers that received at least 90 iron pills during pregnancy, women
age 16 to 49 in CCT treatment areas
Percent of mothers
Total
PKH
PNPM
11.7
16.9
DKI Jakarta
10.6
West Java
8.7
17.3
East Java
14.3
15.1
North Sulawesi
10.8
11.2
Gorontalo
3.6
17.2
East Nusa Tenggara
10.2
18.1
Table 15
Postnatal visit in CCT treatment areas
Average number of postnatal visits
Total
44
PKH
PNPM
3.5
3.6
At least 2 postnatal visits (percent)
PKH
PNPM
43.0
52.4
DKI Jakarta
3.0
West Java
3.2
4.3
56.3
67.3
East Java
4.7
4.7
45.9
53.5
North Sulawesi
3.2
1.8
40.4
34.5
Gorontalo
2.6
4.6
48.8
46.9
East Nusa Tenggara
1.6
1.9
24.8
40.9
June 2008
73.1
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Table 16
Infant mortality rates in CCT treatment areas
Neonatal mortality
Post-neonatal mortality a
Infant mortality
PKH
Total
41
40
81
DKI Jakarta
0
0
0
West Java
47
35
82
East Java
35
46
82
North Sulawesi
57
9
66
Gorontalo
7
82
89
East Nusa Tenggara
43
45
88
34
45
80
PNPM Generasi
Total
West Java
37
37
74
East Java
10
13
23
North Sulawesi
0
0
0
Gorontalo
40
106
145
East Nusa Tenggara
45
46
90
a) Computed as the difference between the infant and neonatal mortality rates.
Table 17
Infant mortality rates, IDHS Survey 2003-2003
DKI Jakarta
Neonatal mortality
Post-neonatal mortality
Infant mortality
18
17
35
West Java
25
19
44
East Java
28
14
43
North Sulawesi
16
9
25
Gorontalo
24
54
77
East Nusa Tenggara
31
28
59
June 2008
45
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
A.3 Mean comparison tests education and health
Table 18
Target service coverage indicators for children age 6-12 years for household CCT
treatment and control groups
Variable
Treatment
Control
Difference
p
NT
NC
Enrolled
0.8871
0.8694
0.0177
0.16
6715
6849
Enrolled in primary school
0.8214
0.816
0.0054
0.65
6715
6849
Enrolled in secondary school
0.0653
0.0528
0.0125
0.14
6715
6849
Net enrollment primary school at age
7 to 12
0.8556
0.8623
-0.0067
0.57
5780
5901
Gross participation rate
At age 7 to 12
0.9315
0.9251
0.0065
0.52
5780
5901
1.3188
0.9431
0.3757
0.24
180
180
Attend school 85% last 2 weeks
0.945
0.9415
0.0034
0.71
5094
5232
Attend school 85% last week
0.9425
0.9467
-0.0042
0.73
4299
4154
Attend school 100% last 2 weeks
0.9104
0.9222
-0.0118
0.34
5094
5232
Attend school 100% last week
0.9414
0.9447
-0.0033
0.79
4299
4154
Primary school new pupil absorption
at age 7 (in persons avrg)
Note: Results reflect fractions unless stated otherwise.
Table 19
Target service coverage indicators for children age 13-15 years for household CCT
treatment and control groups
Variable
Treatment
Control
Difference
p
Enrolled in primary school
0.1068
0.1504
-0.0436
0.01
2235
2236
Enrolled in secondary school
0.5724
0.5909
-0.0185
0.56
2235
2236
Net enrollment junior secondary
school
0.5193
0.5415
-0.0222
0.45
2235
2236
Gross participation rate
(age 13 to 15)
0.6861
0.7439
-0.0578
0.05
2235
2236
Transition to secondary school
0.8013
0.8352
-0.0338
0.21
1736
1729
Attend school 85% last 2 weeks
0.941
0.9175
0.0235
0.22
1316
1355
Attend school 85% last week
0.9424
0.9377
0.0048
0.79
1133
1097
Attend school 100% last 2 weeks
0.9185
0.892
0.0265
0.25
1316
1355
Attend school 100% last week
0.9423
0.937
0.0053
0.77
1133
1097
Note: Results reflect fractions unless stated otherwise.
46
June 2008
NT
NC
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Table 20
Target service coverage indicators for children age 6-12 years for community CCT
treatment and control groups
Variable
Treatment
I
Treatment
NI
Control
Difference
I–C
p
Difference
NI – C
p
N
I
N
NI
N
C
Enrolled
0.8809
0.8797
0.8811
-0.0002
0.99
-0.0014
0.94
2299
2326
2428
Enrolled in
primary school
0.8145
0.8182
0.8347
-0.0202
0.27
-0.0165
0.3
2299
2326
2428
Enrolled in
secondary school
0.0652
0.0615
0.0463
0.0189
0.11
0.0153
0.16
2299
2326
2428
Net enrollment
primary school
0.8827
0.8817
0.888
-0.0053
0.74
-0.0063
0.68
1953
1976
2081
Gross
participation rate
(age 7 to 12)
0.9625
0.9547
0.9422
0.0203
0.08
0.0124
0.31
1953
1976
2081
Primary school
new pupil
absorption at
age 7 (in persons
avrg)
1.1492
1.2545
1.1191
0.03
0.94
0.1354
0.74
97
95
96
Attend school
85% last 2 weeks
0.9171
0.9266
0.9385
-0.0214
0.34
-0.0119
0.48
1768
1751
1825
Attend school
85% last week
0.9288
0.9444
0.9372
-0.0085
0.58
0.0071
0.6
1545
1535
1485
Attend school
100% last 2
weeks
0.8747
0.8987
0.9189
-0.0441
0.06
-0.0202
0.27
1768
1751
1825
Attend school
100% last week
0.9261
0.9379
0.937
-0.0108
0.48
0.0009
0.95
1545
1535
1485
Note: Results reflect fractions unless stated otherwise.
June 2008
47
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Table 21
Target service coverage indicators for children age 13-15 years for community CCT
treatment and control groups
Variable
Treatment
I
Treatment
NI
Control
Difference
I–C
p
Difference
NI – C
p
N
I
N
NI
N
C
Enrolled in
primary school
0.1734
0.1621
0.1311
0.0423
0.2
0.0309
0.37
682
681
692
Enrolled in
secondary school
0.676
0.7021
0.6983
-0.0223
0.62
0.0038
0.94
682
681
692
Net enrollment
junior secondary
school
0.5986
0.6424
0.6153
-0.0167
0.71
0.0271
0.56
682
681
692
Gross
participation rate
(age 13 to 15)
0.8511
0.8646
0.8315
0.0195
0.5
0.0331
0.28
682
681
692
Transition to
secondary school
0.8609
0.894
0.8814
-0.0205
0.59
0.0126
0.71
563
554
570
Attend school
85% last 2 weeks
0.9445
0.9046
0.8985
0.0459
0.07
0.0061
0.85
460
485
504
Attend school
85% last week
0.8989
0.9224
0.8919
0.007
0.82
0.0305
0.29
400
443
421
Attend school
100% last 2
weeks
0.9231
0.8892
0.8801
0.043
0.12
0.0091
0.78
460
485
504
Attend school
100% last week
0.8982
0.9224
0.8919
0.0063
0.84
0.0305
0.29
400
443
421
Note: Results reflect fractions unless stated otherwise.
Table 22
Child work and cost of education for children age 6-12 years for household CCT
treatment and control groups
Variable
Treatment
Difference
p
NT
NC
Economic work activities
0.0679
0.0796
-0.0117
0.41
6715
6848
Domestic work activities
0.5443
0.5446
-0.0003
0.99
6675
6827
20 hrs work (non-domestic)
0.0262
0.0283
-0.0021
0.76
6715
6848
20 hrs work (all)
0.1669
0.1794
-0.0124
0.55
6715
6849
Scholarship in last 2 years
0.0427
0.0514
-0.0087
0.31
5910
5981
15.61
15.20
0.41
0.67
5884
5968
129.56
96.62
32.93
0.35
5806
5804
Travel time to school (minutes)
Travel costs to school (Rp.)
Note: Results reflect fractions unless stated otherwise.
48
Control
June 2008
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Table 23
Child work and cost of education for children age 13-15 years for household CCT
treatment and control groups
Variable
Treatment
Control
Difference
p
NT
NC
Economic work activities
0.2201
0.2227
-0.0026
0.93
2234
2235
Domestic work activities
0.7683
0.7146
0.0537
0.03
2219
2225
20 hrs work (non domestic)
0.1408
0.127
0.0138
0.51
2234
2235
20 hrs work (all)
0.4111
0.3866
0.0245
0.41
2235
2235
Scholarship in last 2 years
0.0841
0.0742
0.0099
0.59
1527
1565
Travel time to school (minutes)
20.59
21.38
-0.79
0.5
1515
1558
Travel costs to school (Rp.)
665.39
430.20
235.20
0.09
1492
1517
Note: Results reflect fractions unless stated otherwise.
Table 24
Language and math test scores for household CCT treatment and control groups
(percentage of answers correct)
Variable
Treatment
Control
Difference
p
NT
NC
Indonesian Language
74.17
73.56
0.61
0.66
2707
2829
Math
61.84
60.68
1.16
0.34
2557
2645
Total
68.91
67.73
1.18
0.27
2524
2619
Indonesian Language
55.12
54.28
0.84
0.49
1061
1080
Math
52.58
52.38
0.2
0.89
1004
1037
Total
54.03
53.56
0.46
0.7
996
1024
Age 7 – 12
Age 13 – 15
Table 25
Child work and cost of education for children age 6-12 years for community CCT
treatment and control groups
Variable
Treatment Treatment
I
NI
Control
Difference
I–C
p
Difference
NI – C
p
N
I
N
NI
N
C
Economic work
activities
0.089
0.1022
0.104
-0.015
0.52
-0.0018
0.94
2299
2326
2428
Domestic work
activities
0.6066
0.6074
0.6499
-0.0433
0.18
-0.0425
0.14
2288
2323
2424
20 hrs work (non
domestic)
0.0269
0.0401
0.0295
-0.0027
0.73
0.0105
0.29
2299
2326
2428
20 hrs work (all)
0.1669
0.1907
0.1684
-0.0015
0.94
0.0223
0.35
2299
2326
2428
Scholarship in last 2
years
0.0393
0.0354
0.0373
0.002
0.85
-0.0019
0.84
2042
2060
2155
Travel time to school
(minutes)
15.49
16.49
16.26
-0.77
0.55
0.24
0.88
2039
2054
2150
Travel costs to school
(Rp.)
164.28
156.38
139.56
24.72
0.55
16.82
0.63
2025
2033
2125
Note: Results reflect fractions unless stated otherwise.
June 2008
49
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Table 26
Child work and cost of education for children age 13-15 years for community CCT
treatment and control groups
Variable
Treatment
I
Treatment
NI
Control
Difference
I–C
p
Difference
NI – C
p
N
I
N
NI
N
C
Economic work
activities
0.3032
0.2739
0.2552
0.048
0.31
0.0188
0.65
682
681
691
Domestic work
activities
0.8556
0.8739
0.8079
0.0477
0.13
0.066
0.03
677
676
686
20 hrs work (non
domestic)
0.1554
0.128
0.1097
0.0457
0.13
0.0183
0.48
682
681
691
20 hrs work (all)
0.4645
0.4178
0.4135
0.0509
0.26
0.0042
0.92
682
681
692
Scholarship in last 2
years
0.0713
0.0864
0.0982
-0.0269
0.33
-0.0118
0.68
562
566
577
Travel time to school
(minutes)
25.16
22.67
21.01
4.15
0.09
1.67
0.33
560
563
575
Travel costs to school
(Rp.)
978.49
635.86
670.22
308.27
0.07
-34.36
0.74
553
561
572
Note: Results reflect fractions unless stated otherwise.
Table 27
Variable
Language and math test scores for community CCT treatment and control groups
(percentage of answers correct)
Treatment
I
Treatment
NI
Control
Difference
I–C
p
Difference
NI – C
p
N
I
N
NI
N
C
72.62
74.55
73.86
-1.25
0.46
0.69
0.74
1085
1133
1218
Math
65.5
64.44
62.97
2.52
0.16
1.47
0.46
1047
1086
1151
Total
69.92
70.55
69.63
0.29
0.83
0.91
0.55
1030
1075
1135
Age 7 – 12
Age 13 – 15
59.28
58.04
57.22
2.06
0.21
0.82
0.65
372
380
442
Math
55.76
57.55
55.85
-0.09
0.96
1.7
0.35
368
363
420
Total
57.42
58.35
56.99
0.43
0.79
1.36
0.37
364
360
417
Table 28
Target service coverage indicators for married women age 16 to 49 in household CCT
treatment and control groups
Variable
Treatment
Control
Difference
p
NT
NC
Number of antenatal visits
6.6033
6.6356
-0.0323
0.93
2842
2863
At least 4 antenatal visits
0.6907
0.6851
0.0056
0.83
2842
2863
At least 90 iron pills given
0.1175
0.1242
-0.0067
0.75
2330
2308
Delivery assisted by doctor or
midwife
0.6183
0.5738
0.0446
0.32
2323
2346
Number of postnatal visits
3.4825
3.6066
-0.1241
0.81
2323
2346
At least 2 postnatal visits
0.4301
0.4404
-0.0104
0.77
2323
2346
Note: Unit of analysis is each birth and/or pregnancy per woman in the 24 month prior to the survey. Results reflect fractions unless
stated otherwise.
50
June 2008
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Table 29
Target service coverage indicators for children age 0 – 36 months for household CCT
treatment and control groups
Variable
Complete immunization given age
Complete immunization for children age
10 months +
Complete immunization
BGC immunization
Polio: 1 immunization
Polio: 2 immunizations
Polio: 3 immunizations
Polio: 4 immunizations
DPT: 1 immunization
DPT: 2 immunizations
DPT: 3 immunizations
Measles immunization
Hepatitis B: 1 immunization
Hepatitis B: 2 immunizations
Hepatitis B: 3 immunizations
Treatment
0.3923
Control
0.3803
Difference
0.012
p
0.71
NT
2846
NC
2839
0.4815
0.4653
0.0162
0.69
1878
1867
0.3528
0.8126
0.7997
0.6979
0.5933
0.4828
0.7198
0.6187
0.5381
0.5446
0.6773
0.5719
0.5091
0.3452
0.7965
0.7959
0.6831
0.5975
0.4714
0.7025
0.6027
0.5198
0.5637
0.6791
0.5611
0.4815
0.0076
0.0161
0.0038
0.0148
-0.0042
0.0114
0.0173
0.016
0.0183
-0.0191
-0.0018
0.0108
0.0276
0.8
0.48
0.87
0.58
0.89
0.7
0.5
0.6
0.58
0.47
0.95
0.73
0.38
2937
2990
2980
2954
2945
2936
2946
2930
2924
2952
2943
2933
2932
2927
2988
2969
2946
2925
2921
2937
2922
2917
2945
2929
2921
2908
Not weighed in last two months
Weighed once in last two month
Weighed at least twice in last two months
Number of times weighed in last two
months (in freq. unit)
0.269
0.4001
0.3309
0.2769
0.4388
0.2844
-0.0078
-0.0387
0.0465
0.78
0.13
0.08
2934
2934
2934
2930
2930
2930
1.0952
1.0421
0.0531
0.3
2934
2930
0.3581
0.384
-0.0259
0.36
2241
2198
1.7361
1.8796
-0.1435
0.05
2877
2826
3.6071
3.6616
-0.0544
0.48
3019
3013
0.4795
0.52
-0.0405
0.11
2824
2765
Receiving vitamin A of at least 2 per year
during age 6 months – 5 years
Number of times child received vitamin A
(in freq. unit)
Number of opportunity to receive vitamin
A (in freq. unit)
Rate of uptake of vitamin A from the
official distribution
Note: Results reflect fractions unless stated otherwise.
June 2008
51
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Table 30
Target service coverage indicators for married women age 16 to 49 in community
CCT treatment and control groups
Variable
Treatment
I
Treatment
NI
Control
Difference
I–C
p
Difference
NI – C
p
N
I
N
NI
N
C
7.9407
7.7726
7.8945
0.0462
0.92
-0.1219
0.79
1682
1688
1702
0.796
0.7852
0.7815
0.0145
0.69
0.0037
0.92
1682
1688
1702
0.1654
0.173
0.1934
-0.0281
0.34
-0.0205
0.49
1443
1465
1467
0.5803
0.6095
0.6255
-0.0452
0.44
-0.0161
0.78
1346
1329
1357
3.6101
3.5374
3.1866
0.4235
0.31
0.3508
0.33
1346
1329
1357
0.5105
0.5381
0.4834
0.027
0.48
0.0547
0.14
1346
1329
1357
Number of antenatal
visits
At least 4 antenatal
visits
At least90 iron pills
given
Delivery assisted by
doctor or midwife
Number of postnatal
visits
At least 2 postnatal
visits
Note: Unit of analysis is each birth and/or pregnancy per woman in the 24 month prior to the survey. Results reflect fractions unless
stated otherwise.
Table 31
Target service coverage indicators for children age 0 – 36 months for community CCT
treatment and control groups
Variable
Complete immunization
given age
Complete immunization
for children age 10
months +
Complete immunization
BGC immunization
Polio: 1 immunization
Polio: 2 immunizations
Polio: 3 immunizations
Polio: 4 immunizations
DPT: 1 immunization
DPT: 2 immunizations
DPT: 3 immunizations
Measles immunization
Hepatitis B: 1
immunization
Hepatitis B: 2
immunizations
Hepatitis B: 3
immunizations
Not weighed in last two
months
Weighed once in last two
month
Weighed at least twice in
last two months
52
June 2008
Treatment Treatment Control Difference
I
NI
I–C
p
Difference
NI – C
p
N
I
N
NI
N
C
0.4302
0.3979
0.4289
0.0012
0.97
-0.031
0.46
1509 1422 1525
0.384
0.3424
0.3584
0.0256
0.44
-0.016
0.67
1535 1450 1558
0.5475
0.832
0.8178
0.717
0.6296
0.5238
0.7466
0.668
0.5849
0.6075
0.4846
0.8407
0.8436
0.7173
0.6102
0.4788
0.7396
0.6488
0.5563
0.5868
0.5311
0.8472
0.8509
0.74
0.6239
0.4856
0.7678
0.6669
0.5519
0.5807
0.0164
-0.0152
-0.033
-0.023
0.0057
0.0382
-0.0212
0.0011
0.033
0.0269
0.73
0.56
0.22
0.47
0.88
0.27
0.5
0.97
0.35
0.35
-0.0465
-0.0064
-0.0073
-0.0227
-0.0137
-0.0069
-0.0283
-0.0181
0.0044
0.0061
0.4
0.83
0.79
0.54
0.75
0.86
0.43
0.64
0.92
0.85
901
1558
1555
1540
1533
1531
1542
1526
1524
1537
0.7425
0.744
0.7661
-0.0236
0.48
-0.0221
0.53
1531 1450 1551
0.6261
0.6106
0.6217
0.0044
0.9
-0.0111
0.77
1521 1435 1543
0.5475
0.5192
0.5319
0.0156
0.67
-0.0128
0.76
1519 1432 1545
0.2316
0.1959
0.2326
-0.001
0.98
-0.0367
0.35
1558 1506 1584
0.3485
0.3226
0.328
0.0205
0.6
-0.0054
0.9
1558 1506 1584
0.4199
0.4814
0.4394
-0.0195
0.66
0.0421
0.39
1558 1506 1584
844
1480
1473
1460
1452
1448
1458
1444
1443
1459
896
1586
1582
1568
1562
1558
1568
1551
1549
1562
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Number of times
weighed in last two
months (in freq. unit)
Receiving vitamin A of
at least 2 per year during
age 6 months – 5 years
Number of times child
received vitamin A (in
freq. unit)
Number of opportunity
to receive vitamin A (in
freq. unit)
Rate of uptake of vitamin
A from the official
distribution
1.2451
1.3357
1.246
-0.0009
0.99
0.0897
0.29
1558 1506 1584
0.3978
0.3682
0.4204
-0.0226
0.61
-0.0523
0.28
1109 1070 1127
1.7218
1.6169
1.7258
-0.0041
0.98
-0.1089
0.48
1486 1443 1526
3.4763
3.4206
3.4782
-0.0018
0.99
-0.0576
0.62
1576 1520 1602
0.4697
0.4466
0.4999
-0.0302
0.49
-0.0533
0.24
1470 1432 1516
Note: Results reflect fractions unless stated otherwise.
Table 32
Health outcome indicators for children age 0-36 months for household CCT
treatment and control groups
Variable
Diarrhea last month
Diarrhea treated
High fever last month
Cough last month
Cough and rapid breath
ARI last month
ARI treated
Illness last month
Diarrhea or ARI
Weight-for-age: not malnourished
Weight-for-age: malnourished
Weight-for-age: severely
malnourished
Height-for-age: not malnourished
Height-for-age: malnourished
Height-for-age: severely malnourished
Weight-for-height: not malnourished
Weight-for-height: malnourished
Weight-for-height: severely
malnourished
Height (cm)
Weight (kg)
Mortality rate per 1000 live births
Neonatal mortality
Infant mortality
Treatment
0.2885
0.5335
0.4504
0.5467
0.2573
0.1772
0.6451
0.7222
0.3928
Control
0.2614
0.5576
0.4466
0.5318
0.254
0.175
0.6609
0.701
0.3692
Difference
0.0271
-0.0241
0.0038
0.0149
0.0033
0.0022
-0.0159
0.0211
0.0236
p
0.25
0.56
0.88
0.54
0.88
0.91
0.77
0.38
0.39
NT
3075
847
3076
3076
3076
3076
560
3075
3075
NC
3075
803
3077
3077
3077
3077
530
3075
3075
0.7655
0.2345
0.0707
0.7432
0.2568
0.0775
0.0223
-0.0223
-0.0067
0.31
0.31
0.59
2933
2933
2933
2914
2914
2914
0.5054
0.4946
0.3085
0.8695
0.1305
0.0668
0.4555
0.5445
0.343
0.8549
0.1451
0.0568
0.0498
-0.0498
-0.0345
0.0146
-0.0146
0.01
0.09
0.09
0.22
0.37
0.37
0.42
2956
2956
2956
2905
2905
2905
2932
2932
2932
2885
2885
2885
73.1693
9.0371
72.4308
9.0949
0.7385
-0.0578
0.2
0.62
3007
2982
2996
2976
41
81
27
54
14
27
0.14
0.04
3210
3258
3239
3283
Note: Results reflect fractions unless stated otherwise.
June 2008
53
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Table 33
Health care utilization for household CCT treatment and control groups
Variable
Number of outpatient visits
Public
Private
Public and private
Traditional
Puskesmas
Contact rate
Public
Private
Public and private
Traditional
Puskesmas
Use of modern contraceptives
amongst married women
Treatment
Control
Difference
p
NT
NC
0.1106
0.0388
0.1494
0.0044
0.0479
0.1039
0.0378
0.1417
0.0038
0.047
0.0068
0.0009
0.0077
0.0007
0.0009
0.36
0.84
0.39
0.55
0.85
36801
36801
36801
36801
36801
36762
36762
36762
36762
36762
0.0917
0.0337
0.1214
0.0034
0.0394
0.6319
0.0842
0.03
0.1106
0.0031
0.0384
0.6302
0.0075
0.0037
0.0108
0.0003
0.001
0.0017
0.18
0.3
0.09
0.67
0.79
0.94
36801
36801
36801
36801
36801
7516
36762
36762
36762
36762
36762
7471
Note: Results reflect fractions unless stated otherwise.
Table 34
Health outcome indicators for children age 0-36 months for community CCT
treatment and control groups
Variable
Diarrhea last month
Diarrhea treated
High fever last month
Cough last month
Cough and rapid breath
ARI last month
ARI treated
Illness last month
Diarrhea or ARI
Weight-for-age: not
malnourished
Weight-for-age:
malnourished
Weight-for-age: severely
malnourished
Height-for-age: not
malnourished
Height-for-age:
malnourished
Height-for-age: severely
malnourished
Weight-for-height: not
malnourished
Weight-for-height:
malnourished
54
June 2008
Treatment Treatment Control Difference
I
NI
I–C
0.2976
0.2816
0.2506
0.047
0.5406
0.6114
0.6226
-0.0819
0.4344
0.4964
0.4672
-0.0328
0.5221
0.5795
0.5443
-0.0222
0.2705
0.3053
0.2528
0.0178
0.1801
0.2236
0.1931
-0.013
0.5049
0.6291
0.7294
-0.2245
0.6892
0.7408
0.7061
-0.0169
0.3659
0.3842
0.3724
-0.0066
p
0.18
0.18
0.39
0.55
0.6
0.68
0.02
0.61
0.86
Difference
NI – C
0.031
-0.0112
0.0292
0.0352
0.0525
0.0306
-0.1002
0.0347
0.0117
p
0.31
0.83
0.5
0.35
0.14
0.36
0.18
0.35
0.75
N
I
1591
438
1590
1591
1591
1590
248
1590
1590
N
NI
1534
409
1534
1534
1534
1534
269
1534
1534
N
C
1617
421
1620
1620
1620
1620
263
1617
1617
0.7646
0.7988
0.7753
-0.0107
0.77
0.0235
0.47 1549 1473 1554
0.2354
0.2012
0.2247
0.0107
0.77
-0.0235
0.47 1549 1473 1554
0.0756
0.0626
0.0548
0.0207
0.15
0.0078
0.6
0.5062
0.543
0.5206
-0.0144
0.71
0.0223
0.55 1545 1479 1566
0.4938
0.457
0.4794
0.0144
0.71
-0.0223
0.55 1545 1479 1566
0.277
0.268
0.273
0.004
0.91
-0.005
0.89 1545 1479 1566
0.8823
0.8559
0.8747
0.0076
0.69
-0.0189
0.37 1515 1444 1537
0.1177
0.1441
0.1253
-0.0076
0.69
0.0189
0.37 1515 1444 1537
1549 1473 1554
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Weight-for-height: severely
malnourished
Height (cm)
Weight (kg)
0.0444
0.0571
0.0592
-0.0148
0.25
-0.0021
0.89 1515 1444 1537
72.4586
8.8821
72.6885
8.8768
72.3448
8.7747
0.1138
0.1074
0.87
0.46
0.3437
0.1021
0.65 1559 1495 1580
0.56 1564 1489 1568
Mortality rate per 1000 live
births
Neonatal mortality
Infant mortality
30
67
39
91
45
75
-15
-8
0.26
0.61
-6
16
0.62 1633 1616 1698
0.37 1656 1634 1720
Note: Results reflect fractions unless stated otherwise.
Table 35
Health care utilization for community CCT treatment and control groups
Variable
Treatment Treatment Control Difference
I
NI
I–C
Number of outpatient visits
Public
0.1223
0.1341
0.1302
-0.0079
0.0606
0.0593
0.0715
-0.011
Private
Public and private
0.1828
0.1934
0.2017
-0.0189
Traditional
0.008
0.0129
0.0123
-0.0044
Puskesmas
0.0557
0.0623
0.063
-0.0073
Contact rate
Public
0.0973
0.1056
0.1017
-0.0043
0.0482
0.0463
0.0553
-0.0072
Private
Public and private
0.1387
0.1443
0.1483
-0.0097
Traditional
0.0063
0.0086
0.0078
-0.0015
Puskesmas
0.0461
0.0512
0.05
-0.0039
Use of modern
contraceptives
0.5744
0.5631
0.5655
0.0088
amongst married
women
p
Difference
NI – C
p
N
I
N
NI
N
C
0.49
0.28
0.24
0.43
0.34
0.0039
-0.0123
-0.0083
0.0006
-0.0008
0.78
0.21
0.62
0.92
0.93
16446
16446
16446
16446
16446
16375
16375
16375
16375
16375
16739
16739
16739
16739
16739
0.58
0.28
0.33
0.57
0.53
0.0039
-0.0091
-0.004
0.0009
0.0013
0.69
0.16
0.7
0.76
0.86
16446
16446
16446
16446
16446
16375
16375
16375
16375
16375
16739
16739
16739
16739
16739
0.74
-0.0025
0.93
3686
3656
3676
Note: Results reflect fractions unless stated otherwise.
June 2008
55
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
A.4 Regression results
Table 36
Education and child work regressions, children 7 to 12 years
Age
Female
Agriculture main
profession of head of
household
Rural village
Quintile 2
Quintile 3
Quintile 4
Quintile 5
Primary education,
head of household
Junior secondary
education, head of
household
Senior secondary
education, head of
household
Higher education,
head of household
Household size
Fraction of
household age 0 to
2 years
56
June 2008
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
PNPM:
Gross
particip.
PKH:
Gross
particip.
PNPM: 85%
att. last
week
PKH
85% att.
last week
PNPM:
Economic
work
PKH:
PNPM:
Economic Domestic
work
work
(6)
(7)
PKH:
Domestic
work
(8)
-0.0001
-0.0001
-0.0048+
-0.0010
0.0225**
0.0234**
0.0654**
0.0646**
[0.0001]
[0.0001]
[0.0026]
[0.0018]
[0.0025]
[0.0016]
[0.0036]
[0.0027]
0.0004
-0.0002
0.0068
0.0155**
-0.0133
-0.0303**
0.2463**
0.2671**
[0.0004]
[0.0002]
[0.0088]
[0.0059]
[0.0084]
[0.0055]
[0.0120]
[0.0089]
-0.0000
0.0004
-0.0035
0.0103
0.0228*
0.0030
0.0340*
0.0156
[0.0005]
[0.0003]
[0.0105]
[0.0072]
[0.0101]
[0.0067]
[0.0144]
[0.0109]
0.0001
-0.0005
-0.0065
0.0036
0.0108
-0.0059
0.0201
-0.0060
[0.0007]
[0.0004]
[0.0151]
[0.0099]
[0.0150]
[0.0088]
[0.0213]
[0.0144]
0.0008
0.0000
-0.0048
0.0048
-0.0143
-0.0074
-0.0220
-0.0023
[0.0007]
[0.0004]
[0.0140]
[0.0095]
[0.0136]
[0.0089]
[0.0193]
[0.0145]
0.0006
-0.0001
-0.0051
0.0013
0.0150
-0.0181*
0.0240
0.0052
[0.0007]
[0.0004]
[0.0145]
[0.0097]
[0.0139]
[0.0091]
[0.0197]
[0.0148]
0.0006
-0.0002
-0.0027
-0.0004
0.0277+
0.0055
0.0089
0.0260+
[0.0007]
[0.0004]
[0.0151]
[0.0099]
[0.0145]
[0.0091]
[0.0206]
[0.0148]
0.0005
-0.0007+
-0.0018
0.0044
0.0268+
0.0156+
-0.0098
0.0121
[0.0007]
[0.0004]
[0.0156]
[0.0102]
[0.0150]
[0.0095]
[0.0214]
[0.0154]
-0.0005
0.0003
-0.0009
-0.0027
0.0243+
-0.0084
-0.0300
0.0387**
[0.0007]
[0.0003]
[0.0143]
[0.0069]
[0.0137]
[0.0065]
[0.0195]
[0.0105]
-0.0001
0.0005
-0.0189
-0.0125
0.0018
-0.0101
-0.0230
0.0596**
[0.0008]
[0.0004]
[0.0175]
[0.0102]
[0.0168]
[0.0094]
[0.0240]
[0.0154]
0.0001
0.0005
-0.0149
0.0066
-0.0180
-0.0318*
-0.0053
0.0323
[0.0008]
[0.0005]
[0.0175]
[0.0131]
[0.0170]
[0.0123]
[0.0241]
[0.0200]
0.0000
0.0007
-0.0157
0.0089
-0.0096
-0.0311
-0.0850*
0.0264
[0.0012]
[0.0021]
[0.0250]
[0.0718]
[0.0246]
[0.0509]
[0.0349]
[0.0825]
0.0001
-0.0000
0.0007
0.0049**
0.0064*
0.0015
-0.0102*
-0.0104**
[0.0001]
[0.0001]
[0.0030]
[0.0018]
[0.0028]
[0.0017]
[0.0040]
[0.0027]
-0.0007
-0.0004
-0.0217
0.0064
-0.0239
0.0260
0.0340
0.1192*
[0.0023]
[0.0013]
[0.0490]
[0.0341]
[0.0474]
[0.0321]
[0.0674]
[0.0521]
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Fraction of
household age 3 to
6 years
Fraction of
household age 7 to
15 years
Scholarship in last 2
years
Percent BKKBN poor
in village
Number of primary
schools
Number of junior
secondary schools
Percent of students
with scholarships in
school
Number of students
per classroom in
grade 1
Number of students
per classroom in
grade 2
Number of students
per classroom in
grade 3
Average grade for
UN: Indonesian
Average grade for
UN: Math
Average grade for
UN: English
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
PNPM:
Gross
particip.
PKH:
Gross
particip.
PNPM: 85%
att. last
week
PKH
85% att.
last week
PNPM:
Economic
work
(6)
(7)
-0.0062** -0.0023+
-0.0477
-0.0461
-0.0183
0.0568+
0.0947
0.2188**
[0.0023]
[0.0012]
[0.0484]
[0.0316]
[0.0466]
[0.0293]
[0.0662]
[0.0475]
-0.0027
-0.0013
-0.0185
0.0220
0.0138
0.0398
-0.1884**
-0.1062**
[0.0020]
[0.0010]
[0.0431]
[0.0270]
[0.0414]
[0.0251]
[0.0589]
[0.0407]
0.0002
0.0003
-0.0025
-0.0174
0.0119
0.0351**
0.0432
0.0449*
[0.0010]
[0.0005]
[0.0214]
[0.0132]
[0.0211]
[0.0124]
[0.0301]
[0.0201]
-0.0008
0.0007
-0.0114
0.0105
0.0359+
0.0065
-0.0072
-0.0443*
[0.0010]
[0.0005]
[0.0209]
[0.0143]
[0.0205]
[0.0130]
[0.0291]
[0.0211]
-0.0001
0.0001
-0.0036
-0.0044*
0.0047
0.0026
-0.0042
-0.0066*
[0.0002]
[0.0001]
[0.0033]
[0.0018]
[0.0031]
[0.0017]
[0.0045]
[0.0028]
-0.0002
0.0001
0.0111+
0.0033
0.0050
-0.0070*
-0.0114
0.0013
[0.0003]
[0.0001]
[0.0061]
[0.0033]
[0.0059]
[0.0032]
[0.0084]
[0.0052]
0.0003
-0.0003
-0.0071
-0.0122
-0.0135
-0.0132
-0.0158
-0.0248
[0.0009]
[0.0005]
[0.0182]
[0.0121]
[0.0184]
[0.0115]
[0.0261]
[0.0187]
0.0000
-0.0000*
0.0002
0.0004
0.0008
0.0001
0.0009
0.0002
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0011]
[0.0006]
[0.0010]
[0.0005]
[0.0014]
[0.0009]
0.0000
0.0000
-0.0003
-0.0008
-0.0029**
-0.0004
-0.0009
0.0008
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0010]
[0.0006]
[0.0009]
[0.0006]
[0.0013]
[0.0010]
-0.0000
0.0000
-0.0002
0.0003
0.0020*
0.0006
-0.0005
-0.0023**
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0009]
[0.0006]
[0.0008]
[0.0005]
[0.0012]
[0.0008]
0.0006*
-0.0000
-0.0118+
0.0018
-0.0327**
0.0023
0.0215*
-0.0080+
[0.0003]
[0.0001]
[0.0065]
[0.0045]
[0.0064]
[0.0027]
[0.0091]
[0.0043]
-0.0003
-0.0000
0.0009
0.0032
0.0115
-0.0068
-0.0044
0.0040
[0.0004]
[0.0002]
[0.0086]
[0.0048]
[0.0079]
[0.0042]
[0.0113]
[0.0068]
-0.0003
0.0000
0.0137
-0.0039
0.0178+
0.0046
-0.0195
0.0056
[0.0004]
[0.0002]
[0.0098]
[0.0047]
[0.0091]
[0.0040]
[0.0130]
[0.0064]
PKH:
PNPM:
Economic Domestic
work
work
(8)
PKH:
Domestic
work
June 2008
57
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
School absence
without permission
In-migration rate in
sub-district
Out-migration rate
in sub-district
Constant
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
PNPM:
Gross
particip.
PKH:
Gross
particip.
PNPM: 85%
att. last
week
PKH
85% att.
last week
PNPM:
Economic
work
(6)
(7)
0.0000
-0.0002
-0.5411**
-0.0686
0.4315**
0.0587
-0.0600
-0.2699*
[0.0079]
[0.0032]
[0.1638]
[0.1002]
[0.1638]
[0.0787]
[0.2328]
[0.1284]
PKH:
PNPM:
Economic Domestic
work
work
-0.0028
-0.0739
0.0639
0.4553*
[0.0065]
[0.1409]
[0.1335]
[0.1898]
-0.0032
-0.0970+
0.0958+
-0.0842
[0.0026]
[0.0555]
[0.0545]
[0.0776]
(8)
PKH:
Domestic
work
0.9987**
1.0017**
1.0265**
0.9073**
-0.1712**
-0.1593**
0.0833
0.0028
[0.0028]
[0.0013]
[0.0604]
[0.0353]
[0.0571]
[0.0321]
[0.0813]
[0.0522]
Observations
4905
9051
3596
6474
4917
9074
4907
9041
R-squared
0.01
0.00
0.01
0.01
0.04
0.03
0.15
0.15
Note: Includes district fixed effects. Standard errors in brackets. + significant at 10%; * significant at 5%; ** significant at 1%
Table 37
Education and child work regressions, children 13 to 15 years
(1)
(2)
(3)
-0.0022
0.0020
-0.0521*
-0.0131
0.0183
0.0014
-0.0035
0.0028
[0.0016]
-0.0017
[0.0022]
-0.0002
[0.0023]
-0.0038
[0.0023]
-0.0006
[0.0024]
0.0005
[0.0024]
[0.0018]
0.0007
[0.0025]
-0.0025
[0.0027]
-0.0011
[0.0026]
-0.0009
[0.0027]
0.0009
[0.0027]
[0.0214]
0.0186
[0.0290]
-0.0088
[0.0310]
0.0282
[0.0318]
0.0233
[0.0318]
0.0482
[0.0323]
[0.0132]
-0.0135
[0.0189]
0.0045
[0.0195]
-0.0141
[0.0191]
-0.0145
[0.0190]
0.0128
[0.0196]
[0.0235]
0.0125
[0.0329]
-0.0099
[0.0337]
-0.0178
[0.0342]
0.0068
[0.0344]
-0.0130
[0.0351]
[0.0161]
-0.0417+
[0.0216]
-0.0157
[0.0236]
0.0120
[0.0234]
0.0275
[0.0234]
0.0156
[0.0240]
[0.0204]
0.0160
[0.0286]
-0.0224
[0.0295]
-0.0339
[0.0298]
0.0139
[0.0300]
-0.0032
[0.0306]
[0.0171]
-0.0168
[0.0228]
-0.0071
[0.0249]
0.0055
[0.0247]
0.0378
[0.0247]
0.0014
[0.0253]
-0.0015
0.0463
-0.0287*
-0.0029
-0.0111
0.0354
-0.0099
[0.0018]
[0.0298]
[0.0131]
[0.0316]
[0.0161]
[0.0276]
[0.0170]
PNPM:
Gross
particip.
Age
Female
Agriculture main
profession of head of
household
Rural village
Quintile 2
Quintile 3
Quintile 4
Quintile 5
-0.0014
[0.0009]
-0.0011
[0.0014]
Primary education, head
-0.0000
of household
[0.0022]
58
June 2008
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
PKH:
PNPM: 85%
PNPM:
PKH:
PNPM:
PKH:
PKH: Gross
85%
attendance
Economic Economic Domestic Domestic
particip.
attendance
week
work
work
work
work
week
-0.0000
-0.0446**
0.0120
0.0105
0.0247*
0.0082
0.0260*
[0.0011]
[0.0126]
[0.0078]
[0.0138] [0.0096] [0.0121] [0.0101]
0.0015
-0.0071
0.0152
-0.1114** -0.0755** 0.2046** 0.2649**
[0.0016]
[0.0182]
[0.0112]
[0.0199] [0.0137] [0.0173] [0.0145]
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
PKH:
PNPM:
PNPM: 85%
PNPM:
PKH:
PNPM:
PKH:
PKH: Gross
85%
Gross
attendance
Economic Economic Domestic Domestic
particip.
attendance
particip.
week
work
work
work
work
week
Junior secondary
education, head of
household
Senior secondary
education, head of
household
(1)
(2)
(3)
-0.0007
-0.0040
0.0748*
-0.0356+
-0.0233
0.0007
0.0570+
-0.0241
[0.0027]
[0.0027]
[0.0363]
[0.0200]
[0.0397]
[0.0240]
[0.0346]
[0.0255]
-0.0003
-0.0001
0.0280
-0.0121
-0.0714+
0.0364
-0.0169
0.0091
[0.0027]
[0.0035]
[0.0374]
[0.0254]
[0.0400]
[0.0305]
[0.0348]
[0.0322]
0.0092
-0.0298
0.0702
-0.0855
-0.2654+
0.0149
-0.1132
[0.0004]
[0.0176]
-0.0001
[0.0005]
[0.0532]
-0.0025
[0.0063]
[0.1398]
0.0018
[0.0034]
[0.0577]
0.0041
[0.0062]
[0.1553]
0.0022
[0.0042]
[0.0501]
0.0070
[0.0054]
[0.1639]
-0.0089*
[0.0044]
0.0051
-0.0000
-0.0658
0.0500
-0.0274
0.0430
0.0300
0.1948*
[0.0081]
[0.0102]
[0.1073]
[0.0741]
[0.1185]
[0.0897]
[0.1033]
[0.0949]
-0.0081
-0.0022
-0.0377
-0.0495
-0.1295
-0.0406
0.0764
-0.0083
[0.0076]
[0.0084]
[0.1023]
[0.0611]
[0.1108]
[0.0739]
[0.0965]
[0.0781]
-0.0022
-0.0035
-0.0077
-0.0280
0.0000
0.0152
-0.0009
-0.0103
[0.0062]
[0.0068]
[0.0840]
[0.0496]
[0.0906]
[0.0603]
[0.0791]
[0.0638]
0.0001
-0.0017
0.0245
-0.0018
0.0292
0.0373
0.0209
0.0533*
[0.0026]
[0.0028]
[0.0350]
[0.0198]
[0.0382]
[0.0245]
[0.0331]
[0.0260]
-0.0016
0.0055
0.0490
0.0216
0.0025
0.0479
-0.0336
0.0005
[0.0032]
[0.0037]
[0.0435]
[0.0277]
[0.0473]
[0.0330]
[0.0411]
[0.0348]
0.0004
-0.0001
-0.0034
-0.0011
0.0075
-0.0032
-0.0013
-0.0037
[0.0005]
[0.0005]
[0.0069]
[0.0035]
[0.0073]
[0.0043]
[0.0063]
[0.0046]
-0.0007
-0.0000
-0.0230+
0.0054
-0.0106
-0.0030
-0.0164
0.0071
[0.0009]
[0.0009]
[0.0127]
[0.0064]
[0.0135]
[0.0077]
[0.0117]
[0.0081]
0.0018
0.0012
0.0004
-0.0130
-0.0524
-0.0302
-0.0935*
0.0007
[0.0033]
[0.0033]
[0.0430]
[0.0230]
[0.0478]
[0.0290]
[0.0416]
[0.0306]
0.0001
0.0003*
0.0030
-0.0006
-0.0036
-0.0002
-0.0015
-0.0009
[0.0002]
[0.0002]
[0.0022]
[0.0011]
[0.0023]
[0.0014]
[0.0020]
[0.0014]
-0.0000
-0.0002
-0.0019
0.0000
-0.0016
-0.0007
0.0000
0.0017
[0.0002]
[0.0002]
[0.0021]
[0.0013]
[0.0024]
[0.0016]
[0.0021]
[0.0016]
0.0000
-0.0014
0.0010
0.0008
0.0019+
-0.0004
-0.0006
[0.0001]
[0.0019]
[0.0012]
[0.0020]
[0.0011]
[0.0017]
[0.0012]
Higher education, head
of household
[0.0039]
Household size
Fraction of household
age 0 to 2 years
Fraction of household
age 3 to 6 years
Fraction of household
age 7 to 15 years
Scholarship in last 2
years
Percent BKKBN poor in
village
Number of primary
schools
Number of junior
secondary schools
Percent of students with
scholarships in school
Number of students per
classroom in grade 1
Number of students per
classroom in grade 2
Number of students per
classroom in grade 3
[0.0001]
June 2008
59
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
PKH:
PNPM:
PNPM: 85%
PNPM:
PKH:
PNPM:
PKH:
PKH: Gross
85%
Gross
attendance
Economic Economic Domestic Domestic
particip.
attendance
particip.
week
work
work
work
work
week
0.0011
-0.0014
0.0035
0.0135
-0.0075
0.0083
-0.0050
-0.0141+
[0.0012]
[0.0009]
[0.0160]
[0.0093]
[0.0171]
[0.0075]
[0.0149]
[0.0080]
0.0006
0.0025*
-0.0391*
-0.0016
0.0423*
-0.0161
0.0027
0.0153
[0.0012]
[0.0012]
[0.0175]
[0.0096]
[0.0180]
[0.0107]
[0.0157]
[0.0113]
-0.0019
-0.0010
0.0435*
-0.0087
-0.0407+
0.0115
0.0102
-0.0037
[0.0015]
[0.0011]
[0.0209]
[0.0087]
[0.0218]
[0.0101]
[0.0190]
[0.0106]
0.0159
0.0217
0.5561
-0.0369
0.0741
-0.0670
-0.0049
-0.0042
[0.0278]
[0.0214]
[0.3591]
[0.1985]
[0.4078]
[0.1890]
[0.3546]
[0.1996]
Average grade for UN:
Indonesian
Average grade for UN:
Math
Average grade for UN:
English
School absence without
permission
In-migration rate in subdistrict
-0.0055
0.1625
-0.2903
-0.1008
[0.0228]
[0.3034]
[0.3306]
[0.2875]
0.0029
-0.1648
0.1654
0.1063
[0.0085]
[0.1140]
1.4473**
[0.1987]
1106
0.05
[0.1251]
0.2757
[0.2194]
1496
0.04
[0.1088]
0.6345**
[0.1910]
1489
0.10
Out-migration rate in
sub-district
Constant
Observations
R-squared
[0.0150]
1490
0.03
0.9929**
[0.0167]
2559
0.01
0.7578**
[0.1228]
1863
0.01
-0.1870
[0.1473]
2567
0.03
0.3817*
[0.1556]
2563
0.13
Note: Includes district fixed effects. Standard errors in brackets.
+ significant at 10%; * significant at 5%; ** significant at 1%
Table 38
Test scores, children 7 to 15 years
Age
Female
Agriculture main profession of
head of household
Rural village
Quintile 2
Quintile 3
Quintile 4
60
June 2008
Children 7 to 12 years
(1)
(2)
(3)
PNPM:
PKH:
PNPM:
Indonesian Indonesian
Math
Language Language
0.0274**
0.0255**
0.0515**
[0.0022]
[0.0019]
[0.0025]
0.0140+
0.0217**
0.0304**
[0.0072]
[0.0062]
[0.0081]
(4)
PKH:
Math
0.0427**
[0.0021]
0.0311**
[0.0067]
(5)
PNPM:
Indonesian
Language
0.0185**
[0.0062]
0.0181*
[0.0089]
Children 13 to 15 years
(6)
(7)
PKH:
PNPM:
Indonesian
Math
Language
0.0061
0.0125
[0.0052]
[0.0077]
0.0149+
0.0172
[0.0077]
[0.0111]
(8)
PKH:
Math
0.0001
[0.0061]
0.0107
[0.0090]
-0.0277**
-0.0126+
-0.0106
0.0048
-0.0444**
-0.0154+
-0.0326*
-0.0204*
[0.0085]
0.0150
[0.0119]
0.0066
[0.0121]
0.0314**
[0.0121]
0.0210+
[0.0125]
[0.0074]
0.0223*
[0.0101]
0.0071
[0.0103]
-0.0008
[0.0103]
0.0167
[0.0103]
[0.0095]
-0.0144
[0.0134]
0.0039
[0.0138]
0.0368**
[0.0137]
0.0275+
[0.0141]
[0.0080]
0.0117
[0.0109]
-0.0164
[0.0111]
-0.0110
[0.0112]
0.0065
[0.0112]
[0.0105]
-0.0003
[0.0144]
0.0355*
[0.0147]
0.0632**
[0.0154]
0.0373*
[0.0150]
[0.0088]
0.0225+
[0.0124]
0.0032
[0.0125]
0.0184
[0.0125]
0.0074
[0.0125]
[0.0130]
0.0128
[0.0178]
-0.0030
[0.0183]
0.0353+
[0.0192]
0.0083
[0.0185]
[0.0103]
0.0066
[0.0146]
0.0240
[0.0147]
0.0164
[0.0147]
0.0143
[0.0148]
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Quintile 5
Primary education, head of
household
Junior secondary education,
head of household
Senior secondary education,
head of household
Children 7 to 12 years
(1)
(2)
(3)
PNPM:
PKH:
PNPM:
Indonesian Indonesian
Math
Language Language
0.0311*
0.0156
0.0402**
[0.0129]
[0.0107]
[0.0145]
(4)
PKH:
Math
0.0103
[0.0116]
(5)
PNPM:
Indonesian
Language
0.0569**
[0.0157]
Children 13 to 15 years
(6)
(7)
PKH:
PNPM:
Indonesian
Math
Language
0.0206
0.0262
[0.0131]
[0.0194]
(8)
PKH:
Math
0.0391*
[0.0155]
0.0128
0.0190**
0.0260+
0.0055
0.0410**
0.0150+
0.0568**
0.0139
[0.0119]
[0.0073]
[0.0136]
[0.0079]
[0.0136]
[0.0088]
[0.0169]
[0.0103]
0.0324*
0.0255*
0.0297+
0.0269*
0.0376*
0.0309*
0.0758**
0.0492**
[0.0145]
[0.0108]
[0.0164]
[0.0117]
[0.0174]
[0.0141]
[0.0216]
[0.0165]
0.0545**
0.0425**
0.0641**
0.0570**
0.0759**
0.0511**
0.0955**
0.0751**
[0.0145]
[0.0140]
[0.0164]
[0.0151]
[0.0178]
[0.0176]
[0.0220]
[0.0203]
Higher education, head of
household
0.0666**
0.2091**
0.0947**
0.1392*
0.1141**
0.1307+
0.1544**
0.1509+
Household size
[0.0201]
0.0022
[0.0025]
[0.0606]
0.0004
[0.0019]
[0.0226]
0.0101**
[0.0028]
[0.0694]
0.0088**
[0.0021]
[0.0259]
-0.0002
[0.0029]
[0.0775]
0.0029
[0.0023]
[0.0321]
0.0018
[0.0036]
[0.0888]
0.0072**
[0.0027]
Fraction of household age 0 to
2 years
-0.1095**
-0.0578
-0.1106*
-0.0840*
-0.0484
-0.0297
-0.0959
-0.0110
[0.0403]
[0.0360]
[0.0454]
[0.0390]
[0.0528]
[0.0485]
[0.0655]
[0.0570]
-0.0246
-0.0788*
-0.0224
-0.0753*
0.0195
-0.0670
0.0282
-0.0552
[0.0396]
[0.0336]
[0.0445]
[0.0364]
[0.0493]
[0.0414]
[0.0612]
[0.0485]
-0.0679+
-0.0556*
-0.0081
0.0563+
-0.0834*
-0.0368
-0.0607
0.0166
[0.0351]
0.0052
[0.0178]
0.0027
[0.0027]
[0.0282]
-0.0288+
[0.0148]
0.0014
[0.0019]
[0.0394]
0.0065
[0.0199]
-0.0016
[0.0030]
[0.0306]
-0.0382*
[0.0161]
0.0021
[0.0021]
[0.0396]
0.0515*
[0.0206]
0.0020
[0.0032]
[0.0327]
-0.0223
[0.0180]
-0.0007
[0.0023]
[0.0492]
0.0102
[0.0256]
0.0064
[0.0040]
[0.0381]
-0.0160
[0.0211]
-0.0025
[0.0026]
0.0031
0.0025
0.0005
-0.0030
0.0059
0.0011
0.0136+
0.0007
[0.0048]
[0.0035]
[0.0055]
[0.0038]
[0.0059]
[0.0042]
[0.0074]
[0.0049]
-0.0227
0.0057
-0.0114
0.0101
-0.0094
-0.0018
-0.0754**
0.0052
[0.0156]
[0.0130]
[0.0175]
[0.0141]
[0.0213]
[0.0165]
[0.0265]
[0.0195]
-0.0007
-0.0005
-0.0012
-0.0002
-0.0002
-0.0004
-0.0005
-0.0002
[0.0009]
[0.0006]
[0.0010]
[0.0007]
[0.0010]
[0.0008]
[0.0013]
[0.0009]
-0.0011
-0.0002
0.0004
-0.0001
-0.0001
0.0002
-0.0004
-0.0001
[0.0009]
[0.0007]
[0.0010]
[0.0008]
[0.0011]
[0.0009]
[0.0014]
[0.0011]
0.0002
-0.0003
0.0000
0.0010+
0.0002
-0.0000
-0.0008
0.0004
[0.0007]
[0.0006]
[0.0008]
[0.0006]
[0.0009]
[0.0007]
[0.0011]
[0.0008]
0.0048
0.0028
0.0014
-0.0006
-0.0068
0.0029
-0.0078
0.0004
[0.0056]
0.0135*
[0.0066]
-0.0203**
[0.0025]
0.0104*
[0.0047]
-0.0110*
[0.0064]
0.0073
[0.0075]
-0.0153+
[0.0027]
0.0123*
[0.0052]
-0.0091+
[0.0068]
0.0120
[0.0082]
-0.0068
[0.0033]
0.0049
[0.0058]
-0.0082
[0.0087]
0.0087
[0.0101]
-0.0020
[0.0041]
0.0095
[0.0068]
-0.0123+
Fraction of household age 3 to
6 years
Fraction of household age 7 to
15 years
Percent BKKBN poor in village
Number of primary schools
Number of junior secondary
schools
Percent of students with
scholarships in school
Number of students per
classroom in grade 1
Number of students per
classroom in grade 2
Number of students per
classroom in grade 3
Average grade for UN:
Indonesian
Average grade for UN: Math
Average grade for UN: English
June 2008
61
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Children 7 to 12 years
(1)
(2)
(3)
PNPM:
PKH:
PNPM:
Indonesian Indonesian
Math
Language Language
[0.0078]
[0.0044]
[0.0089]
School absence without
permission
0.2893+
-0.2255**
[0.1540]
0.0508
[0.1103]
[0.0871]
In-migration rate in sub-district
Out-migration rate in subdistrict
0.1148*
Constant
Observations
R-squared
[0.0456]
0.4945**
[0.0483]
2892
0.09
(4)
PKH:
Math
[0.0048]
0.1037
-0.0756
0.1396
0.0129
-0.1609
0.1534
[0.1721]
-0.3046*
[0.1243]
[0.0955]
[0.2007]
-0.0335
[0.1366]
[0.1005]
[0.2432]
-0.1010
[0.1709]
[0.1178]
0.1525**
0.4962**
[0.0378]
4473
0.06
Children 13 to 15 years
(6)
(7)
PKH:
PNPM:
Indonesian
Math
Language
[0.0055]
[0.0121]
(5)
PNPM:
Indonesian
Language
[0.0097]
[0.0512]
0.1073+
[0.0549]
2753
0.17
-0.0171
0.0642
[0.0412]
4203
0.11
[0.0541]
0.2804**
[0.0965]
1004
0.12
(8)
PKH:
Math
[0.0064]
-0.0013
0.4543**
[0.0817]
1687
0.03
[0.0674]
0.4004**
[0.1195]
973
0.10
0.4750**
[0.0952]
1606
0.04
Note: Includes district fixed effects. Standard errors in brackets.
+ significant at 10%; * significant at 5%; ** significant at 1%
Table 39
Health target regressions, children 0 to 36 months
Age
Female
Agriculture main profession of head of
household
Rural village
Quintile 2
Quintile 3
Quintile 4
Quintile 5
Primary education, head of household
Junior secondary education, head of
household
Senior secondary education, head of
household
62
June 2008
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
PNPM:
PKH:
PNPM:
PKH:
PNPM:
PKH:
Complete
Complete
Vitamin Vitamin
Weighed Weighed
immunization immunization
A uptake A uptake
2+
2+
for age
for age
rate
rate
0.1752**
0.1836**
-0.0465** -0.0489** 0.0671** 0.0192+
[0.0096]
[0.0112] [0.0097] [0.0110] [0.0104]
[0.0113]
0.0030
0.0160
0.0169
0.0294*
-0.0062
0.0116
[0.0160]
[0.0147]
[0.0160] [0.0149] [0.0157] [0.0158]
-0.0256
-0.0195
-0.0107
-0.0259
0.0247
0.0113
[0.0192]
-0.0303
[0.0300]
0.0306
[0.0251]
0.0022
[0.0260]
0.0491+
[0.0272]
0.0450
[0.0291]
0.0309
[0.0275]
[0.0180]
-0.0002
[0.0224]
-0.0186
[0.0226]
0.0246
[0.0233]
-0.0218
[0.0240]
-0.0104
[0.0253]
0.0183
[0.0173]
[0.0191]
-0.0403
[0.0307]
-0.0017
[0.0251]
0.0226
[0.0259]
0.0040
[0.0273]
-0.0199
[0.0291]
0.0455+
[0.0273]
[0.0183]
0.0276
[0.0230]
0.0174
[0.0228]
0.0322
[0.0236]
-0.0080
[0.0244]
-0.0278
[0.0254]
0.0254
[0.0175]
0.0789*
0.0429+
0.1207**
0.0377
-0.0171
-0.0225
[0.0319]
[0.0253]
[0.0318]
[0.0256]
[0.0314]
[0.0273]
0.0971**
0.0128
0.1030**
0.0137
0.0115
-0.0640+
[0.0334]
[0.0316]
[0.0332]
[0.0322]
[0.0328]
[0.0341]
[0.0188] [0.0193]
-0.1016** 0.0621*
[0.0294] [0.0243]
-0.0382 -0.0410+
[0.0247] [0.0244]
-0.0124
0.0151
[0.0256] [0.0249]
0.0435
-0.0090
[0.0268] [0.0260]
-0.0150
-0.0120
[0.0286] [0.0271]
-0.0166
-0.0220
[0.0270] [0.0187]
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Higher education, head of household
Household size
Fraction of household age 0 to 2 years
Fraction of household age 3 to 6 years
Fraction of household age 7 to 15 years
Askeskin
Percent Askeskin households in a village
Percent BKKBN poor in village
Number of active integrated health posts
Community health center (or auxiliary) in
village
Nr of doctors providing health service in
village
Nr of (skilled) midwife providing health
service
Cost of visit to Puskesmas
Cost of antenatal check by midwife at
Puskesmas
Cost of general treatment by public
midwife
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
PNPM:
PKH:
PNPM:
PKH:
PNPM:
PKH:
Complete
Complete
Vitamin Vitamin
Weighed Weighed
immunization immunization
A uptake A uptake
2+
2+
for age
for age
rate
rate
0.0559
0.0504
0.1166*
-0.0432
-0.0565
-0.0612
[0.1490]
[0.0493] [0.1389] [0.0481] [0.1803]
[0.0492]
-0.0106+
-0.0005
-0.0097 -0.0125* -0.0108+ -0.0050
[0.0060]
[0.0051]
[0.0060] [0.0051] [0.0058] [0.0055]
-0.3923**
0.0829
-0.4347** -0.2677*
-0.1387 -0.2315+
[0.1368]
[0.1209]
[0.1350] [0.1225] [0.1332] [0.1306]
-0.2625**
-0.1148
-0.3063** -0.2134** 0.0295
0.1722*
[0.0888]
[0.0794]
[0.0887] [0.0806] [0.0871] [0.0853]
-0.1557*
-0.1783**
-0.1695* -0.1594** 0.0994
0.1081+
[0.0679]
[0.0608]
[0.0681] [0.0609] [0.0669] [0.0650]
-0.0084
0.0171
0.0501* 0.0578** -0.0276
-0.0156
[0.0204]
[0.0153]
[0.0204] [0.0156] [0.0200] [0.0166]
0.0173
-0.0160
-0.0398
-0.0585
0.0832+
0.0166
[0.0432]
[0.0386]
[0.0431] [0.0384] [0.0427] [0.0412]
0.0318
-0.0659+
0.0887*
0.0005
0.0665+ -0.0058
[0.0388]
[0.0365]
[0.0386] [0.0366] [0.0380] [0.0391]
-0.0043+
0.0017
-0.0042+ -0.0012
0.0050*
-0.0010
[0.0025]
[0.0013]
[0.0025] [0.0013] [0.0025] [0.0013]
-0.0064
-0.0218
-0.0129
-0.0290+
-0.0019
0.0072
[0.0168]
[0.0157]
[0.0168]
[0.0159]
[0.0166]
[0.0169]
0.0006
-0.0077
-0.0172*
-0.0026
-0.0147*
-0.0016
[0.0077]
[0.0052]
[0.0077]
[0.0053]
[0.0075]
[0.0056]
0.0123
0.0051
0.0144
0.0226**
0.0008
0.0024
[0.0093]
-0.0000*
[0.0000]
[0.0066]
0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0093]
-0.0000**
[0.0000]
[0.0067]
-0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0091]
0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0071]
0.0000
[0.0000]
0.0000
-0.0000
-0.0000
-0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
0.0000
0.0000+
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000+
-0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
Cost of antenatal check up by public
midwife
0.0000
-0.0000
0.0000*
0.0000
-0.0000*
0.0000
Cost of normal delivery by public midwife
[0.0000]
0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
0.0000*
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
-0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
-0.0000
[0.0000]
Cost of general treatment by private
midwife
0.0000**
-0.0000
0.0000
-0.0000
-0.0000
0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
-0.0000
-0.0000
-0.0000
-0.0000+
0.0000
0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
Cost of antenatal check up by private
midwife
June 2008
63
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Cost of normal delivery by private midwife
Average cost of child immunization by
public midwife
Average cost of child immunization by
private midwife
Crude birth rate in sub-district
In-migration rate in sub-district
Out-migration rate in sub-district
Constant
Observations
R-squared
(1)
(2)
(3)
PNPM:
PKH:
PNPM:
Complete
Complete
Weighed
immunization immunization
2+
for age
for age
0.0000**
0.0000
0.0000+
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
(4)
PKH:
Weighed
2+
0.0000
[0.0000]
(5)
(6)
PNPM:
PKH:
Vitamin Vitamin
A uptake A uptake
rate
rate
-0.0000
-0.0000
[0.0000] [0.0000]
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000*
-0.0000
0.0000
-0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
-0.0000
-0.0000
-0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
-0.0000
[0.0000]
-4,710.89**
[1,807.40]
-0.2193
[0.2364]
-0.1024
[0.1031]
0.3698**
[0.1046]
3254
0.10
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
-1,681.24
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
2,353.01
[0.0000]
0.2470**
[0.0846]
3692
0.11
-0.4069+
[0.2389]
0.3767**
[0.1034]
0.6182**
[0.1045]
3364
0.04
0.5560**
[0.0846]
3796
0.03
-0.0389
[0.2352]
0.0264
[0.1012]
0.4914**
[0.1028]
3222
0.03
0.5180**
[0.0909]
3612
0.01
Note: Includes district fixed effects. Standard errors in brackets.
+ significant at 10%; * significant at 5%; ** significant at 1%
Table 40
Health outcome regressions, children 0 to 36 months
Age
Female
Agriculture main profession of
head of household
Rural village
Quintile 2
Quintile 3
Quintile 4
Quintile 5
64
June 2008
(1)
PNPM:
Diarrhea
or ARI
0.0280**
[0.0108]
-0.0170
[0.0156]
(2)
PKH:
Diarrhea
or ARI
0.0184+
[0.0096]
0.0093
[0.0148]
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
PNPM:
WAZ
PKH: WAZ
PNPM:
HAZ
PKH: HAZ
PNPM:
WHZ
PKH:
WHZ
-0.0287
-0.0025
-0.0069
-0.0106
-0.0874
-0.1962+
[0.0187]
-0.0244
[0.0297]
-0.0242
[0.0244]
-0.0290
[0.0253]
-0.0237
[0.0266]
-0.0396
[0.0284]
[0.0182]
-0.0131
[0.0228]
-0.0223
[0.0229]
-0.0159
[0.0235]
0.0147
[0.0244]
0.0310
[0.0255]
[0.0512]
-0.0553
[0.0810]
-0.0135
[0.0673]
0.0134
[0.0694]
0.0411
[0.0730]
0.0500
[0.0780]
[0.0534]
-0.1043
[0.0667]
0.1932**
[0.0670]
0.1164+
[0.0692]
0.1595*
[0.0714]
0.0875
[0.0748]
[0.1197]
-0.2690
[0.1915]
0.3710*
[0.1570]
0.0958
[0.1618]
0.3789*
[0.1701]
0.2070
[0.1819]
[0.1059]
-0.1281
[0.1324]
-0.0120
[0.1330]
-0.1282
[0.1369]
0.1509
[0.1416]
0.2455+
[0.1478]
-0.3998** -0.4053** -0.8760** -1.0912** -0.1757*
[0.0300] [0.0286] [0.0700] [0.0566] [0.0699]
0.1228** 0.1245** 0.2911** 0.3326** -0.0697
[0.0428] [0.0436] [0.1002] [0.0863] [0.0994]
0.0224
0.0350
[0.0572]
-0.0776
[0.0868]
0.1637
[0.1188] [0.1064]
0.0386 -0.2508+
[0.1884] [0.1327]
-0.3086* 0.1368
[0.1558] [0.1336]
0.0058
0.1454
[0.1610] [0.1376]
-0.2186
0.0167
[0.1691] [0.1422]
-0.1805
-0.2288
[0.1816] [0.1489]
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Primary education, head of
household
Junior secondary education,
head of household
Senior secondary education,
head of household
(1)
PNPM:
Diarrhea
or ARI
(2)
PKH:
Diarrhea
or ARI
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
PNPM:
WAZ
PKH: WAZ
PNPM:
HAZ
PKH: HAZ
PNPM:
WHZ
PKH:
WHZ
-0.0430
-0.0055
0.0160
-0.0289
0.0527
-0.1065
0.0355
0.0222
[0.0265]
[0.0175]
[0.0731]
[0.0512]
[0.1713]
[0.1018]
[0.1698]
[0.1019]
-0.0666*
-0.0535*
0.1278
0.0099
0.0627
0.2150
0.1703
-0.2653+
[0.0309]
[0.0257]
[0.0852]
[0.0753]
[0.1997]
[0.1491]
[0.1977]
[0.1507]
-0.0933**
-0.0250
0.1751*
-0.0244
0.4056+
0.2197
0.0406
-0.1101
[0.0323]
[0.0325]
[0.0890]
[0.0955]
[0.2085]
[0.1886]
[0.2067]
[0.1902]
Higher education, head of
household
-0.1168*
-0.1739
0.2284+
0.7059+
0.5038
0.0878
-0.0609
0.3492
Household size
[0.0480]
-0.0132*
[0.0058]
[0.1422]
-0.0068
[0.0051]
[0.1313]
0.0182
[0.0160]
[0.4080]
-0.0112
[0.0152]
[0.3093]
0.0656+
[0.0373]
[0.8099]
0.0262
[0.0300]
[0.3061]
-0.0303
[0.0370]
[0.8473]
-0.0332
[0.0303]
Fraction of household age 0
to 2 years
-0.0861
-0.2402*
0.1749
-0.6368+
-0.3331
-0.9412
0.5462
0.0828
[0.1315]
[0.1214]
[0.3616]
[0.3600]
[0.8498]
[0.7131]
[0.8369]
[0.7224]
0.1384
0.1126
-0.4621+ -0.9122** -1.1488*
-1.0810*
0.5963
-0.4086
Fraction of household age 3
to 6 years
[0.0865]
[0.0802]
[0.2362]
[0.2359]
[0.5521]
[0.4663]
[0.5482]
[0.4688]
Fraction of household age 7
to 15 years
0.0211
0.0247
-0.3549+ -0.5176**
-0.5140
-0.6617+
0.0622
-0.1149
Askeskin
[0.0663]
0.0455*
[0.0199]
[0.0610]
0.0185
[0.0155]
[0.1823]
-0.1039+
[0.0543]
[0.1799]
-0.0389
[0.0457]
[0.4259]
-0.1004
[0.1271]
[0.3559]
-0.0600
[0.0906]
[0.4235]
-0.0091
[0.1258]
[0.3579]
-0.0715
[0.0911]
Percent Askeskin households
in a village
-0.0292
0.0385
-0.1396
-0.0777
0.1574
-0.1379
-0.4502+
-0.3301
Percent BKKBN poor in village
[0.0420]
0.0958*
[0.0374]
[0.0384]
0.0049
[0.0366]
[0.1150]
0.0451
[0.1026]
[0.1134]
-0.1435
[0.1077]
[0.2691]
-0.1094
[0.2403]
[0.2241]
-0.2533
[0.2131]
[0.2677]
0.1895
[0.2381]
[0.2269]
-0.0462
[0.2147]
Number of active integrated
health posts
0.0008
0.0015
-0.0067
-0.0035
-0.0066
0.0037
-0.0119
-0.0100
[0.0025]
[0.0013]
[0.0067]
[0.0037]
[0.0156]
[0.0073]
[0.0155]
[0.0074]
-0.0100
0.0073
0.0636
0.0736
0.0810
0.0634
0.0804
0.0429
[0.0164]
[0.0159]
[0.0450]
[0.0466]
[0.1054]
[0.0925]
[0.1045]
[0.0930]
-0.0050
0.0050
-0.0138
0.0083
0.0012
-0.0061
-0.0156
0.0220
Community health center (or
auxiliary) in village
Nr of doctors providing health
service in village
[0.0076]
[0.0053]
[0.0207]
[0.0156]
[0.0482]
[0.0310]
[0.0478]
[0.0311]
Nr of (skilled) midwife
providing health service
-0.0056
0.0087
-0.0259
-0.0111
0.0125
0.0189
-0.0456
-0.0382
Cost of visit to Puskesmas
[0.0090]
-0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0067]
-0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0247]
0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0199]
0.0000+
[0.0000]
[0.0578]
0.0001
[0.0001]
[0.0391]
0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0571]
-0.0001
[0.0001]
[0.0393]
0.0000
[0.0000]
Cost of antenatal check by
midwife at Puskesmas
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
-0.0000
0.0000
0.0001*
0.0000
-0.0001
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
June 2008
65
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Cost of general treatment by
public midwife
Cost of antenatal check up by
public midwife
Cost of normal delivery by
public midwife
Cost of general treatment by
private midwife
Cost of antenatal check up by
private midwife
Cost of normal delivery by
private midwife
Average cost of child
immunization by public
midwife
Average cost of child
immunization by private
midwife
In-migration rate in subdistrict
Out-migration rate in subdistrict
Constant
Observations
R-squared
(1)
PNPM:
Diarrhea
or ARI
(2)
PKH:
Diarrhea
or ARI
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
PNPM:
WAZ
PKH: WAZ
PNPM:
HAZ
PKH: HAZ
PNPM:
WHZ
PKH:
WHZ
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
-0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
0.0000
-0.0000
-0.0000
0.0000
-0.0000
-0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
-0.0000
0.0000*
-0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
-0.0000
0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
-0.0000
0.0000
-0.0000+
0.0000+
0.0000
0.0000*
-0.0000
0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
-0.0000
-0.0000
0.0000
-0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
-0.0000
-0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
0.0000+
0.0000
-0.0000
-0.0000
-0.0000
-0.0000*
-0.0000
0.0000+
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
0.0000
0.0000
-0.0000
0.0000*
0.0000
0.0000
-0.0001
0.0001+
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
0.0000
-0.0000
0.0000
-0.0000*
-0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
-0.0000*
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
-0.0328
0.6099
0.2705
0.7137
[0.2333]
[0.6444]
[1.5038]
[1.5032]
0.2679**
0.7722**
0.1606
1.1987+
[0.1007]
0.3983**
[0.0976]
3443
0.02
0.2772**
[0.0849]
3988
0.01
Note: Includes district fixed effects. Standard errors in brackets.
+ significant at 10%; * significant at 5%; ** significant at 1%
66
June 2008
[0.2755]
-0.5168+
[0.2680]
3317
0.07
-0.4199+
[0.2515]
3809
0.07
[0.6449]
-1.4672*
[0.6270]
3336
0.06
-0.8117
[0.4974]
3823
0.11
[0.6405]
1.0748+
[0.6218]
3260
0.01
0.2554
[0.5007]
3767
0.01
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Table 41
Outpatient care regressions, all household members
(1)
PNPM: All
-0.0052**
[0.0002]
0.0833**
[0.0060]
(2)
PKH:
All
-0.0039**
[0.0001]
0.0565**
[0.0042]
-0.0121+
-0.0101*
-0.0037
-0.0082+
-0.0084*
-0.0019
-0.0014
-0.0023*
[0.0071]
0.0045
[0.0102]
0.0227*
[0.0100]
0.0431**
[0.0101]
0.0557**
[0.0104]
0.1099**
[0.0108]
[0.0051]
0.0072
[0.0063]
0.0102
[0.0068]
0.0181**
[0.0069]
0.0323**
[0.0070]
0.0641**
[0.0073]
[0.0057]
-0.0034
[0.0081]
0.0092
[0.0080]
0.0207*
[0.0081]
0.0128
[0.0083]
0.0294**
[0.0087]
[0.0044]
0.0066
[0.0055]
0.0044
[0.0059]
0.0077
[0.0060]
0.0133*
[0.0061]
0.0259**
[0.0063]
[0.0041]
0.0079
[0.0058]
0.0136*
[0.0057]
0.0224**
[0.0058]
0.0430**
[0.0060]
0.0805**
[0.0062]
[0.0024]
0.0006
[0.0030]
0.0058+
[0.0032]
0.0104**
[0.0033]
0.0190**
[0.0033]
0.0382**
[0.0034]
[0.0014]
-0.0025
[0.0020]
-0.0003
[0.0020]
0.0023
[0.0020]
0.0043*
[0.0021]
0.0118**
[0.0021]
[0.0009]
0.0009
[0.0011]
0.0017
[0.0012]
0.0008
[0.0012]
0.0021+
[0.0012]
0.0065**
[0.0013]
0.0105
0.0143**
0.0119
0.0095*
-0.0014
0.0048*
0.0012
0.0001
[0.0095]
[0.0049]
[0.0076]
[0.0042]
[0.0054]
[0.0023]
[0.0019]
[0.0009]
0.0133
0.0159*
0.0149
0.0083
-0.0015
0.0075*
0.0045*
0.0011
[0.0117]
[0.0074]
[0.0093]
[0.0065]
[0.0067]
[0.0035]
[0.0023]
[0.0013]
0.0265*
0.0384**
0.0183+
0.0252**
0.0083
0.0132**
0.0052*
0.0035*
[0.0120]
[0.0097]
[0.0096]
[0.0085]
[0.0069]
[0.0046]
[0.0024]
[0.0017]
0.0100
0.0459
-0.0075
0.0186
0.0175+
0.0273
0.0050
0.0010
Household size
[0.0177]
-0.0166**
[0.0019]
[0.0408]
-0.0094**
[0.0012]
[0.0141]
[0.0354]
-0.0139** -0.0076**
[0.0015]
[0.0010]
[0.0101]
-0.0028*
[0.0011]
[0.0193]
-0.0018**
[0.0006]
[0.0035]
0.0004
[0.0004]
[0.0071]
0.0000
[0.0002]
Fraction of household
age 0 to 2 years
0.3666**
0.3585**
0.3187**
0.3430**
0.0478**
0.0155
0.0022
-0.0049
[0.0289]
[0.0230]
[0.0231]
[0.0200]
[0.0166]
[0.0109]
[0.0057]
[0.0040]
-0.1935**
-0.0618**
-0.1754**
-0.0212
-0.0181
-0.0406**
-0.0074
-0.0075*
[0.0180]
[0.0157]
Age
Female
Agriculture main
profession of head of
household
Rural village
Quintile 2
Quintile 3
Quintile 4
Quintile 5
Primary education, head
of household
Junior secondary
education, head of
household
Senior secondary
education, head of
household
Higher education, head
of household
Fraction of household
age 3 to 6 years
(3)
(4)
PNPM:
PKH:
Public
Public
-0.0050** -0.0037**
[0.0001]
[0.0001]
0.0583** 0.0461**
[0.0048]
[0.0037]
(5)
PNPM:
Private
-0.0003*
[0.0001]
0.0250**
[0.0034]
(6)
(7)
(8)
PKH:
PNPM:
PKH:
Private Traditional Traditional
-0.0002** 0.0001*
0.0000+
[0.0001]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
0.0104**
0.0024*
0.0020**
[0.0020]
[0.0012]
[0.0007]
[0.0274]
[0.0207]
[0.0219]
[0.0098]
[0.0054]
[0.0036]
Fraction of household
age 7 to 15 years
-0.2449**
-0.1746**
-0.1863** -0.1271** -0.0586** -0.0476**
-0.0044
-0.0050+
Askeskin
[0.0210]
0.0330**
[0.0076]
[0.0165]
0.0218**
[0.0044]
[0.0168]
0.0418**
[0.0061]
[0.0144]
0.0260**
[0.0038]
[0.0121]
-0.0088*
[0.0044]
[0.0078]
-0.0042*
[0.0021]
[0.0041]
0.0042**
[0.0015]
[0.0029]
0.0040**
[0.0008]
0.0078
0.0100
-0.0074
0.0116
0.0151
-0.0016
0.0004
0.0014
Percent Askeskin
households in a village
June 2008
67
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Percent BKKBN poor in
village
Number of active
integrated health posts
Community health
center (or auxiliary) in
village
Number of doctors
providing health service
in village
Cost of visit to
Puskesmas
Cost of antenatal
check by midwife at
Puskesmas
In-migration rate in subdistrict
Out-migration rate in
sub-district
Constant
Observations
R-squared
[0.0161]
[0.0115]
[0.0129]
[0.0100]
[0.0093]
[0.0055]
[0.0032]
[0.0020]
0.0087
-0.0118
0.0144
-0.0088
-0.0056
-0.0030
0.0043
-0.0033+
[0.0144]
[0.0104]
[0.0115]
[0.0090]
[0.0082]
[0.0049]
[0.0028]
[0.0018]
0.0015
0.0005
0.0011
0.0004
0.0004
0.0001
0.0001
-0.0000
[0.0009]
[0.0004]
[0.0008]
[0.0003]
[0.0005]
[0.0002]
[0.0002]
[0.0001]
0.0080
0.0011
0.0107*
0.0025
-0.0027
-0.0014
-0.0001
0.0000
[0.0063]
[0.0044]
[0.0050]
[0.0039]
[0.0036]
[0.0021]
[0.0012]
[0.0008]
0.0015
0.0001
-0.0023
0.0006
0.0038**
-0.0005
-0.0001
-0.0000
[0.0026]
[0.0012]
[0.0021]
[0.0010]
[0.0015]
[0.0006]
[0.0005]
[0.0002]
0.0000*
-0.0000
0.0000+
-0.0000
0.0000+
-0.0000
-0.0000
-0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
-0.0000+
-0.0000**
-0.0000+
-0.0000**
-0.0000
-0.0000+
-0.0000
-0.0000+
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
-0.1545+
-0.1861*
0.0315
0.0492**
[0.0923]
[0.0738]
[0.0530]
[0.0181]
0.0078
0.0190
-0.0113
-0.0108
[0.0366]
0.3277**
[0.0245]
36775
0.05
0.2762**
[0.0165]
52340
0.04
[0.0293]
0.2880**
[0.0196]
36775
0.06
Note: Includes district fixed effects. Standard errors in brackets.
+ significant at 10%; * significant at 5%; ** significant at 1%
68
June 2008
0.2231**
[0.0143]
52340
0.04
[0.0210]
0.0397**
[0.0141]
36775
0.01
0.0531**
[0.0078]
52340
0.01
[0.0072]
-0.0007
[0.0048]
36775
0.00
0.0038
[0.0029]
52340
0.00
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Table 42
Target indicator regressions for married women age 16 to 49
Age
Agriculture main profession of head of
household
Rural village
Quintile 2
Quintile 3
Quintile 4
Quintile 5
Primary education, head of household
Junior secondary education, head of
household
Senior secondary education, head of
household
Higher education, head of household
Household size
Fraction of household age 0 to 2 years
Fraction of household age 3 to 6 years
Fraction of household age 7 to 15 years
Women’s decision making index:
children
(1)
PNPM:
4+ ante
natal visits
0.0024*
[0.0011]
(2)
PKH:
4+ ante
natal visits
-0.0006
[0.0012]
(3)
PNPM:
90+ iron
pills
-0.0022+
[0.0013]
(4)
PKH:
90+ iron
pills
0.0014
[0.0011]
(5)
PNPM:
assisted
delivery
0.0036**
[0.0014]
(6)
PKH:
assisted
delivery
0.0002
[0.0012]
(7)
PNPM:
2+ post
natal visits
-0.0041*
[0.0017]
(8)
PKH:
2+ post
natal visits
0.0018
[0.0015]
-0.0185
-0.0087
0.0176
-0.0097
-0.0372*
-0.0663**
-0.0618**
-0.0048
[0.0137]
[0.0168]
[0.0155]
[0.0151]
[0.0168]
[0.0178]
[0.0203]
[0.0212]
-0.0100
0.0101
-0.0254
-0.0208
-0.0267
-0.0123
0.0488
-0.0235
[0.0212]
0.0091
[0.0194]
0.0257
[0.0199]
0.0565**
[0.0205]
0.0443*
[0.0216]
0.1506**
[0.0231]
[0.0204]
0.0478*
[0.0218]
0.0459*
[0.0224]
0.0613**
[0.0228]
0.0497*
[0.0239]
0.0681**
[0.0196]
[0.0239]
-0.0033
[0.0222]
-0.0088
[0.0227]
0.0071
[0.0234]
0.0060
[0.0246]
0.0438
[0.0283]
[0.0182]
-0.0296
[0.0199]
-0.0365+
[0.0204]
0.0003
[0.0208]
-0.0094
[0.0218]
0.0641**
[0.0182]
[0.0256]
0.0841**
[0.0228]
0.0742**
[0.0236]
0.1065**
[0.0247]
0.1278**
[0.0262]
0.0886**
[0.0285]
[0.0216]
0.0037
[0.0226]
0.0422+
[0.0233]
0.0518*
[0.0239]
0.0307
[0.0251]
0.0449*
[0.0207]
[0.0310]
0.0040
[0.0277]
0.0180
[0.0286]
0.0630*
[0.0299]
0.0511
[0.0317]
0.0192
[0.0345]
[0.0258]
0.0114
[0.0269]
0.0298
[0.0278]
0.0844**
[0.0285]
0.1049**
[0.0300]
0.0217
[0.0247]
0.1826**
0.1294**
0.0677*
0.0783**
0.2082**
0.1277**
0.0228
0.0378
[0.0255]
[0.0241]
[0.0307]
[0.0219]
[0.0315]
[0.0255]
[0.0382]
[0.0304]
0.1686**
0.1660**
0.0714*
0.0986**
0.2555**
0.1941**
0.0311
0.0964*
[0.0269]
0.2063**
[0.0394]
0.0110**
[0.0038]
0.6094**
[0.0567]
-0.0432
[0.0597]
-0.0524
[0.0543]
[0.0303]
0.1453
[0.1420]
0.0106*
[0.0041]
0.5817**
[0.0743]
-0.2261**
[0.0707]
-0.0749
[0.0609]
[0.0322]
0.1163**
[0.0448]
0.0010
[0.0044]
0.2367**
[0.0659]
0.0413
[0.0683]
-0.0049
[0.0617]
[0.0271]
0.1951
[0.1246]
0.0060
[0.0038]
0.0824
[0.0688]
0.0161
[0.0649]
-0.0802
[0.0555]
[0.0331]
[0.0322]
0.2864**
0.1811
[0.0474]
[0.1545]
0.0073
-0.0014
[0.0054]
[0.0050]
-0.0446
-0.1796
[0.1175]
[0.1155]
-0.2054** -0.2415**
[0.0793]
[0.0783]
-0.1183+ -0.1429*
[0.0702]
[0.0670]
[0.0401]
0.0848
[0.0575]
0.0024
[0.0066]
-0.2004
[0.1424]
-0.1245
[0.0961]
0.0025
[0.0851]
[0.0384]
-0.1203
[0.1844]
-0.0015
[0.0060]
-0.2320+
[0.1378]
0.1393
[0.0934]
-0.0150
[0.0799]
0.0197
-0.0111
0.0285
0.0314
-0.0167
0.0230
0.0503
0.1150**
[0.0200]
[0.0215]
[0.0230]
[0.0196]
[0.0258]
[0.0235]
[0.0313]
[0.0280]
Women’s decision making index:
household consumption
-0.0226
-0.0012
-0.0414*
0.0273+
-0.0210
-0.0171
-0.0227
0.0267
Askeskin
[0.0154]
0.0228
[0.0150]
[0.0175]
0.0130
[0.0144]
[0.0174]
0.0165
[0.0171]
[0.0159]
0.0309*
[0.0130]
[0.0189]
0.0786**
[0.0183]
[0.0186]
0.0321*
[0.0152]
[0.0229]
0.0391+
[0.0222]
[0.0222]
0.0034
[0.0181]
Percent Askeskin households in a
village
0.0186
0.0223
-0.0316
0.0405
-0.0501
-0.0120
-0.0164
-0.0679
Percent BKKBN poor in village
[0.0319]
-0.0074
[0.0283]
[0.0364]
-0.0095
[0.0336]
[0.0363]
-0.0256
[0.0322]
[0.0334]
-0.0135
[0.0307]
[0.0388]
-0.0824*
[0.0345]
[0.0388]
-0.0333
[0.0358]
[0.0470]
0.0803+
[0.0418]
[0.0463]
0.0416
[0.0427]
Number of active integrated health
posts
0.0000
0.0015
-0.0025
0.0043**
-0.0016
0.0010
-0.0050+
0.0010
[0.0019]
[0.0014]
[0.0021]
[0.0012]
[0.0022]
[0.0014]
[0.0027]
[0.0016]
June 2008
69
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Community health center (or auxiliary)
in village
Nr of doctors providing health service
in village
Number of (skilled) midwife providing
health service
Cost of visit to Puskesmas
Cost of antenatal check by midwife at
Puskesmas
Cost of general treatment by public
midwife
Cost of antenatal check up by public
midwife
Cost of normal delivery by public
midwife
Cost of general treatment by private
midwife
Cost of antenatal check up by private
midwife
Cost of normal delivery by private
midwife
Crude birth rate in sub-district
In-migration rate in sub-district
Out-migration rate in sub-district
Average women’s decision making
index in sub-district: children
Average women’s decision making
index in sub-district: household
consumption
Constant
Observations
R-squared
(1)
PNPM:
4+ ante
natal visits
(2)
PKH:
4+ ante
natal visits
(3)
PNPM:
90+ iron
pills
(4)
PKH:
90+ iron
pills
(5)
PNPM:
assisted
delivery
(6)
PKH:
assisted
delivery
(7)
PNPM:
2+ post
natal visits
(8)
PKH:
2+ post
natal visits
-0.0182
-0.0230
-0.0079
-0.0278*
0.0137
-0.0209
-0.0124
0.0264
[0.0123]
[0.0147]
[0.0139]
[0.0133]
[0.0151]
[0.0155]
[0.0183]
[0.0185]
0.0027
0.0115*
0.0012
-0.0014
0.0108
0.0023
0.0030
-0.0128*
[0.0053]
[0.0052]
[0.0059]
[0.0045]
[0.0067]
[0.0054]
[0.0081]
[0.0064]
0.0094
0.0075
-0.0042
0.0028
0.0243**
0.0187**
-0.0018
0.0082
[0.0068]
-0.0000**
[0.0000]
[0.0062]
0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0075]
0.0000*
[0.0000]
[0.0055]
-0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0083]
-0.0000+
[0.0000]
[0.0065]
-0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0101]
-0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0078]
-0.0000
[0.0000]
0.0000
0.0000
-0.0000
-0.0000
-0.0000
-0.0000
0.0000
-0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
-0.0000
0.0000+
-0.0000+
-0.0000
0.0000
0.0000**
0.0000*
0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
-0.0000
-0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000+
-0.0000**
0.0000
-0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
0.0000
0.0000
-0.0000
0.0000*
-0.0000
-0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
0.0000*
-0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000**
-0.0000
0.0000
-0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
0.0000
-0.0000
0.0000
-0.0000*
-0.0000**
-0.0000
0.0000
-0.0000
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
0.0000
0.0000
-0.0000
0.0000
0.0000*
0.0000**
-0.0000
0.0000+
[0.0000]
524.24
[1,357.05]
0.0522
[0.1820]
-0.0697
[0.0735]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
-3,231.00*
[1,628.94]
0.0705
[0.2178]
-0.0242
[0.0901]
[0.0000]
[0.0000]
-127.85
[1,975.07]
-0.0530
[0.2641]
-0.0852
[0.1092]
[0.0000]
[0.0000] [0.0000]
-1,323.34
[1,542.50]
-0.3197
[0.2060]
0.1097
[0.0831]
0.0194
0.1902**
0.0668
0.1149
[0.0580]
[0.0669]
[0.0705]
[0.0855]
-0.0374
-0.1389*
-0.1639*
-0.0213
[0.0579]
0.3672**
[0.0917]
3741
0.07
0.4742**
[0.0772]
3726
0.05
[0.0653]
0.1224
[0.1054]
3242
0.02
-0.0447
[0.0715]
3097
0.02
[0.0706]
0.4279**
[0.1214]
2964
0.11
0.6000**
[0.0899]
3036
0.05
[0.0855]
0.5647**
[0.1472]
2964
0.02
0.2274*
[0.1072]
3036
0.02
Note: Unit of analysis is each birth and/or pregnancy per woman in the 24 month prior to the survey. Includes district fixed effects.
Standard errors in brackets.
+ significant at 10%; * significant at 5%; ** significant at 1%
70
June 2008
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
A.5 Mean comparison tests households, villages,
health care providers and schools
Table 43
Household characteristics for household CCT treatment and control
Variable
Average age
0 – 36 months (months)
6 – 12 years (years)
13 – 15 years (years)
Full sample (years)
Female
Rural
Education degree obtained (age>10)
None
Primary
Junior secondary
Senior secondary
Higher
Household size (persons)
Social programmes/insurance
Askes
Askeskin
SLT/BLT
Raskin
Head of household
Female
No education degree
Primary
Junior secondary
Senior secondary
Higher
Rice and secondary crops main
profession
Per capita monthly expenditure
Total (Rp.)
Food (Rp.)
Non food (Rp.)
Education (Rp.)
Health (Rp.)
Living conditions
Tiles roof
Bamboo walls
Earth floor
Clean drinking water (PAM/pump)
Private drinking water facility (PAM/
pump/well)
PLN electricity
Treatment
Control
Difference
p
NT
NC
18.1036
9.0286
13.8186
24.1488
0.4927
0.528
18.4157
9.0304
13.7965
23.4637
0.4926
0.5422
-0.3121
-0.0018
0.0222
0.6851
0.0001
-0.0141
0.49
0.97
0.52
0.11
0.98
0.83
3013
6715
2235
33699
36801
36801
3008
6849
2236
33358
36762
36762
0.3206
0.4633
0.1505
0.0631
0.0024
5.458
0.3207
0.4638
0.1564
0.0565
0.0027
5.4584
-0.0002
-0.0004
-0.0058
0.0066
-0.0002
-0.0003
0.99
0.97
0.55
0.32
0.81
1
25954
25954
25954
25954
25954
36801
25746
25746
25746
25746
25746
36762
0.0308
0.4803
0.9372
0.9431
0.0377
0.4824
0.9211
0.9356
-0.007
-0.0021
0.0161
0.0075
0.52
0.94
0.12
0.42
36801
36801
36801
36801
36762
36762
36762
36762
0.0785
0.3271
0.5076
0.1068
0.0561
0.0024
0.0729
0.3213
0.5001
0.1121
0.0614
0.0051
0.0056
0.0058
0.0075
-0.0053
-0.0053
-0.0026
0.5
0.76
0.71
0.6
0.56
0.14
36801
36752
36752
36752
36752
36752
36762
36727
36727
36727
36727
36727
0.669
0.6591
0.01
0.75
36801
36762
191491.21
65327.88
10535.69
4349.29
126163.32
195353.66
65672.00
10395.02
4317.20
129681.67
-3862.46
-344.11
140.67
32.08
-3518.34
0.52
0.94
0.92
0.96
0.25
36801
36801
36801
36801
36801
36762
36762
36762
36762
36762
0.7395
0.3249
0.3555
0.3072
0.7799
0.3373
0.3356
0.3191
-0.0403
-0.0124
0.0199
-0.0119
0.43
0.71
0.59
0.72
36801
36801
36801
36801
36762
36762
36762
36762
0.7883
0.768
0.0203
0.6
36801
36762
0.8641
0.8679
-0.0037
0.91
36801
36762
June 2008
71
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Private toilet facility
Squatting latrine (kloset leher
angsa)
Septic tank disposal
Wood/charcoal cooking fuel
Kerosene cooking fuel
Assets
Own irrigated rice field
Own rain-fed rice field
Own dry land
Own land for housing
Own other land
Size of land owned (ha)
Own radio/tape recorder
Own television
Own parabola antenna
Own showcase/sideboard
Own refrigerator
Own bicycle/skiff
Own motorcycle/outboard motor
Own car/motor boat
Own hand phone
Own chicken/duck
Own pig
Own goat
Own cow/buffalo
Own horse
Community participation
Participation in social service group
Participation in production group
Participation in workers group
Participation in nat. resource
management group
Participation in credit/finance
group
Participation in governmental
group
Participation in religious/ traditional
group
Participation in recreational group
Participation in mass/political
organization
Treatment
0.4296
Control
0.4502
Difference
-0.0206
p
0.49
NT
36801
NC
36762
0.2733
0.2718
0.0015
0.95
36801
36762
0.2479
0.1914
0.8036
0.2802
0.2198
0.7779
-0.0324
-0.0284
0.0257
0.19
0.31
0.38
36801
36801
36801
36762
36762
36762
0.087
0.1143
0.2099
0.886
0.0234
0.2249
0.3836
0.5549
0.0097
0.42
0.0318
0.5069
0.1801
0.0021
0.1085
0.4692
0.0839
0.1195
0.1022
0.006
0.0848
0.0983
0.2164
0.8908
0.0287
0.3881
0.3904
0.5518
0.0083
0.4561
0.0273
0.5124
0.1921
0.0066
0.1013
0.4731
0.0907
0.1353
0.1064
0.0119
0.0022
0.016
-0.0065
-0.0048
-0.0053
-0.1632
-0.0067
0.0031
0.0014
-0.0361
0.0046
-0.0054
-0.012
-0.0045
0.0072
-0.0039
-0.0069
-0.0158
-0.0042
-0.0059
0.86
0.56
0.85
0.8
0.5
0.14
0.75
0.93
0.61
0.26
0.53
0.9
0.57
0.08
0.54
0.89
0.82
0.37
0.83
0.4
36801
36801
36801
36801
36801
36801
36801
36801
36801
36801
36801
36801
36801
36801
36801
36801
36801
36801
36801
36801
36762
36762
36762
36762
36762
36762
36762
36762
36762
36762
36762
36762
36762
36762
36762
36762
36762
36762
36762
36762
0.2254
0.052
0.0341
0.2457
0.0427
0.0314
-0.0203
0.0093
0.0027
0.33
0.38
0.77
36801
36801
36801
36762
36762
36762
0.0067
0.0062
0.0005
0.85
36801
36762
0.31
0.3458
-0.0358
0.22
36801
36762
0.0577
0.0625
-0.0048
0.61
36801
36762
0.6226
0.6395
-0.0169
0.58
36801
36762
0.0188
0.022
-0.0032
0.51
36801
36762
0.0082
0.0114
-0.0032
0.38
36801
36762
Note: Results reflect fractions unless stated otherwise.
72
June 2008
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Table 44
Variable
Household characteristics for community CCT treatment and control
Treatment
I
Average age
0 – 36 months (months)
17.2824
6 – 12 years (years)
8.9511
13 – 15 years (years)
13.8077
Full sample (years)
27.6592
Female
0.5008
Education degree obtained (age>10)
None
0.2102
0.47
Primary
Junior secondary
0.1582
Senior secondary
0.1326
Higher
0.0289
Per capita monthly expenditure
Total (Rp.)
340273.16
Food (Rp.)
158009.45
Non food (Rp.)
18789.55
Education (Rp.)
12355.84
Health (Rp.)
182263.71
Household size (persons)
4.42
Rural
0.1404
Head of household
Female
0.0527
0.1669
No education degree
Primary
0.5166
Junior secondary
0.1284
Senior secondary
0.1493
Higher
0.0388
Rice and secondary crops
0.6214
main profession
Social programmes/insurance
Askes
0.0875
0.3202
Askeskin
SLT/BLT
0.3505
Raskin
0.6567
Living conditions
Tiles roof
0.6284
0.2117
Bamboo walls
Earth floor
0.1438
Clean drinking water (PAM/
0.3345
pump)
Private drinking water
0.6895
facility (PAM/pump/well)
PLN electricity
0.8019
Private toilet facility
0.6883
Squatting latrine (kloset
0.5751
leher angsa)
Septic tank disposal
0.5328
Wood/charcoal cooking
0.2492
fuel
Kerosene cooking fuel
0.7164
Treatment
NI
Control
Difference
I–C
p
Difference
NI – C
p
N
I
N
NI
N
C
16.7143
8.9413
13.7165
27.6058
0.5045
17.1383
8.9649
13.8078
28.2724
0.5075
0.1441
-0.0138
-0.0002
-0.6132
-0.0067
0.81
0.86
1
0.42
0.36
-0.4241
-0.0236
-0.0913
-0.6667
-0.003
0.53
0.73
0.1
0.39
0.68
1574
2299
682
14522
16445
1516
2326
681
14470
16375
1599
2428
692
14824
16739
0.2238
0.4573
0.161
0.1292
0.0287
0.2621
0.4237
0.1479
0.138
0.0283
-0.0519
0.0463
0.0103
-0.0054
0.0006
0.04
0.02
0.38
0.76
0.91
-0.0383
0.0336
0.0131
-0.0088
0.0003
0.13
0.09
0.29
0.61
0.95
12162
12162
12162
12162
12162
12076
12076
12076
12076
12076
12336
12336
12336
12336
12336
7390.52
7376.87
3722.35
1966.60
13.64
-0.1828
-0.0204
0.76
0.71
0.26
0.41
1
0.11
0.78
-7552.28
-14456.27
2786.65
412.05
6903.99
-0.133
-0.026
0.73
0.42
0.42
0.85
0.39
0.27
0.7
16446
16446
16446
16446
16446
16446
16446
16375
16375
16375
16375
16375
16375
16375
16739
16739
16739
16739
16739
16739
16739
325330.36 332882.64
136176.31 150632.58
17853.85 15067.20
10801.29 10389.24
189154.05 182250.06
4.4698
4.6028
0.1348
0.1608
0.0766
0.1796
0.5054
0.1392
0.1382
0.0377
0.0716
0.224
0.4614
0.1253
0.1487
0.0406
-0.0188
-0.0571
0.0552
0.0031
0.0006
-0.0018
0.01
0.04
0.03
0.84
0.98
0.82
0.005
-0.0444
0.0439
0.0139
-0.0105
-0.0029
0.56
0.1
0.09
0.39
0.62
0.73
16446
16436
16436
16436
16436
16436
16375
16356
16356
16356
16356
16356
16739
16737
16737
16737
16737
16737
0.6094
0.6448
-0.0234
0.6
-0.0354
0.46
16446
16375
16736
0.0853
0.3264
0.3295
0.7116
0.0959
0.2759
0.3451
0.6912
-0.0084
0.0443
0.0054
-0.0345
0.62
0.27
0.89
0.3
-0.0106
0.0505
-0.0156
0.0204
0.49
0.18
0.69
0.58
16446
16446
16446
16446
16375
16375
16375
16375
16739
16739
16739
16739
0.6197
0.1884
0.1654
0.5721
0.2113
0.1742
0.0562
0.0004
-0.0304
0.49
0.99
0.45
0.0476
-0.0228
-0.0088
0.56
0.54
0.82
16446
16446
16446
16375
16375
16375
16739
16739
16739
0.3821
0.3641
-0.0296
0.48
0.018
0.67
16446
16375
16739
0.7333
0.7272
-0.0377
0.44
0.0061
0.9
16446
16375
16739
0.7704
0.6862
0.7846
0.6825
0.0173
0.0058
0.74
0.87
-0.0142
0.0037
0.79
0.92
16446
16446
16375
16375
16739
16739
0.6061
0.5689
0.0062
0.9
0.0371
0.44
16446
16375
16739
0.5765
0.5358
-0.0029
0.95
0.0407
0.36
16446
16375
16739
0.2468
0.2502
-0.001
0.98
-0.0034
0.93
16446
16375
16739
0.7143
0.7203
-0.004
0.92
-0.0061
0.89
16446
16375
16739
June 2008
73
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Assets
Own irrigated rice field
Own rain-fed rice field
Own dry land
Own land for housing
Own other land
Size of land owned (ha)
Own radio/tape recorder
Own television
Own parabola antenna
Own showcase/sideboard
Own refrigerator
Own bicycle/skiff
Own motorcycle/outboard
motor
Own car/motor boat
Own hand phone
Own chicken/duck
Own pig
Own goat
Own cow/buffalo
Own horse
Community participation
Participation in social
service group
Participation in production
group
Participation in workers
group
Participation in nat.
resource management
group
Participation in credit/
finance group
Participation in
governmental group
Participation in religious/
traditional group
Participation in recreational
group
Participation in mass/
political organisation
Treatment
I
Treatment
NI
Control
Difference
I–C
p
Difference
NI – C
p
N
I
N
NI
N
C
0.209
0.1608
0.4513
0.9331
0.0704
0.5478
0.5233
0.6151
0.0683
0.6407
0.1391
0.3244
0.1822
0.1863
0.4571
0.9273
0.0669
0.5884
0.4951
0.5955
0.0648
0.6007
0.1645
0.3626
0.1874
0.1828
0.4388
0.9127
0.0605
1.5223
0.4726
0.5929
0.0744
0.6099
0.1533
0.3568
0.0217
-0.022
0.0125
0.0204
0.0099
-0.9745
0.0507
0.0222
-0.0061
0.0308
-0.0142
-0.0324
0.44
0.5
0.78
0.17
0.37
0.2
0.13
0.67
0.65
0.45
0.56
0.47
-0.0052
0.0035
0.0183
0.0145
0.0064
-0.9339
0.0225
0.0026
-0.0096
-0.0092
0.0112
0.0058
0.84
0.93
0.68
0.39
0.56
0.23
0.5
0.96
0.5
0.82
0.67
0.9
16446
16446
16446
16446
16446
16446
16446
16446
16446
16446
16446
16446
16375
16375
16375
16375
16375
16375
16375
16375
16375
16375
16375
16375
16739
16739
16739
16739
16739
16739
16739
16739
16739
16739
16739
16739
0.3401
0.3471
0.3071
0.033
0.37
0.04
0.25
16446
16375
16739
0.0377
0.2947
0.5713
0.1395
0.203
0.1484
0.0166
0.0399
0.3176
0.5742
0.15
0.1904
0.1758
0.0203
0.04
0.3066
0.5605
0.1438
0.1712
0.1454
0.0127
-0.0023
-0.0119
0.0108
-0.0043
0.0318
0.003
0.0038
0.8
0.71
0.77
0.92
0.14
0.92
0.6
-0.0001
0.011
0.0137
0.0061
0.0192
0.0304
0.0076
0.99
0.74
0.71
0.89
0.4
0.37
0.35
16446
16446
16446
16446
16446
16446
16446
16375
16375
16375
16375
16375
16375
16375
16739
16739
16739
16739
16739
16739
16739
0.3497
0.3313
0.3272
0.0225
0.51
0.0041
0.92
16446
16375
16739
0.1039
0.1089
0.1186
-0.0147
0.48
-0.0097
0.6
16446
16375
16739
0.0515
0.0557
0.0538
-0.0024
0.86
0.0019
0.89
16446
16375
16739
0.0153
0.0231
0.0222
-0.0069
0.32
0.0009
0.91
16446
16375
16739
0.297
0.3625
0.3284
-0.0314
0.36
0.0341
0.34
16446
16375
16739
0.1225
0.1391
0.1506
-0.0281
0.11
-0.0114
0.57
16446
16375
16739
0.554
0.5826
0.5247
0.0293
0.47
0.0578
0.19
16446
16375
16739
0.0458
0.0397
0.0361
0.0097
0.32
0.0036
0.67
16446
16375
16739
0.0156
0.0203
0.0224
-0.0067
0.24
-0.002
0.73
16446
16375
16739
Note: Results reflect fractions unless stated otherwise.
74
June 2008
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Table 45
Village characteristics for household CCT treatment and control
Variable
Population size (persons)
Number of sub-villages
Number of households
Percentage of families in agricultural sector
Percentage of Moslem households
Percentage of Protestant households
Percentage of Catholic households
Percentage of Buddhist households
Percentage of Hindu households
Village with (waste) drainage system
Percentage of households using (waste)
drainage system
Local TV Station access
International TV Station access
Public phone (coin or card) availability
Internet rental shop availability
Post office availability
Percentage of pre-welfare and welfare
households (not poor) in a village
Percentage of households without
electricity
Percentage of households or individuals
receiving health insurance in a village
Percentage of households receiving Raskin
Total time spend going to Head of village
office (minutes)
Total distance going to Head of village
office (kilometers)
Total active health centers
Health center (or branch) provider
availability
Drug store availability
Number of doctor providing health
services
Number of (skilled) midwives providing
health services
Number of traditional (non-skilled)
midwives providing health services
Number of kindergartens
Number of primary schools or equivalent
Number of junior secondary schools or
equivalent
Time needed to go to nearest market
(minutes)
Time needed to go to sub-district capital
town (minutes)
Time needed to go to nearest district
capital city (minutes)
Cost for one trip to nearest market (Rp.)
Treatment
3829.5149
4.1801
1050.6421
71.5315
80.0112
11.751
7.3214
0.2714
0.1153
0.4188
52.9967
Control
4022.7614
4.0791
1095.0403
67.6906
81.2449
11.3185
6.9341
0.0962
0.156
0.4186
52.5002
Difference
-193.2465
0.1011
-44.3982
3.8408
-1.2338
0.4325
0.3874
0.1752
-0.0407
0.0002
0.4964
p
0.5
0.57
0.58
0.08
0.76
0.88
0.89
0.15
0.43
1
0.9
NT
1366
1369
1368
1367
1368
1366
1368
1369
1366
1369
546
NC
1351
1354
1351
1353
1353
1352
1353
1353
1353
1354
558
0.5606
0.0078
0.0582
0.0408
0.1107
0.4771
0.6058
0.0112
0.073
0.0525
0.1242
0.4731
-0.0453
-0.0034
-0.0148
-0.0117
-0.0136
0.004
0.35
0.38
0.39
0.31
0.41
0.84
1369
1369
1369
1369
1369
1313
1353
1353
1353
1353
1353
1295
0.2894
0.2502
0.0392
0.41
612
594
0.337
0.3097
0.0273
0.14
1150
1160
0.4362
17.3866
0.4146
16.7889
0.0216
0.5977
0.38
0.57
1344
1368
1329
1353
1.1201
1.1045
0.0156
0.89
1369
1354
4.9755
0.3905
4.8865
0.4076
0.089
-0.0172
0.8
0.49
1369
1369
1354
1354
0.2616
0.7417
0.2845
0.8
-0.0229
-0.0583
0.42
0.53
1369
1364
1354
1354
1.4718
1.5089
-0.037
0.58
1366
1354
2.0069
1.9893
0.0177
0.93
1365
1353
1.5673
2.9945
0.6514
1.6756
2.9819
0.7054
-0.1083
0.0126
-0.054
0.3
0.94
0.34
1362
1360
1360
1353
1354
1353
16.9049
16.3061
0.5987
0.71
1369
1354
22.598
20.284
2.314
0.44
1368
1354
69.818
70.5971
-0.7791
0.88
1366
1352
2602.1756
2686.2829
-84.1073
0.62
1369
1353
June 2008
75
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Cost for one trip to sub-district capital
town (Rp.)
Cost for one trip to nearest district capital
city (Rp.)
Village suffers from fire/earthquake/other
disasters in last 12 months
Village suffers from harvest failure in last
12 months
Village suffers lower income due to crop/
sell product price drop in last 12 month
Average wage per day of non-skilled
worker in last two months (Rp.)
Average work hours per day of non-skilled
worker in last two months (hours)
Treatment
3805.9991
Control
3787.9735
Difference
18.0256
p
0.96
NT
1368
NC
1353
10853.2111
11844.2583
-991.0472
0.23
1366
1353
0.1761
0.1649
0.0113
0.62
1369
1353
0.4741
0.4646
0.0095
0.79
1369
1353
0.3097
0.3039
0.0058
0.85
1369
1353
21553.7604
21486.4093
67.3511
0.94
1366
1350
7.1617
7.1986
-0.0369
0.73
1367
1352
Note: Results reflect fractions unless stated otherwise.
Table 46
Village characteristics for community CCT treatment and control
Variable
Population size (persons)
Number of sub-villages
Number of households
Percentage of families in
agricultural sector
Percentage of Moslem
households
Percentage of Protestant
households
Percentage of Catholic
households
Percentage of Buddhist
households
Percentage of Hindu
households
Village with (waste)
drainage system
Percentage of households
using (waste) drainage
system
Local TV Station access
International TV Station
access
Public phone (coin or card)
availability
Internet rental shop
availability
Post office availability
Percentage of pre-welfare
and welfare households
(not poor) in a village
76
June 2008
Treatment Treatment Control Diff. NT-I p
Diff. NTp
I
NI
NI
3173.696 3292.7017 3095.4614 78.2346 0.76 197.2403 0.48
4.1068
4.36
4.0334
0.0734 0.71 0.3267 0.16
868.7934 904.5172 842.2793 26.5141 0.72 62.2379 0.45
NT-I
NT-NI
NC
767
768
768
768
768
768
776
777
775
75.7175
76.0761
77.8407
-2.1232
0.36
-1.7647
0.4
768
768
777
75.6353
71.3067
70.5576
5.0777
0.46
0.7492
0.91
768
768
777
6.3143
8.7382
8.8836
-2.5693
0.4
-0.1454
0.97
766
765
770
17.0013
19.4112
20.1633
-3.162
0.62
-0.7521
0.91
765
760
766
0.2117
0.1624
0.0915
0.1202
0.35
0.0709
0.4
764
760
765
0.0243
0.0266
0.1719
-0.1476
0.14
-0.1452
0.15
764
759
765
0.2592
0.3026
0.2887
-0.0295
0.43
0.0139
0.73
768
768
777
43.2029
41.6703
42.6402
0.5626
0.9
-0.9699
0.8
200
235
240
0.3294
0.3523
0.3035
0.0259
0.64
0.0488
0.38
768
768
777
0.0094
0.0064
0.0164
-0.0069
0.36
-0.0099
0.17
768
768
777
0.0435
0.0479
0.0293
0.0142
0.57
0.0186
0.44
768
768
777
0.0074
0.0224
0.0141
-0.0067
0.2
0.0083
0.3
768
768
777
0.0965
0.102
0.0933
0.0032
0.83
0.0087
0.57
768
768
777
0.5287
0.5265
0.5488
-0.0201
0.54
-0.0223
0.5
751
747
760
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Treatment Treatment
I
NI
Control
Percentage of households
0.3581
0.4009
0.3828
without electricity
Percentage of households
or individuals receiving
0.3431
0.3515
0.3457
health insurance in a village
Percentage of households
0.46
0.4905
0.4881
receiving Raskin
Total time spend going
to Head of village office
19.839
19.2886
18.1916
(minutes)
Total distance going to
Head of village office
1.3477
1.1921
1.3618
(kilometers)
Total active health centers
4.3097
4.4098
4.212
Health center (or branch)
0.4539
0.4328
0.4633
provider availability
Drug store availability
0.1807
0.1904
0.1895
Number of doctor
0.5527
0.583
0.5751
providing health services
Number of (skilled)
midwives providing health
1.2457
1.2494
1.2432
services
Number of traditional (nonskilled) midwives providing
2.5618
2.562
2.3878
health services
Number of kindergartens
1.3107
1.4427
1.3421
Number of primary schools
2.7732
2.8227
2.6356
or equivalent
Number of junior
secondary schools or
0.6345
0.5985
0.6385
equivalent
Time needed to go to
21.0457
25.9106
21.1466
nearest market (minutes)
Time needed to go to
sub-district capital town
27.6618
29.4603
28.0269
(minutes)
Time needed to go to
nearest district capital city
91.941
102.6596
97.9518
(minutes)
Cost for one trip to nearest
3569.856 3679.5464 3637.463
market (Rp.)
Cost for one trip to sub5620.4812 5507.9515 5783.9058
district capital town (Rp.)
Cost for one trip to nearest
15624.87
district capital city (Rp.)
Village suffers from fire/
earthquake/other disasters
0.2194
0.2452
0.2461
in last 12 months
Village suffers from harvest
0.6028
0.6407
0.6021
failure in last 12 months
Diff. NT-I
p
Diff. NTNI
p
NT-I
NT-NI
NC
-0.0247
0.66
0.0181
0.76
463
460
459
-0.0026
0.92
0.0058
0.84
673
646
678
-0.028
0.47
0.0024
0.95
763
762
771
1.6474
0.27
1.097
0.49
768
768
777
-0.014
0.95
-0.1696
0.44
768
768
777
0.0977
0.75
0.1978
0.53
768
768
777
-0.0094
0.78
-0.0305
0.35
768
768
777
-0.0088
0.78
0.0009
0.98
768
768
777
-0.0224
0.78
0.0079
0.93
767
765
775
0.0025
0.97
0.0062
0.94
766
766
772
0.1741
0.44
0.1743
0.48
768
767
775
-0.0314
0.85
0.1006
0.57
765
765
776
0.1376
0.53
0.1871
0.4
765
765
776
-0.0039
0.96
-0.04
0.61
764
764
775
-0.1009
0.97
4.764
0.16
768
768
777
-0.3651
0.94
1.4335
0.81
768
768
777
-6.0108
0.64
4.7078
0.73
767
768
776
-67.607
0.85
42.0834
0.92
767
767
777
0.82
0.75
767
768
776
0.61 -68.6182
0.97
768
767
776
-0.0268
0.39
-0.0009
0.98
768
768
777
0.0007
0.99
0.0386
0.32
768
768
777
June 2008
77
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Treatment Treatment
I
NI
Village suffers lower income
due to crop/sell product
price drop in last 12 month
Average wage per day of
non-skilled worker in last
two months (Rp.)
Average work hours per
day of non-skilled worker in
last two months (hours)
0.3827
0.4005
20083.79
7.1825
7.3181
Control
Diff. NT-I
p
Diff. NTNI
p
NT-I
NT-NI
NC
0.4209
-0.0382
0.24
-0.0205
0.55
768
768
777
20220.777 -905.762 0.41 -136.987
0.91
766
764
772
0.64
765
765
775
7.2546
-0.072
0.57
0.0635
Note: Results reflect fractions unless stated otherwise.
Table 47
Community health facility characteristics for household CCT treatment and control
groups
Variable
Work area: size of work area (km2)
Work area: size of population (persons)
Work area: number of households
Work area: number of households holding
Health Card/Health JPS
Work area: number of persons holding
Askeskin
Work area: number of households holding
Askeskin
Number of Sub-Community Health
Services
Number of ambulances/ floating
Puskesmas
Number of midwives
Number of integrated health service post/
Posyandu
Number of active integrated health service
posts
Number of delivery posts [Pondok Bersalin
Desa (Polindes)]
Number of full-time and part-time staff
Community Health Facility has electricity
Main source of electricity: PLN
Main source of electricity: Puskesmas
Generator
Main source of electricity: Community selfhelp generator
Main source of electricity: Other
Main source for water: Piped water (PAM)
Main source for water: Pumped well
Main source for water: Well
Main source for water: Rain
Main source for water: Lake
Main source for water: Spring
Main source for water: River/Canal
78
June 2008
Treatment
9760.9545
33787.1207
8876.3965
Control
12119.1033
36584.8363
9532.1223
Difference
-2358.15
-2797.72
-655.726
p
0.24
0.29
0.26
NT
169
177
171
NC
171
178
174
2802.3314
3301.6929
-499.362
0.22
144
146
8556.7887
8558.9347
-2.146
1
116
128
3389.25
5123.1309
-1733.88
0.02
54
44
2.0562
2.2981
-0.2419
0.14
178
179
1.4392
1.5516
-0.1123
0.62
178
179
6.6227
6.9321
-0.3094
0.54
178
180
39.5126
44.8988
-5.3862
0.01
178
180
39.1846
44.2185
-5.0339
0.01
178
180
4.5126
5.1309
-0.6182
0.19
178
180
18.7943
0.9874
0.9679
21.9272
0.9963
0.9852
-3.1329
-0.0089
-0.0173
0
0.35
0.28
177
178
178
180
180
180
0.0195
0.0074
0.0121
0.33
178
180
0
0.0037
-0.0037
0.41
178
180
0.3567
0.3945
0.1399
0.1044
0
0
0.0046
0.7752
0.2963
0.5247
0.1
0.0605
0.0025
0.0086
0.0074
0.742
0.0604
-0.1302
0.0399
0.0439
-0.0025
-0.0086
-0.0028
0.0333
0.22
0.01
0.25
0.13
0.5
0.2
0.73
0.46
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Main location of water supply: inside the
building
Distance (one way) from community health
facility to the water source (meters)
Community health facility has a toilet
Community health facility has special toilet
for patients
Community health facility has special toilet
for Puskesmas officers
Toilet used commonly by patients and
puskesmas officers
Type of latrine community health facility
has: own latrine with or without septic tank
Type of latrine community health facility
has: own latrine with septic tank
Type of latrine community health facility
has: own latrine without septic tank
Community health facility has: Counter/
registration table
Community health facility has: waiting
room for patients
Community health facility has:
Examination room
Community health facility has: Injection/
treatment room
Community health facility has: family
planning service room
Community health facility has: delivery
room
Community health facility has: inpatient
room
Community health facility has: medicine
room
Community health facility has: laboratory
Basic emergency neonatal obstetrical
service
Total budget for 2006 (‘1000 Rp.)
Number of babies (0-11 months) given
BCG vaccination
Number of babies (0-11 months) given
Polio vaccination
Number of babies (0-11 months) given
Hepatitis B vaccination
Number of babies (0-11 months) given DPT
Hb Combo vaccination
Number of babies (2-11 months) given DPT
vaccination
Number of babies (9-11 months) given
measle vaccination
Number of pregnant mothers given TT
vaccination
Treatment
Control
Difference
p
NT
NC
159.3878
262.6794
-103.292
0.53
46
53
0.992
0.9889
0.0031
0.76
178
180
0.8509
0.8173
0.0336
0.39
178
180
0.875
0.7778
0.0972
0.01
178
180
0.1284
0.216
-0.0876
0.03
178
180
0.992
0.9889
0.0031
0.76
178
180
0.9828
0.979
0.0038
0.79
178
180
0.0092
0.0099
-0.0007
0.95
178
180
0.9782
1
-0.0218
0.05
178
180
0.9404
0.9667
-0.0263
0.24
178
180
1
0.9975
0.0025
0.5
178
180
0.8555
0.9111
-0.0556
0.1
178
180
0.8039
0.8506
-0.0467
0.24
178
180
0.4805
0.5877
-0.1071
0.04
178
180
0.336
0.4568
-0.1208
0.02
178
180
0.9897
1
-0.0103
0.18
178
180
0.7225
0.9148
-0.1923
0
178
180
0.5115
0.5198
-0.0083
0.88
178
180
87763.6421
109201.9634
-21438.3
0.13
163
164
83.2869
83.5185
-0.2316
0.99
175
180
199.2069
243.9284
-44.7215
0.1
176
180
61.5268
88.0765
-26.5497
0.13
172
180
136.9896
155.2475
-18.2579
0.33
176
179
41.2719
82.8464
-41.5744
0.01
168
172
73.4471
76.0185
-2.5714
0.85
177
180
88.0713
102.4938
-14.4226
0.26
177
180
62.3563
72.216
-9.8597
0.43
177
180
June 2008
79
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Number of new visit by pregnant mother
(K1) pure
Number of new visit by pregnant mother
(K4)
Number of pregnant mothers with
complication / high risk attended (persons)
Number of pregnant mothers with
complication / high risk referred (persons)
Number of mothers in child birth with
complication / high risk attended (persons)
Number of mothers in child birth with
complication / high risk referred (persons)
Delivery assisted by health officer
Neonatal visit
Baby 0-11 months weighed (babies)
Child 12-35 months weighed (children)
Child 36-59 months weighed (children)
Baby 0-11 months under dotted line and
above red line of health monitoring card
(babies)
Child 12-35 months under dotted line and
above red line of health monitoring card
(children)
Child 36-59 months under dotted line and
above red line of health monitoring card
(children)
Baby 0-11 months under red line of health
monitoring card (babies)
Child 12-35 months under red line of
health monitoring card (children)
Child 36-59 months under red line of
health monitoring card (children)
Baby 0-11 months with health monitoring
card / maternal child health book (babies)
Child 12-35 months with health
monitoring card / maternal child health
book (children)
Child 36-59 months with health
monitoring card / maternal child health
book (children)
Child 6-11 months given high dose A
vitamin (children)
Child 1-5 years given high dose A vitamin
Mother in confinement given high dose A
vitamin (children)
Pregnant mother given tablets for blood
regeneration (Fe3) (persons)
Mother in confinement given tablets for
blood regeneration (Fe3) (persons)
Child given high dose A vitamin 6 months
ago (children)
Number of Hb-meter available
80
June 2008
Treatment
Control
Difference
p
NT
NC
54.923
61.7506
-6.8276
0.51
177
180
10.1931
10.4472
-0.2541
0.95
177
179
2.1149
2.4547
-0.3397
0.44
177
179
2.2517
3.2957
-1.0439
0.22
177
179
3.1506
2.8186
0.3319
0.74
177
179
44.5701
52.3453
-7.7752
0.4
177
179
59.9391
495.5815
825.6886
718.9401
60.7448
76.3481
500.9484
915.8903
812.5105
107.7294
-16.4091
-5.3669
-90.2017
-93.5704
-46.9847
0.16
0.9
0.23
0.14
0.2
177
172
171
171
165
180
173
173
170
169
155.1833
131.8674
23.3159
0.57
163
169
114.0761
116.892
-2.8159
0.93
163
168
23.8402
7.5123
16.3279
0.29
171
173
33.3587
31.1293
2.2294
0.8
169
170
27.5321
21.8932
5.6389
0.38
169
168
546.2243
612.0156
-65.7913
0.2
170
172
910.715
1091.3979
-180.683
0.02
169
169
832.6354
995.195
-162.56
0.04
169
169
98.9644
79.962
19.0024
0.35
169
170
487.1817
474.3211
12.8606
0.9
169
171
51.4477
59.0373
-7.5896
0.41
171
174
67.0952
67.4981
-0.4029
0.97
171
174
47.4267
56.837
-9.4103
0.48
170
173
2179.8264
2032.0366
147.7898
0.39
175
176
2.432
2.7617
-0.3297
0.35
176
180
0.6843
0.8626
-0.1783
0.45
176
179
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Number of forceps available
Number of vaginal speculum available
Number of tenaculum available
Number of uterus sonde available
Number of gynecological table available
Number of straight and curved clamps
available
Number of oxygen canister available
Number of incubator available
Number of weighing kit available
Number of thermos/vaccine carrier
available
Type of vaccine storage facility: Special
cooling box for vaccines/cold chain
Type of vaccine storage facility: Freezer
Type of vaccine storage facility:
Refrigerator
Type of vaccine storage facility: None
Type of vaccine storage facility: Other
Type of syringe used for vaccine injection:
Disposable
Type of syringe used for vaccine injection:
Non disposable
Type of syringe used for vaccine injection:
Disposable and Non disposable
Sterilisation method: Sterilisator
Sterilisation method: Soaked in alcohol
Number of GP (full-time)
Number of GP (part-time)
Number of dentist (full-time)
Number of dentist (part-time)
Number of nurse/male nurse (full-time)
Number of nurse/male nurse (part-time)
Number of dental care specialist (full-time)
Number of dental care specialist (parttime)
Number of midwife (full-time)
Number of midwife (part-time)
Number of village midwife (full-time)
Number of village midwife (part-time)
Number of nutritionist/assistant (full-time)
Number of nutritionist/assistant(part-time)
Number of pharmacist/assistant (full-time)
Number of pharmacist/assistant(part-time)
Number of other health personnel (fulltime)
Number of other health personnel (parttime)
Number of worker (full-time)
Number of worker (part-time)
Treatment
7.5035
2.4574
2.7247
1.4827
5.6567
Control
7.6753
3.0322
3.3564
1.5506
6.727
Difference
-0.1719
-0.5748
-0.6318
-0.0679
-1.0704
p
0.81
0.05
0.02
0.75
0.18
NT
176
176
176
176
176
NC
180
179
179
180
178
1.6394
2.1432
-0.5038
0.03
176
180
0.5104
3.3929
9.8353
0.7741
4.1111
10.9852
-0.2637
-0.7183
-1.1499
0.01
0.28
0.38
176
176
176
180
180
180
0.6732
0.5802
0.0929
0.07
178
180
0.4736
0.5605
-0.0869
0.1
178
180
0.3922
0.4235
-0.0313
0.55
178
180
0.0046
0
0.0046
0.37
178
180
0
0.9885
0.0136
0.9802
-0.0136
0.0083
0.11
0.53
178
178
180
180
0.0069
0.0049
0.0019
0.81
178
180
0
0.0148
-0.0148
0.1
178
180
0.0069
0.0198
-0.0129
0.28
178
180
0.0069
0
1.367
0.0955
0.5631
0.0431
6.6594
0.7544
0.7156
0.0074
0.0049
1.4704
0.1496
0.7272
0.0611
8.0877
0.9713
0.9198
-0.0005
-0.0049
-0.1034
-0.0542
-0.1641
-0.018
-1.4283
-0.217
-0.2042
0.95
0.34
0.26
0.22
0
0.45
0.01
0.43
0.02
178
178
178
175
178
175
178
175
178
180
180
180
179
180
179
180
179
180
0.0442
0.0249
0.0193
0.37
175
179
2.3681
0.1211
5.7924
0.3353
0.797
0.0361
0.6943
0.0466
2.9963
0.1097
5.9827
0.4439
0.9704
0.0748
0.863
0.0835
-0.6282
0.0113
-0.1903
-0.1086
-0.1734
-0.0387
-0.1686
-0.037
0.02
0.86
0.68
0.47
0.1
0.4
0.12
0.23
178
175
178
175
178
175
177
175
180
179
180
179
180
179
180
179
1.3968
1.863
-0.4662
0.06
178
180
0.1048
0.091
0.0138
0.78
175
179
1.5757
0.0466
1.6049
0.1608
-0.0293
-0.1143
0.89
0.07
178
175
180
179
June 2008
81
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Number of admin personnel (full-time)
Number of admin personnel (part-time)
Number of other personnel (full-time)
Number of other personnel (part-time)
Number of doctors with private practice
Number of doctors without private
practice
Number of doctor
Number of dentist with private practice
Number of dentist without private practice
Number of dentist
Number of nurse with private practice
Number of nurse without private practice
Number of nurse
Number of midwife with private practice
Number of midwife without private
practice
Number of midwife
Available medicine/vaccine: Disposable
syringe 1ml
Available medicine/vaccine: Disposable
syringe 2.5ml
Available medicine/vaccine: Disposable
syringe 5ml
Available medicine/vaccine: Amoxilline
capsule 250mg
Available medicine/vaccine: Amoxilline
caplet 500mg
Available medicine/vaccine: Amoxilline dry
syrup 125mg/5ml
Available medicine/vaccine: Ampicillin
caplet 500mg
Available medicine/vaccine: Ampicillin dry
syrup 125mg/5ml
Available medicine/vaccine: Antalgin
tablet 500mg
Available medicine/vaccine: Antalgin
injection 250mg/ml-2ml
Available medicine/vaccine: Paracetamol
syrup 120mg/5ml-60ml
Available medicine/vaccine: Paracetamol
tablet 100mg
Available medicine/vaccine: Paracetamol
tablet 500mg
Available medicine/vaccine: Vitamin A for
children under 5
Available medicine/vaccine: BCG
Available medicine/vaccine: DPT
Available medicine/vaccine: DPT Hepatitis
B Combo
Available medicine/vaccine: Polio
82
June 2008
Treatment
2.8016
0.1583
1.7893
0.5627
1.6218
Control
2.8457
0.4451
1.9153
0.6585
1.8395
Difference
-0.0441
-0.2868
-0.126
-0.0958
-0.2177
p
0.89
0.01
0.82
0.84
0.09
NT
178
175
76
73
177
NC
180
179
80
80
180
0.4448
0.5667
-0.1218
0.12
177
180
2.0667
3.2874
4.8471
8.1345
2.3506
0.7851
3.1356
4.6402
2.4062
3.8086
6.1852
9.9938
2.6457
0.8235
3.4691
5.1494
-0.3395
-0.5213
-1.3381
-1.8593
-0.2951
-0.0384
-0.3335
-0.5092
0
0.24
0.02
0
0.27
0.86
0.32
0.27
177
177
177
177
177
177
177
177
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
0.8172
0.9086
-0.0914
0.7
177
180
5.4575
6.058
-0.6006
0.19
177
180
0.8698
0.837
0.0328
0.38
176
180
0.9585
0.9321
0.0264
0.27
176
180
0.8145
0.8259
-0.0114
0.78
176
180
0.7707
0.7333
0.0374
0.41
176
180
0.9389
0.9481
-0.0092
0.71
176
180
0.9597
0.942
0.0177
0.44
176
180
0.2431
0.2741
-0.031
0.51
176
180
0.2684
0.2901
-0.0217
0.65
176
180
0.9401
0.9617
-0.0216
0.35
176
180
0.6463
0.5926
0.0537
0.3
176
180
0.9355
0.9037
0.0318
0.27
176
180
0.7408
0.742
-0.0012
0.98
176
180
0.9712
0.9432
0.028
0.19
176
180
0.9032
0.8765
0.0267
0.42
176
180
0.9574
0.7823
0.9877
0.7691
-0.0303
0.0131
0.08
0.77
176
176
180
180
0.9332
0.9494
-0.0162
0.52
176
180
0.9931
0.9778
0.0153
0.22
176
180
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Available medicine/vaccine: Hepatitis B
Available medicine/vaccine: Measles
Available medicine/vaccine: Tetanus Toxoid
Number of weeks last month the
Community Health Facility running out:
Disposable syringe 1ml
Number of weeks last month the
Community Health Facility running out:
Disposable syringe 2.5ml
Number of weeks last month the
Community Health Facility running out:
Disposable syringe 5ml
Number of weeks last month the
Community Health Facility running out:
Amoxilline capsule 250mg
Number of weeks last month the
Community Health Facility running out:
Amoxilline caplet 500mg
Number of weeks last month the
Community Health Facility running out:
Amoxilline dry syrup 125mg/5ml
Number of weeks last month the
Community Health Facility running out:
Ampicillin caplet 500mg
Number of weeks last month the
Community Health Facility running out:
Ampicillin dry syrup 125mg/5ml
Number of weeks last month the
Community Health Facility running out:
Antalgin tablet 500mg
Number of weeks last month the
Community Health Facility running out:
Antalgin injection 250mg/ml-2ml
Number of weeks last month the
Community Health Facility running out:
Paracetamol syrup 120mg/5ml-60ml
Number of weeks last month the
Community Health Facility running out:
Paracetamol tablet 100mg
Number of weeks last month the
Community Health Facility running out:
Paracetamol tablet 500mg
Number of weeks last month the
Community Health Facility running out: Vit
A for children under 5
Number of weeks last month the
Community Health Facility running out:
BCG
Number of weeks last month the
Community Health Facility running out:
DPT
Treatment
0.9482
0.9896
0.9643
Control
0.9111
0.9765
0.9272
Difference
0.037
0.0131
0.0371
p
0.17
0.34
0.12
NT
176
176
176
NC
180
180
180
0.3541
0.528
-0.174
0.29
158
161
0.327
0.2067
0.1203
0.27
167
172
0.4268
0.2928
0.134
0.37
146
156
0.8583
0.7898
0.0685
0.76
151
148
0.47
0.4525
0.0175
0.9
171
177
0.2992
0.388
-0.0889
0.47
168
174
2.076
1.6091
0.4669
0.3
74
81
1.9887
1.6011
0.3875
0.38
74
84
0.2506
0.1967
0.0539
0.63
163
173
0.4433
0.6506
-0.2072
0.34
121
123
0.5113
0.5786
-0.0673
0.69
169
175
0.7691
0.7232
0.0459
0.84
147
154
0.3215
0.5789
-0.2574
0.13
170
178
0.3795
0.3818
-0.0024
0.99
168
170
0.3908
0.404
-0.0131
0.92
172
179
0.4214
0.2842
0.1372
0.33
147
142
June 2008
83
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Number of weeks last month the
Community Health Facility running out:
DPT Hepatitis B Combo
Number of weeks last month the
Community Health Facility running out:
Polio
Number of weeks last month the
Community Health Facility running out:
Hepatitis B
Number of weeks last month the
Community Health Facility running out:
Measles
Number of weeks last month the
Community Health Facility running out:
Tetanus Toxoid
Service inside the building: New visit
(ticket)
Service inside the building: Repeat visit
(ticket)
Service inside the building: Pregnant
mother check up by midwife
Service inside the building: Pregnant
mother check up by doctor
Service inside the building: Delivery service
by midwife
Service inside the building: Delivery service
by doctor
Service inside the building: Delivery room
Service inside the building: Vacum
extraction/forceps
Service inside the building: BGC
immunization
Service inside the building: DPT
immunization
Service inside the building: Anti polio
immunization
Service inside the building: Measle
immunization
Service inside the building: DPT Hep B
Combo immunization
Service inside the building: Hepatitis B
immunization for children under 5
Service inside the building: Hepatitis B
immunization for patient over 5
Service inside the building: Tetanus Toxoid
[TT] immunization for pregnant mother
Service inside the building: Family
planning pills
Service inside the building: IUD insertion
Service inside the building: IUD retraction
Service inside the building: Implant
insertion
84
June 2008
Treatment
Control
Difference
p
NT
NC
0.2482
0.2574
-0.0092
0.93
168
172
0.1599
0.2528
-0.0929
0.3
173
179
0.2388
0.2798
-0.041
0.7
167
166
0.1902
0.2394
-0.0492
0.6
173
178
0.4207
0.4372
-0.0165
0.91
172
176
0.9563
0.9765
-0.0202
0.29
177
180
0.9563
0.9753
-0.019
0.33
177
180
0.9885
0.9975
-0.009
0.31
177
180
0.6839
0.7765
-0.0926
0.05
177
180
0.5471
0.6383
-0.0911
0.08
177
180
0.2563
0.3679
-0.1116
0.02
177
180
0.3782
0.5617
-0.1836
0
177
180
0.1299
0.1975
-0.0676
0.08
177
180
0.969
0.9753
-0.0063
0.72
177
180
0.9563
0.942
0.0143
0.54
177
180
0.9655
0.9753
-0.0098
0.59
177
180
0.9621
0.9691
-0.0071
0.72
177
180
0.9287
0.9531
-0.0244
0.33
177
180
0.9437
0.942
0.0017
0.94
177
180
0.6839
0.6148
0.0691
0.17
177
180
0.9713
0.9877
-0.0164
0.28
177
180
0.9092
0.8864
0.0228
0.48
177
180
0.9
0.9287
0.9309
0.9407
-0.0309
-0.012
0.3
0.65
177
177
180
180
0.8414
0.8383
0.0031
0.94
177
180
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Service inside the building: Implant
retraction
Service inside the building: Family
planning injection
Service inside the building: Side effects of
use of contraceptive/ IUD control
Service inside the building: Inpatient
treatment
Cost (Rp) of: New visit (ticket)
Cost (Rp) of: Repeat visit (ticket)
Cost (Rp) of: Pregnant mother check up by
midwife
Cost (Rp) of: Pregnant mother check up by
doctor
Cost (Rp) of: Delivery service by midwife
Cost (Rp) of: Delivery service by doctor
Cost (Rp) of: Delivery room
Cost (Rp) of: Vacum extraction/forceps
Cost (Rp) of: BCG immunization
Cost (Rp) of: DPT immunization
Cost (Rp) of: Anti polio immunization
Cost (Rp) of: Measle immunization
Cost (Rp) of: DPT Hep B Combo
immunization
Cost (Rp) of: Hepatitis B immunization for
children under 5
Cost (Rp) of: Hepatitis B immunization for
patient over 5
Cost (Rp) of: Tetanus Toxoid [TT]
immunization for pregnant mother
Cost (Rp) of: Family planning pills
Cost (Rp) of: IUD insertion
Cost (Rp) of: IUD retraction
Cost (Rp) of: Implant insertion
Cost (Rp) of: Implant retraction
Cost (Rp) of: Family planning injection
Cost (Rp) of: Side effects of use of
contraceptive/ IUD control
Cost (Rp) of: Inpatient treatment
Treatment
Control
Difference
p
NT
NC
0.8644
0.8642
0.0002
1
177
180
0.9644
0.9457
0.0187
0.39
177
180
0.8701
0.9049
-0.0348
0.3
177
180
0.3276
0.4593
-0.1317
0.01
177
180
2165.3846
2085.7572
2215.1707
1982.2785
-49.7861
103.4787
0.81
0.51
170
170
175
176
1825.4651
1601.4851
223.98
0.2
174
179
2359.4958
1565.1828
794.313
0.07
128
143
151251.0504
155112.1076
45011.8541
19530.9735
1244.9585
1234.976
1225.5952
1253.2855
152470.4062
136688.5906
32224.8352
58559.375
1262.7848
1783.8794
1153.9241
1158.7261
-1219.36
18423.52
12787.02
-39028.4
-17.8263
-548.904
71.6712
94.5594
0.95
0.5
0.29
0.11
0.92
0.28
0.7
0.56
109
53
81
26
169
165
168
167
114
69
100
35
175
168
175
174
1330.4455
1206.7358
123.7098
0.47
161
170
1300.8526
1118.7418
182.1108
0.27
162
170
1370.5882
1149.7992
220.789
0.33
116
116
1605.9172
1920.75
-314.833
0.31
171
178
1869.5322
15681.3538
12831.6832
22968.5792
18811.8351
5892.7294
1789.8329
12372.9443
10688.5827
23271.2813
18006
5299.7389
79.6994
3308.41
2143.101
-302.702
805.8351
592.9905
0.79
0.09
0.09
0.93
0.71
0.36
161
154
162
145
152
168
161
163
166
149
155
170
3661.823
2727.9673
933.8557
0.14
152
158
19454.0351
19101.0753
352.9598
0.95
72
85
Note: Results reflect fractions unless stated otherwise.
June 2008
85
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Table 48
Variable
Community health facility characteristics for community CCT treatment and control
groups
Treatment
I
11141.9615
Work area: size of work area (km2)
Work area: size of population
35678.0367
(persons)
Work area: number of households
8025.875
Work area: number of households
2379.5422
holding Health Card/Health JPS
Work area: number of persons
8578.4865
holding Askeskin
Work area: number of households
3741.2353
holding Askeskin
Number of Sub-Community
3.3455
Health Services
Number of ambulances/ floating
1.5818
Puskesmas
Number of midwives
7.6091
Number of integrated health
43.3818
service post/Posyandu
Number of active integrated
42.9364
health service posts
Number of delivery posts [Pondok
5.3727
Bersalin Desa (Polindes)]
Number of full-time and part-time
21.4818
staff
Community Health Facility has
1
electricity
Main source of electricity: PLN
0.9455
Main source of electricity:
0.0182
Puskesmas Generator
Main source of electricity:
0.0091
Community self-help generator
Main source of electricity: Other
0.0273
Main source for water: Piped water
0.3091
(PAM)
Main source for water: Pumped
0.3
well
Main source for water: Well
0.1727
Main source for water: Rain
0
Main source for water: Lake
0
Main source for water: Spring
0.2182
Main source for water: River/Canal
0
Main location of water supply:
0.7818
inside the building
Distance (one way) from
community health facility to the
204.6667
water source (meters)
Community health facility has a
0.9909
toilet
Community health facility has
0.7818
special toilet for patients
Community health facility has
special toilet for Puskesmas
0.8091
officers
86
June 2008
Treatment
NI
11507.4167
Control
6830.215
Difference
I–C
4311.7466
36223.6126
29593.18
8448.6147
p
0.11
Difference
NI – C
4677.2017
6084.8541
0.25
7982.367
43.508
2633.1279
2578.195
8973.9324
p
0.08
N
I
94
N
NI
98
6630.43
0.21
99
100 100
0.95
466.2477
0.52
95
98
95
-198.6532
0.73
54.9325
0.92
75
78
74
8578.909
-0.4226
1
395.0233
0.77
68
67
68
4619.5333
3850.743
-109.5076
0.92
768.7905
0.5
30
28
30
3.0811
2.8609
0.4846
0.11
0.2202
0.47 100 100 100
1.964
1.6087
-0.0269
0.97
0.3553
0.57 100 100 100
6.9189
7.0609
0.5482
0.29
-0.142
0.78 100 100 100
42.2818
39.6842
3.6976
0.16
2.5976
0.32 100
99
99
41.8182
39.4474
3.489
0.19
2.3708
0.37 100
99
99
5.0541
5.0174
0.3553
0.52
0.0367
0.95 100 100 100
20.9279
20.8696
0.6123
0.59
0.0584
0.96 100 100 100
1
0.9739
0.0261
0.05
0.0261
0.05 100 100 100
0.9459
0.8957
0.0498
0.17
0.0503
0.17 100 100 100
0.0541
0.0783
-0.0601
0.05
-0.0242
0.43 100 100 100
0
0
0.0091
0.24
0
1
100 100 100
0
0
0.0273
0.04
0
1
100 100 100
0.2883
0.3391
-0.03
0.65
-0.0508
0.44 100 100 100
0.3604
0.4
-0.1
0.14
-0.0396
0.56 100 100 100
0.1532
0
0
0.1892
0.009
0.1565
0.0087
0
0.087
0.0087
0.0162
-0.0087
0
0.1312
-0.0087
0.76
0.26
.
0.01
0.42
-0.0034
-0.0087
0
0.1022
0.0003
0.95
0.26
.
0.05
0.98
100
100
100
100
100
0.7477
0.6957
0.0862
0.16
0.0521
0.4
100 100 100
1021.6786
67.6857
136.981
0.78
953.9929
0.04
22
1
0.9913
-0.0004
0.97
0.0087
0.42 100 100 100
0.8108
0.7304
0.0514
0.39
0.0804
0.17 100 100 100
0.8018
0.687
0.1221
0.04
0.1148
0.05 100 100 100
100
100
100
100
100
25
N
C
94
100
100
100
100
100
29
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Toilet used commonly by patients
and puskesmas officers
Type of latrine community health
facility has: own latrine with or
without septic tank
Type of latrine community health
facility has: own latrine with septic
tank
Type of latrine community health
facility has: own latrine without
septic tank
Community health facility has:
Counter/registration table
Community health facility has:
waiting room for patients
Community health facility has:
Examination room
Community health facility has:
Injection/treatment room
Community health facility has:
family planning service room
Community health facility has:
delivery room
Community health facility has:
inpatient room
Community health facility has:
medicine room
Community health facility has:
laboratory
Basic emergency neonatal
obstetrical service
Total budget for 2006 (‘1000 Rp.)
Number of babies (0-11 months)
given BCG vaccination
Number of babies (0-11 months)
given Polio vaccination
Number of babies (0-11 months)
given Hepatitis B vaccination
Number of babies (0-11 months)
given DPT Hb Combo vaccination
Number of babies (2-11 months)
given DPT vaccination
Number of babies (9-11 months)
given measle vaccination
Number of pregnant mothers
given TT vaccination
Number of new visit by pregnant
mother (K1) pure
Number of new visit by pregnant
mother (K4)
Number of pregnant mothers with
complication / high risk attended
(persons)
Number of pregnant mothers with
complication / high risk referred
(persons)
Treatment
I
Treatment
NI
Control
Difference
I–C
p
Difference
NI – C
p
0.2455
0.1982
0.287
-0.0415
0.49
-0.0888
0.14 100 100 100
0.9909
1
0.9913
-0.0004
0.97
0.0087
0.42 100 100 100
0.9909
0.973
0.9826
0.0083
0.66
-0.0096
0.61 100 100 100
0
0.027
0.0087
-0.0087
0.57
0.0183
0.23 100 100 100
1
0.991
1
0
1
-0.009
0.24 100 100 100
0.9636
0.982
0.9913
-0.0277
0.17
-0.0093
0.64 100 100 100
1
1
1
0
1
0
0.8364
0.7658
0.9043
-0.068
0.19
-0.1386
0.01 100 100 100
0.8
0.8018
0.8261
-0.0261
0.64
-0.0243
0.66 100 100 100
0.6
0.5315
0.4957
0.1043
0.14
0.0359
0.61 100 100 100
0.4455
0.3784
0.3826
0.0628
0.37
-0.0042
0.95 100 100 100
0.9818
0.982
1
-0.0182
0.24
-0.018
0.24 100 100 100
0.8273
0.8559
0.8783
-0.051
0.31
-0.0224
0.65 100 100 100
0.6091
0.5405
0.4696
0.1395
0.05
0.071
0.31 100 100 100
117002.1072
109313.1
0.59
7688.9692
0.69
92
89
92
57.633
82.5688
62.5575
-4.9245
0.62
20.0113
0.04
99
98
99
171.0367
204.7248
185.2743
-14.2376
0.61
19.4504
0.48
99
98
99
80.4245
84.7037
80.009
0.4155
0.97
4.6947
0.69
97
97
97
103.4762
136.0926
114.8532
-11.377
0.61
21.2394
0.34
95
97
96
76.0377
55.8155
56.4486
19.5891
0.14
-0.6331
0.96
96
92
93
59.0917
65.2569
54.0619
5.0298
0.59
11.1949
0.23
99
98
99
91.6606
94.789
75.3805
16.28
0.22
19.4085
0.14
99
98
99
65.1743
62.6514
55.625
9.5493
0.36
7.0264
0.5
99
98
98
58.1651
56.2569
48.3929
9.7723
0.28
7.864
0.38
99
98
98
8.1835
7.8131
7.9911
0.1924
0.93
-0.178
0.93
99
96
98
2.6697
4.2477
4.0804
-1.4106
0.23
0.1673
0.89
99
98
98
1
N
I
N
NI
N
C
100 100 100
June 2008
87
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Number of mothers in child birth
with complication / high risk
attended (persons)
Number of mothers in child birth
with complication / high risk
referred (persons)
Delivery assisted by health officer
Neonatal visit
Baby 0-11 months weighed
(babies)
Child 12-35 months weighed
(children)
Child 36-59 months weighed
(children)
Baby 0-11 months under dotted
line and above red line of health
monitoring card (babies)
Child 12-35 months under dotted
line and above red line of health
monitoring card (children)
Child 36-59 months under dotted
line and above red line of health
monitoring card (children)
Baby 0-11 months under red line
of health monitoring card (babies)
Child 12-35 months under red
line of health monitoring card
(children)
Child 36-59 months under red
line of health monitoring card
(children)
Baby 0-11 months with health
monitoring card / maternal child
health book (babies)
Child 12-35 months with health
monitoring card / maternal child
health book (children)
Child 36-59 months with health
monitoring card / maternal child
health book (children)
Child 6-11 months given high
dose A vitamin (children)
Child 1-5 years given high dose A
vitamin
Mother in confinement given high
dose A vitamin (children)
Pregnant mother given tablets for
blood regeneration (Fe3) (persons)
Mother in confinement given
tablets for blood regeneration
(Fe3) (persons)
Child given high dose A vitamin 6
months ago (children)
Number of Hb-meter available
Number of forceps available
Number of vaginal speculum
available
88
June 2008
Treatment
I
Treatment
NI
Control
Difference
I–C
p
Difference
NI – C
p
N
I
N
NI
N
C
3.5505
5.5
3.4685
0.082
0.96
2.0315
0.18
99
97
97
2.6147
3.2202
3.1171
-0.5024
0.53
0.1031
0.9
99
98
97
49.0642
64.7248
46.4299
65.2202
41.4464
58.9732
7.6178
5.7516
0.39
0.59
4.9835
6.247
0.57
0.56
99
99
96
98
98
98
499.0388
494.287
447.6415
51.3973
0.24
46.6455
0.29
94
97
93
808.4078
790.3241
758.7358
49.6719
0.53
31.5882
0.68
94
97
93
714.802
706.0935
642.2925
72.5095
0.29
63.801
0.34
92
96
93
119.6559
93.4653
108.0755
11.5804
0.8
-14.6101
0.74
84
91
93
210.4457
106.73
198.9151
11.5306
0.82
-92.1851
0.07
83
90
93
196.5543
87.27
182.0566
14.4977
0.74
-94.7866
0.03
83
90
93
5.4356
5.8981
8.9151
-3.4795
0.15
-3.0169
0.2
92
97
93
21.34
25.2897
21.8868
-0.5468
0.92
3.4029
0.5
91
96
93
17.44
18.0748
14.7642
2.6758
0.69
3.3106
0.61
91
96
93
576.7745
536.7009
565.434
11.3405
0.84
-28.733
0.61
93
96
93
953.84
1005.2358
959.4057
-5.5657
0.95
45.8302
0.64
91
95
93
884.45
931.1981
827.5094
56.9406
0.53
103.6887
0.25
91
95
93
73.9596
78.8952
62.6571
11.3025
0.65
16.2381
0.5
90
94
92
392.0909
503.5429
281.2925
110.7985
0.45
222.2504
0.13
90
94
93
73.0971
55.8333
53.5377
19.5594
0.44
2.2956
0.93
94
97
93
59.6019
58.9439
68.7358
-9.1339
0.36
-9.7919
0.32
94
96
93
32.1068
40.7103
42.1321
-10.0253
0.14
-1.4218
0.83
94
96
93
2117.1698
2040.5963
1986.676
130.4941
0.54
53.9207
0.8
97
98
97
2.7064
2.3818
3.1081
0.8559
3.0957
1.0348
-0.3892
1.347
0.31
0.1
0.0125
-0.1789
0.97 99 100 100
0.83 100 100 100
8.4727
8.9099
8.5478
-0.0751
0.95
0.3621
0.77 100 100 100
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Number of tenaculum available
Number of uterus sonde available
Number of gynecological table
available
Number of straight and curved
clamps available
Number of oxygen canister
available
Number of incubator available
Number of weighing kit available
Number of thermos/vaccine
carrier available
Type of vaccine storage facility:
Special cooling box for vaccines/
cold chain
Type of vaccine storage facility:
Freezer
Type of vaccine storage facility:
Refrigerator
Type of vaccine storage facility:
None
Type of vaccine storage facility:
Other
Type of syringe used for vaccine
injection: Disposable
Type of syringe used for vaccine
injection: Non disposable
Type of syringe used for vaccine
injection: Disposable and Non
disposable
Sterilisation method: Sterilisator
Sterilisation method: Soaked in
alcohol
Number of GP (full-time)
Number of GP (part-time)
Number of dentist (full-time)
Number of dentist (part-time)
Number of nurse/male nurse (fulltime)
Number of nurse/male nurse
(part-time)
Number of dental care specialist
(full-time)
Number of dental care specialist
(part-time)
Number of midwife (full-time)
Number of midwife (part-time)
Number of village midwife (fulltime)
Number of village midwife (parttime)
Number of nutritionist/assistant
(full-time)
Number of nutritionist/
assistant(part-time)
Treatment
I
3.3455
3.4273
Treatment
NI
4.0991
5.2793
Control
2.7217
3.4783
Difference
I–C
0.6237
-0.051
1.6
1.7748
1.7304
5.6514
7.0721
1.9
p
0.37
0.95
Difference
NI – C
1.3774
1.801
p
N
N
N
I
NI
C
0.05 100 100 100
0.02 100 100 100
-0.1304
0.65
0.0443
0.88 100 100 100
6.3391
-0.6878
0.5
0.7329
0.47
1.5135
1.7043
0.1957
0.46
-0.1908
0.47 100 100 100
0.6273
3.4364
0.4775
5.6036
0.5391
4.3391
0.0881
-0.9028
0.36
0.36
-0.0617
1.2645
0.52 100 100 100
0.2 100 100 100
12.0364
11.7117
11.5826
0.4538
0.78
0.1291
0.94 100 100 100
0.5091
0.5405
0.6
-0.0909
0.2
-0.0595
0.4
0.5545
0.4955
0.4609
0.0937
0.19
0.0346
0.62 100 100 100
0.3455
0.3243
0.3391
0.0063
0.92
-0.0148
0.82 100 100 100
0.0182
0
0
0.0182
0.09
0
0
0.009
0
0
1
0.009
0.24 100 100 100
0.9818
1
0.9826
-0.0008
0.96
0.0174
0.26 100 100 100
0.0091
0
0
0.0091
0.24
0
0.0091
0
0.0174
-0.0083
0.53
-0.0174
0.19 100 100 100
0.0091
0
0.0087
0.0004
0.97
-0.0087
0.42 100 100 100
0.0091
0
0.0087
0.0004
0.97
-0.0087
0.42 100 100 100
1.3091
0.1835
0.4273
0.1468
1.4595
0.1532
0.4144
0.1441
1.2348
0.1913
0.4087
0.0522
0.0743
-0.0078
0.0186
0.0946
0.58
0.92
0.81
0.06
0.2247
-0.0382
0.0057
0.092
0.1 100 100 100
0.6 99 100 100
0.94 100 100 100
0.07 99 100 100
7.8
7.9279
8.2609
-0.4609
0.48
-0.3329
0.61 100 100 100
0.713
0.5586
0.3565
0.3564
0.19
0.202
0.8818
0.6847
0.9652
-0.0834
0.5
-0.2805
0.02 100 100 100
0.0741
0.0991
0
0.0741
0.06
0.0991
0.01
2.8545
0.1759
2.3604
0.0631
2.6
0.0696
0.2545
0.1064
0.53
0.29
-0.2396
-0.0065
0.55 100 100 100
0.95 98 100 100
6.5636
6.5045
6.4348
0.1289
0.81
0.0697
0.9
100 100 100
0.3796
0.5586
0.2957
0.084
0.71
0.2629
0.23
98
0.6818
0.7928
0.8783
-0.1964
0.09
-0.0855
0.46 100 100 100
0.0556
0.0631
0.113
-0.0575
0.5
-0.05
1
1
0.46
0.56
99
100 100
100 100 100
100 100 100
100 100 100
98
98
98
100 100
100 100
100 100
100 100
June 2008
89
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Number of pharmacist/assistant
(full-time)
Number of pharmacist/
assistant(part-time)
Number of other health personnel
(full-time)
Number of other health personnel
(part-time)
Number of worker (full-time)
Number of worker (part-time)
Number of admin personnel (fulltime)
Number of admin personnel (parttime)
Number of other personnel (fulltime)
Number of other personnel (parttime)
Number of doctors with private
practice
Number of doctors without
private practice
Number of doctor
Number of dentist with private
practice
Number of dentist without private
practice
Number of dentist
Number of nurse with private
practice
Number of nurse without private
practice
Number of nurse
Number of midwife with private
practice
Number of midwife without
private practice
Number of midwife
Available medicine/vaccine:
Disposable syringe 1ml
Available medicine/vaccine:
Disposable syringe 2.5ml
Available medicine/vaccine:
Disposable syringe 5ml
Available medicine/vaccine:
Amoxilline capsule 250mg
Available medicine/vaccine:
Amoxilline caplet 500mg
Available medicine/vaccine:
Amoxilline dry syrup 125mg/5ml
Available medicine/vaccine:
Ampicillin caplet 500mg
Available medicine/vaccine:
Ampicillin dry syrup 125mg/5ml
90
June 2008
Treatment
I
Treatment
NI
Control
Difference
I–C
p
Difference
NI – C
p
N
I
0.5636
0.5495
0.887
-0.3233
0.13
-0.3374
0.11 100 100 100
0.037
0.027
0.0261
0.011
0.68
0.0009
0.97
1.8818
1.991
1.9739
-0.0921
0.78
0.0171
0.96 100 100 100
0.1204
0.1622
0.0435
0.0769
0.28
0.1187
0.09
98
100 100
1.3303
0.1667
1.4414
0.1351
1.4
0.0348
-0.0697
0.1319
0.75
0.09
0.0414
0.1004
0.85
0.19
99
98
100 100
100 100
2.6636
2.5135
2.6316
0.0321
0.94
-0.1181
0.77 100 100
0.2037
0.3333
0.1739
0.0298
0.85
0.1594
0.31
98
100 100
1.4615
2.1186
2.1395
-0.678
0.22
-0.0209
0.97
48
55
37
0.3077
0.339
0.1163
0.1914
0.24
0.2227
0.16
48
55
37
1.4636
1.4865
1.2783
0.1854
0.26
0.2082
0.2
100 100 100
0.6
0.6847
0.6087
-0.0087
0.95
0.076
0.59 100 100 100
2.0636
2.1712
1.887
0.1767
0.33
0.2842
0.11 100 100 100
2.7909
3.0721
2.8783
-0.0874
0.87
0.1938
0.72 100 100 100
6.6636
6.1982
6.7043
-0.0407
0.96
-0.5061
0.53 100 100 100
9.4545
9.2703
9.5826
-0.1281
0.86
-0.3123
0.66 100 100 100
2.1727
1.9189
2.0348
0.1379
0.74
-0.1159
0.78 100 100 100
0.8636
0.8919
1.0435
-0.1798
0.54
-0.1516
0.6
3.0364
2.8108
3.0783
-0.0419
0.93
-0.2675
0.55 100 100 100
5.5455
4.6757
4.1652
1.3802
0.03
0.5105
0.41 100 100 100
1.3818
2
2.1565
-0.7747
0.08
-0.1565
0.72 100 100 100
6.9273
6.6757
6.3217
0.6055
0.28
0.3539
0.52 100 100 100
0.7091
0.8468
0.7652
-0.0561
0.34
0.0816
0.16 100 100 100
0.9091
0.8919
0.8696
0.0395
0.37
0.0223
0.61 100 100 100
0.9273
0.8919
0.8348
0.0925
0.04
0.0571
0.2
0.7727
0.7838
0.8348
-0.0621
0.28
-0.051
0.37 100 100 100
0.9909
0.955
0.9652
0.0257
0.28
-0.0103
0.67 100 100 100
0.9727
0.9189
0.9217
0.051
0.14
-0.0028
0.93 100 100 100
0.4636
0.3964
0.487
-0.0233
0.74
-0.0906
0.2
0.5273
0.4775
0.5391
-0.0119
0.87
-0.0617
0.38 100 100 100
98
N
NI
N
C
100 100
99
100 100 100
100 100 100
100 100 100
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Available medicine/vaccine:
Antalgin tablet 500mg
Available medicine/vaccine:
Antalgin injection 250mg/ml-2ml
Available medicine/vaccine:
Paracetamol syrup 120mg/5ml60ml
Available medicine/vaccine:
Paracetamol tablet 100mg
Available medicine/vaccine:
Paracetamol tablet 500mg
Available medicine/vaccine:
Vitamin A for children under 5
Available medicine/vaccine: BCG
Available medicine/vaccine: DPT
Available medicine/vaccine: DPT
Hepatitis B Combo
Available medicine/vaccine: Polio
Available medicine/vaccine:
Hepatitis B
Available medicine/vaccine:
Measles
Available medicine/vaccine:
Tetanus Toxoid
Number of weeks last month
the Community Health Facility
running out: Disposable syringe
1ml
Number of weeks last month
the Community Health Facility
running out:Disposable syringe
2.5ml
Number of weeks last month
the Community Health Facility
running out: Disposable syringe
5ml
Number of weeks last month
the Community Health Facility
running out: Amoxilline capsule
250mg
Number of weeks last month
the Community Health Facility
running out: Amoxilline caplet
500mg
Number of weeks last month
the Community Health Facility
running out: Amoxilline dry syrup
125mg/5ml
Number of weeks last month
the Community Health Facility
running out: Ampicillin caplet
500mg
Number of weeks last month
the Community Health Facility
running out: Ampicillin dry syrup
125mg/5ml
Treatment
I
Treatment
NI
Control
Difference
I–C
p
Difference
NI – C
p
N
I
N
NI
0.9636
0.9369
0.9565
0.0071
0.81
-0.0196
0.52 100 100 100
0.8182
0.7928
0.8261
-0.0079
0.89
-0.0333
0.55 100 100 100
0.9273
0.9459
0.9565
-0.0292
0.37
-0.0106
0.75 100 100 100
0.7909
0.6847
0.7478
0.0431
0.49
-0.0631
0.31 100 100 100
1
0.973
0.9913
0.0087
0.57
-0.0183
0.23 100 100 100
0.9364
0.8919
0.9739
-0.0375
0.28
-0.082
0.02 100 100 100
0.9818
0.7273
0.991
0.7297
0.9652
0.7739
0.0166
-0.0466
0.41
0.45
0.0258
-0.0442
0.2 100 100 100
0.47 100 100 100
0.9364
0.8559
0.913
0.0233
0.58
-0.0572
0.17 100 100 100
0.9727
1
0.9913
-0.0186
0.22
0.0087
0.57 100 100 100
0.9364
0.9279
0.9739
-0.0375
0.24
-0.046
0.15 100 100 100
0.9909
1
0.9913
-0.0004
0.97
0.0087
0.42 100 100 100
0.9818
0.973
0.9913
-0.0095
0.61
-0.0183
0.33 100 100 100
0.494
0.3469
0.4066
0.0874
0.73
-0.0597
0.81
77
87
78
0.434
0.7642
0.3431
0.0908
0.72
0.421
0.1
96
95
89
0.165
0.4257
0.4752
-0.3102
0.16
-0.0495
0.82
94
91
88
0.7
0.6667
0.5248
0.1752
0.55
0.1419
0.63
84
86
88
0.1835
0.4037
0.4123
-0.2288
0.18
-0.0086
0.96
99
98
99
0.3211
0.6239
0.5398
-0.2187
0.27
0.084
0.67
99
98
98
1.3485
1.8197
1.1912
0.1573
0.76
0.6285
0.24
62
56
57
1.0845
1.2188
1.1467
-0.0622
0.89
0.0721
0.87
66
58
63
June 2008
N
C
91
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Number of weeks last month
the Community Health Facility
running out: Antalgin tablet
500mg
Number of weeks last month
the Community Health Facility
running out: Antalgin injection
250mg/ml-2ml
Number of weeks last month
the Community Health Facility
running out: Paracetamol syrup
120mg/5ml-60ml
Number of weeks last month
the Community Health Facility
running out: Paracetamol tablet
100mg
Number of weeks last month
the Community Health Facility
running out: Paracetamol tablet
500mg
Number of weeks last month
the Community Health Facility
running out: Vit A for children
under 5
Number of weeks last month
the Community Health Facility
running out: BCG
Number of weeks last month
the Community Health Facility
running out: DPT
Number of weeks last month
the Community Health Facility
running out: DPT Hepatitis B
Combo
Number of weeks last month
the Community Health Facility
running out: Polio
Number of weeks last month
the Community Health Facility
running out: Hepatitis B
Number of weeks last month
the Community Health Facility
running out: Measles
Number of weeks last month
the Community Health Facility
running out: Tetanus Toxoid
Service inside the building: New
visit (ticket)
Service inside the building: Repeat
visit (ticket)
Service inside the building:
Pregnant mother check up by
midwife
Service inside the building:
Pregnant mother check up by
doctor
Service inside the building:
Delivery service by midwife
92
June 2008
Treatment
I
Treatment
NI
Control
Difference
I–C
p
Difference
NI – C
p
N
I
N
NI
N
C
0.2844
0.4455
0.1327
0.1517
0.4
0.3127
0.08
99
99
98
0.3723
0.4457
0.2245
0.1479
0.51
0.2212
0.32
86
83
84
0.3241
0.4636
0.3363
-0.0122
0.95
0.1274
0.47
98
99
98
0.5824
1.092
0.6196
-0.0371
0.91
0.4724
0.16
84
82
81
0.0367
0.2432
0.0446
-0.0079
0.93
0.1986
0.03
99
100
97
0.2286
0.4038
0.1607
0.0679
0.72
0.2431
0.21
95
94
97
0.3056
0.4595
0.4375
-0.1319
0.48
0.022
0.91
98
100
98
0.6092
0.5412
0.2088
0.4004
0.1
0.3324
0.17
79
77
78
0.2308
0.6961
0.1714
0.0593
0.77
0.5246
0.01
94
93
91
0.2315
0.3874
0.1228
0.1087
0.46
0.2646
0.07
98
100
99
0.1981
0.381
0.3125
-0.1144
0.48
0.0685
0.68
96
95
97
0.1019
0.2342
0.1327
-0.0309
0.76
0.1015
0.32
98
100
98
0.1574
0.3063
0.1579
-0.0005
1
0.1484
0.27
98
100
99
0.9909
0.991
1
-0.0091
0.4
-0.009
0.41 100 100 100
0.9636
0.991
1
-0.0364
0.03
-0.009
0.6
1
0.991
0.9913
0.0087
0.42
-0.0003
0.98 100 100 100
0.8273
0.7838
0.7826
0.0447
0.43
0.0012
0.98 100 100 100
0.7
0.6577
0.6696
0.0304
0.65
-0.0119
0.86 100 100 100
100 100 100
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Treatment
I
Treatment
NI
Service inside the building:
0.4818
0.3784
Delivery service by doctor
Service inside the building:
0.4727
0.5045
Delivery room
Service inside the building: Vacum
0.1727
0.1622
extraction/forceps
Service inside the building: BGC
0.9636
0.955
immunization
Service inside the building: DPT
0.9091
0.8919
immunization
Service inside the building: Anti
0.9818
0.955
polio immunization
Service inside the building: Measle
0.9727
0.955
immunization
Service inside the building: DPT
0.9273
0.9099
Hep B Combo immunization
Service inside the building:
Hepatitis B immunization for
0.9
0.9279
children under 5
Service inside the building:
Hepatitis B immunization for
0.6909
0.5676
patient over 5
Service inside the building:
Tetanus Toxoid [TT] immunization
0.9636
0.973
for pregnant mother
Service inside the building: Family
0.8364
0.8739
planning pills
Service inside the building: IUD
0.8727
0.8829
insertion
Service inside the building: IUD
0.8818
0.8919
retraction
Service inside the building:
0.8182
0.8378
Implant insertion
Service inside the building:
0.8182
0.8468
Implant retraction
Service inside the building: Family
0.9455
0.964
planning injection
Service inside the building: Side
effects of use of contraceptive/
0.8455
0.8649
IUD control
Service inside the building:
0.4
0.3514
Inpatient treatment
Cost (Rp) of: New visit (ticket)
2431.6514
2540.9091
Cost (Rp) of: Repeat visit (ticket)
2250
2290.9091
Cost (Rp) of: Pregnant mother
2080
1972.7273
check up by midwife
Cost (Rp) of: Pregnant mother
1723.0769
1965.5172
check up by doctor
Cost (Rp) of: Delivery service by
164534.2466
midwife
Cost (Rp) of: Delivery service by
147047.619
doctor
Cost (Rp) of: Delivery room
32788.4615 35008.9286
Cost (Rp) of: Vacum extraction/
72157.8947 69833.3333
forceps
Cost (Rp) of: BCG immunization
952.8302
797.1698
Control
Difference
I–C
p
Difference
NI – C
p
0.4174
0.0644
0.36
-0.039
0.58 100 100 100
0.4783
-0.0055
0.94
0.0262
0.71 100 100 100
0.1826
-0.0099
0.85
-0.0204
0.7
0.9565
0.0071
0.8
-0.0016
0.96 100 100 100
0.913
-0.004
0.92
-0.0212
0.61 100 100 100
0.9565
0.0253
0.34
-0.0016
0.95 100 100 100
0.9652
0.0075
0.78
-0.0103
0.7
0.9043
0.0229
0.56
0.0056
0.89 100 100 100
0.913
-0.013
0.74
0.0149
0.71 100 100 100
0.7565
-0.0656
0.32
-0.189
0.9826
-0.019
0.41
-0.0096
0.67 100 100 100
0.9478
-0.1115
0.01
-0.074
0.1
100 100 100
0.913
-0.0403
0.36
-0.0302
0.5
100 100 100
0.913
-0.0312
0.47
-0.0212
0.62 100 100 100
0.8348
-0.0166
0.76
0.0031
0.95 100 100 100
0.8696
-0.0514
0.32
-0.0227
0.66 100 100 100
0.9652
-0.0198
0.49
-0.0013
0.96 100 100 100
0.9217
-0.0763
0.1
-0.0569
0.22 100 100 100
0.4
0
1
-0.0486
0.48 100 100 100
2686.957
2482.609
-255.3051
-232.6087
0.24
0.26
-146.0474
-191.6996
0.5
0.35
99
96
99
99
100
100
2228.07
-148.0702
0.65
-255.3429
0.44 100
99
99
1994.444
-271.3675
0.31
-28.9272
0.92
81
78
79
133753.2
-5831.1688 0.79
30780.9998
0.17
69
65
67
94583.33
0.08
52464.2857
0.07
47
38
40
22209.09
0.54
12799.8377
0.45
47
49
46
0
N
I
N
NI
N
C
100 100 100
100 100 100
100 100 100
72238.1
-80.2005
1
-2404.7619
0.95
19
17
18
1040.909
-88.0789
0.68
-243.7393
0.25
97
95
95
June 2008
93
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Cost (Rp) of: DPT immunization
Cost (Rp) of: Anti polio
immunization
Cost (Rp) of: Measle immunization
Cost (Rp) of: DPT Hep B Combo
immunization
Cost (Rp) of: Hepatitis B
immunization for children under 5
Cost (Rp) of: Hepatitis B
immunization for patient over 5
Cost (Rp) of: Tetanus Toxoid
[TT] immunization for pregnant
mother
Cost (Rp) of: Family planning pills
Cost (Rp) of: IUD insertion
Cost (Rp) of: IUD retraction
Cost (Rp) of: Implant insertion
Cost (Rp) of: Implant retraction
Cost (Rp) of: Family planning
injection
Cost (Rp) of: Side effects of use of
contraceptive/ IUD control
Cost (Rp) of: Inpatient treatment
Treatment
I
3225
Treatment
NI
747.4747
861.1111
Control
990.4762
Difference
I–C
2234.5238
768.8679
945.4545
929.9065
783.0189
931.3725
p
0.29
Difference
NI – C
-243.0014
-84.3434
0.67
954.955
-25.0484
811.8812
985.5769
883.8384
776.699
875
p
0.91
N
I
92
N
NI
89
N
C
90
-176.5866
0.38
98
95
95
0.9
-171.9361
0.39
97
95
96
-54.2044
0.79
-173.6957
0.4
92
90
91
1071.429
-187.5902
0.41
-294.7295
0.19
90
93
91
888.8889
925.2874
-50.2874
0.85
-36.3985
0.89
70
56
75
1254.717
1037.037
1340.708
-85.991
0.76
-303.6709
0.29
96
97
98
1967.3913
12510.4167
9474.2268
14994.4444
13655.5556
1422.6804
9836.7347
8055.5556
23672.043
14914.8936
2385.321
12080.95
10680.95
21640.63
16315
-417.9298
429.4643
-1206.7256
-6646.1806
-2659.4444
0.31
0.86
0.53
0.2
0.31
-962.6407
-2244.2177
-2625.3968
2031.418
-1400.1064
0.02
0.36
0.17
0.69
0.59
82
86
87
80
80
88
88
89
84
85
94
92
93
85
89
5711.5385
5887.8505
6189.189
-477.6507
0.57
-301.3387
0.72
94
96
96
2161.2903
1958.3333
2900.943
-739.6531
0.25
-942.6101
0.14
84
87
91
15318.1818
21525.641
11369.57
3948.6166
0.4
10156.0758
0.04
40
36
43
Note: Results reflect fractions unless stated otherwise.
Table 49
Midwife characteristics for household CCT treatment and control groups
Variable
Treatment
Control
Difference
p
NT
NC
Age (year)
35.6341
36.2569
-0.6229
0.12
684
698
Midwife’s last educ: SMA
0.0285
0.0358
-0.0073
0.44
684
701
Midwife’s last educ: 1-yr diploma prog
0.6563
0.6282
0.0281
0.28
684
701
Midwife’s last educ: 2-yr diploma prog
0.0019
0.013
-0.0111
0.02
684
701
Midwife’s last educ: 3-yr diploma prog
0.2968
0.3102
-0.0134
0.59
684
701
Midwife’s last educ: 4-yr diploma prog
0.0166
0.011
0.0055
0.38
684
701
0
0.0008
-0.0008
0.47
684
701
Midwife’s last educ: other
94
Midwife belong to a midwife association
0.9901
0.992
-0.0019
0.71
684
701
Work at government health service facility
0.9834
0.9804
0.0031
0.67
684
701
Status: Government employee PNS
0.7723
0.7548
0.0174
0.45
684
701
Status: Government employee PTT
0.1913
0.218
-0.0267
0.22
684
701
Status: Local govt contract
0.0192
0.0064
0.0129
0.03
684
701
Status: Volunteer
0.0006
0.0011
-0.0005
0.76
684
701
No status since not work at govt health
service facility
0.0166
0.0185
-0.002
0.78
684
701
Position: Head of facility
0.0172
0.0196
-0.0024
0.74
684
701
Position: Coordinating midwife
0.1588
0.1568
0.0021
0.92
684
701
Position: Midwife
0.2076
0.2359
-0.0283
0.21
684
701
Position: Village midwife
0.5998
0.5681
0.0317
0.23
684
701
June 2008
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Treatment
Control
Difference
p
NT
NC
Distance of private practice to government
service facility (Kilometer)
2.8959
2.872
0.0239
0.93
671
685
Place of private practice: government
owned facility
0.1668
0.1715
-0.0047
0.81
684
701
Place of private practice: home
0.7608
0.7386
0.0222
0.34
684
701
Place of private practice: other
0.0659
0.0791
-0.0132
0.34
684
701
Place of private practice: no place
0.0064
0.0096
-0.0032
0.5
684
701
701
Water source: piped water (PAM)
0.1955
0.2338
-0.0382
0.08
684
Water source: pumped well
0.5078
0.5238
-0.016
0.55
684
701
Water source: well
0.1881
0.137
0.0511
0.01
684
701
Water source: rain
0.014
0.0058
0.0082
0.12
684
701
Water source: lake
0.0028
0.0095
-0.0067
0.11
684
701
Water source: spring
0.077
0.0644
0.0126
0.36
684
701
Water source: river
0.001
0.0085
-0.0075
0.04
684
701
Water source: packed water
0.0008
0.0008
0
0.99
684
701
Water source: other
0.009
0.0109
-0.0019
0.72
684
701
Water source: inside house
0.7614
0.7807
-0.0194
0.39
684
701
Have latrine
0.9787
0.9754
0.0033
0.68
684
701
Latrine: own with septic tank
0.9514
0.9442
0.0071
0.55
684
701
Latrine: own without septic tank
0.0273
0.0311
-0.0038
0.67
684
701
Latrine: common or public
0.0144
0.0066
0.0077
0.16
684
701
Do not have latrine
0.0069
0.0169
-0.0099
0.09
684
701
Have electricity
0.9784
0.9666
0.0118
0.18
684
701
Electricity source: PLN
0.9601
0.9585
0.0016
0.88
684
701
Electricity source: puskesmas generator
0.0018
0.0019
-0.0001
0.97
684
701
Electricity source: community generator
0.0036
0.0013
0.0023
0.37
684
701
Electricity source: own generator
0.0114
0.0019
0.0095
0.03
684
701
Electricity source: puskesmas/comm/own
generator
0.0168
0.005
0.0118
0.03
684
701
0
0.0005
-0.0005
0.56
684
701
Number of beds in private practice place
0.0015
0.0026
-0.0011
0.66
684
701
Number of assistants: total
2.0977
2.098
-0.0003
1
683
697
Number of assistants: midwife
0.5399
0.5414
-0.0015
0.98
684
701
Number of assistants: nurse
0.2232
0.17
0.0532
0.17
684
701
Number of assistants: other
0.0971
0.1676
-0.0705
0.01
684
701
Keep separate books/adm between private
& govt services
0.2195
0.2038
0.0158
0.68
684
701
Ever supervised by Puskesmas
0.8083
0.8344
-0.026
0.21
684
701
Last month income: puskemas (‘1000 Rp.)
0.6982
0.6698
0.0284
0.26
684
698
Last month income: reimbursement (‘1000
Rp.)
1267.3600
1245.6170
21.743
0.54
684
701
Last month income: private practice (‘1000
Rp.)
105.7977
115.9715
-10.1739
0.58
684
701
Last month income: other medical practice
(‘1000 Rp.)
1968.4879
2033.2915
-64.8036
0.61
684
701
58.3917
66.5874
-8.1957
0.68
684
701
Electricity source: solar PV
Last month total income (‘1000 Rp.)
June 2008
95
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
96
Variable
Treatment
Control
Difference
p
NT
NC
Last month total spending: transport,me
dicine,equipment,other, fee to puskesmas
(‘1000 Rp.)
3400.0373
3461.4675
-61.4302
0.66
684
701
Last month net income (‘1000 Rp.)
1105.3308
1268.4762
-163.1455
0.02
684
701
Number of children given high dose vit A
last 6 months
2294.7065
2192.9912
101.7153
0.35
684
701
Serve at posyandu last month
199.4081
201.7786
-2.3706
0.84
647
666
Number of posyandu served last month
0.8979
0.8746
0.0233
0.17
684
701
Avg time spent at posyandu each visit
(minutes)
4.8267
5.2414
-0.4148
0.03
612
620
Number of babies/children under 5 visit
posyandu last month (percent)
198.8175
197.8182
0.9993
0.81
612
620
Number of Hb Meter belong to this private
practice
70.5394
70.6484
-0.1091
0.9
607
619
Number of Forceps belong to this private
practice
0.968
0.9166
0.0514
0.13
683
697
Number of Vaginal Speculum belong to
this private practice
0.1784
0.0728
0.1057
0.1
681
696
Number of Tenaculum belong to this
private practice
2.7938
2.5613
0.2325
0.2
683
697
Number of Uterus Sonde belong to this
private practice
1.0302
1.1219
-0.0917
0.14
683
697
Number of Gynecological table belong to
this private practice
1.1948
1.2174
-0.0226
0.7
683
697
Number of Clamps belong to this private
practice
0.4199
0.4301
-0.0103
0.75
681
697
Number of Oxygen canister belong to this
private practice
3.3166
3.2016
0.115
0.59
683
697
Number of Incubator belong to this private
practice
0.5515
0.5403
0.0112
0.78
683
697
Number of Weighing kit belong to this
private practice
0.3173
0.3311
-0.0138
0.66
682
696
Number of Vaccine carrier belong to this
private practice
1.3917
1.3308
0.0609
0.22
683
697
Number of [...] served for government
service: Baby (0-11 months) BCG
vaccination
1.2281
1.1211
0.107
0.28
682
696
Number of [...] served for government
service: Baby (0-11months) Anti Polio
vaccination
11.1962
13.5273
-2.3311
0.16
684
698
Number of [...] served for government
service: Baby (0-11months) Hep B
vaccination
28.2721
31.4675
-3.1953
0.35
684
698
Number of [...] served for government
service: Baby (0-11 months) DPT
vaccination
12.9397
14.6542
-1.7145
0.43
684
698
Number of [...] served for government
service: Baby (0-11 months) Measle
vaccination
6.4253
8.8706
-2.4453
0.07
684
698
June 2008
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Treatment
Control
Difference
p
NT
NC
Number of [...] served for government
service: Baby (0-11 months) DPT-Hb
Combo vaccination
9.4843
12.8151
-3.3308
0.04
684
698
Number of [...] served for government
service: Pregnant mother given TT
vaccination
18.8646
20.7003
-1.8356
0.48
684
698
Number of [...] served for government
service: K1 pregnant mother visit
16.0758
18.5586
-2.4827
0.39
684
698
Number of [...] served for government
service: K4 pregnant mother visit
9.7575
11.7203
-1.9628
0.1
684
698
Number of [...] served for government
service: Pregnant mother with compl/high
risk treated
8.6781
9.9446
-1.2665
0.22
684
698
Number of [...] served for government
service: Pregnant mother with compl/high
risk referred
1.1785
1.0648
0.1136
0.61
684
698
Number of [...] served for government
service: Mother in labour with compl/high
risk treated
0.5089
0.571
-0.0621
0.46
684
698
Number of [...] served for government
service: Mother in labour with compl/high
risk referred
0.4691
0.5148
-0.0457
0.75
684
698
Number of [...] served for government
service: Delivery
0.5738
0.6885
-0.1147
0.31
684
698
Number of [...] served for government
service: Neonatal visit
4.3097
6.1581
-1.8483
0.04
684
698
Number of [...] served for government
service: Child under 5 weighed
7.7839
9.4438
-1.6599
0.14
684
698
149.3173
161.3488
-12.0315
0.25
684
698
Number of [...] served for government
service: Mother in confinement given high
dose vit A
7.4021
7.9429
-0.5408
0.64
684
698
Number of [...] served for government
service: Pregnant mother given bloodregeneration tablets
7.8345
14.0945
-6.26
0.02
684
698
Number of [...] served for government
service: Mother in confinement given
blood-regeneration tablets
15.5373
18.5056
-2.9683
0.22
684
698
Number of [...] served for private service:
Baby (0-11 months) BCG vaccination
7.8802
8.3483
-0.4681
0.74
684
698
Number of [...] served for private service:
Baby (0-11 months) Anti Polio vaccination
1.5855
1.6224
-0.037
0.91
684
698
Number of [...] served for private service:
Baby (0-11 months) Hep B vaccination
2.8705
2.3802
0.4903
0.26
684
698
Number of [...] served for private service:
Baby (0-11 months) DPT vaccination
1.6386
2.1144
-0.4758
0.24
684
698
Number of [...] served for private service:
Baby (0-11 months) Measle vaccination
0.6709
1.2372
-0.5663
0.03
684
698
Number of [...] served for government
service: Child under 5 weight under Red
Line of HMC
June 2008
97
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
98
Treatment
Control
Difference
p
NT
NC
Number of [...] served for private service:
Baby (0-11 months) DPT-Hb Combo
vaccination
0.9852
0.9738
0.0114
0.95
684
698
Number of [...] served for private service:
Pregnant mother given TT vaccination
2.5629
2.2892
0.2736
0.49
684
698
Number of [...] served for private service: K1
pregnant mother visit
3.219
3.9196
-0.7006
0.11
684
698
Number of [...] served for private service: K4
pregnant mother visit
3.2277
4.3537
-1.126
0
684
698
Number of [...] served for private service:
Pregnant mother with compl/high risk
treated
3.4856
4.0546
-0.5689
0.14
684
698
Number of [...] served for private service:
Pregnant mother with compl/high risk
referred
0.387
0.4029
-0.0159
0.81
684
698
Number of [...] served for private service:
Mother in labour with compl/high risk
treated
0.4484
0.3521
0.0964
0.12
684
698
Number of [...] served for private service:
Mother in labour with compl/high risk
referred
0.2599
0.2605
-0.0005
0.99
684
698
Number of [...] served for private service:
Delivery
0.4619
0.4069
0.055
0.42
684
698
Number of [...] served for private service:
Neonatal visit
3.6581
3.7832
-0.1252
0.69
684
698
Number of [...] served for private service:
Child under 5 weighed
3.9636
4.5385
-0.575
0.14
684
698
Number of [...] served for private service:
Child under 5 weight under Red Line of
HMC
16.6966
24.4706
-7.774
0.04
684
698
Number of [...] served for private service:
Mother in confinement given high dose
vit A
0.6001
0.7329
-0.1328
0.48
684
698
Number of [...] served for private service:
Pregnant mother given blood-regeneration
tablets
3.1002
2.9304
0.1698
0.6
684
698
Number of [...] served for private service:
Mother in confinement given bloodregeneration tablets
7.1722
8.1123
-0.9401
0.37
684
698
Number of [...] served for government and
private service: Baby (0-11months) BCG
vaccination
4.0089
3.5786
0.4303
0.58
684
698
Number of [...] served for government and
private service: Baby (0-11 months) Anti
Polio vaccination
12.7816
15.1497
-2.3681
0.16
684
698
Number of [...] served for government and
private service: Baby (0-11 months) Hep B
vaccination
31.1427
33.8477
-2.705
0.44
684
698
Number of [...] served for government and
private service: Baby (0-11 months) DPT
vaccination
14.5783
16.7686
-2.1903
0.32
684
698
June 2008
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Treatment
Control
Difference
p
NT
NC
Number of [...] served for government and
private service: Baby (0-11 months) Measle
vaccination
7.0962
10.1078
-3.0115
0.03
684
698
Number of [...] served for government and
private service: Baby (0-11 months) DPT-Hb
Combo vaccination
10.4696
13.789
-3.3194
0.04
684
698
Number of [...] served for government and
private service: Pregnant mother given TT
vaccination
21.4275
22.9895
-1.562
0.56
684
698
Number of [...] served for government and
private service: K1 pregnant mother visit
19.2948
22.4782
-3.1834
0.28
684
698
Number of [...] served for government and
private service: K4 pregnant mother visit
12.9852
16.074
-3.0887
0.02
684
698
Number of [...] served for government
and private service: Pregnant mother with
compl/high risk treated
12.1637
13.9991
-1.8354
0.11
684
698
Number of [...] served for government
and private service: Pregnant mother with
compl/high risk referred
1.5654
1.4677
0.0977
0.69
684
698
Number of [...] served for government
and private service: Mother in labour with
compl/high risk treated
0.9573
0.923
0.0342
0.76
684
698
Number of [...] served for government
and private service: Mother in labour with
compl/high risk referred
0.729
0.7752
-0.0462
0.77
684
698
Number of [...] served for government and
private service: Delivery
1.0357
1.0954
-0.0597
0.68
684
698
Number of [...] served for government and
private service: Neonatal visit
7.9678
9.9413
-1.9735
0.04
684
698
Number of [...] served for government and
private service: Child under 5 weighed
11.7475
13.9824
-2.2349
0.06
684
698
Number of [...] served for government and
private service: Child under 5 weight under
Red Line of HMC
166.0139
185.8194
-19.8055
0.08
684
698
Number of [...] served for government and
private service: Mother in confinement
given high dose vit A
8.0022
8.6758
-0.6737
0.56
684
698
Number of [...] served for government and
private service: Pregnant mother given
blood-regeneration tablets
10.9347
17.0249
-6.0902
0.02
684
698
Number of [...] served for government and
private service: Mother in confinement
given blood-regeneration tablets
22.7095
26.6179
-3.9084
0.15
684
698
Available medicine/vaccine for
government health service: Disposable
syringe 1ml (sets)
11.889
11.9269
-0.0379
0.98
684
698
Available medicine/vaccine for
government health service: Disposable
syringe 2.5ml (sets)
69.5608
55.1987
14.3621
0.46
684
698
June 2008
99
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Treatment
Control
Difference
p
NT
NC
Available medicine/vaccine for
government health service: Disposable
syringe 5ml (sets)
68.0421
70.0593
-2.0172
0.88
684
698
Available medicine/vaccine for
government health service: Amoxilline
capsule 250mg (capsules)
30.3927
22.6855
7.7073
0.19
684
698
Available medicine/vaccine for
government health service: Amoxilline
caplet 500mg (caplets)
109.9523
114.4538
-4.5015
0.88
684
698
Available medicine/vaccine for
government health service: Amoxilline dry
syrup 125mg/5ml (bottles)
220.9374
303.6268
-82.6894
0.11
684
698
Available medicine/vaccine for
government health service: Ampicillin
caplet 500mg (caplets)
23.5937
13.5453
10.0484
0.01
684
698
Available medicine/vaccine for
government health service: Ampicillin dry
syrup 125mg/5ml (bottles)
19.1528
27.1816
-8.0288
0.25
684
698
Available medicine/vaccine for
government health service: Antalgin tablet
500mg (tablets)
3.969
4.0457
-0.0767
0.96
684
698
468.3106
370.4547
97.8559
0.13
684
698
Available medicine/vaccine for
government health service: Paracetamol
syrup 120mg/5ml-60ml (bottles)
6.3912
18.6229
-12.2317
0.03
684
698
Available medicine/vaccine for
government health service: Paracetamol
tablet 100mg (tablets)
16.0645
16.0877
-0.0232
0.99
684
698
Available medicine/vaccine for
government health service: Paracetamol
tablet 500mg (tablets)
119.3971
75.1743
44.2228
0.02
684
698
Available medicine/vaccine for
government health service: Vit A for
children under 5 (capsules)
554.4069
517.4304
36.9764
0.6
684
698
Available medicine/vaccine for private
health service: Disposable syringe 1ml
(sets)
133.3531
158.1156
-24.7626
0.5
684
698
Available medicine/vaccine for private
health service: Disposable syringe 2.5ml
(sets)
20.4935
23.3584
-2.865
0.3
684
698
Available medicine/vaccine for private
health service: Disposable syringe 5ml
(sets)
45.5661
58.3834
-12.8173
0
684
698
Available medicine/vaccine for private
health service: Amoxilline capsule 250mg
(capsules)
19.319
20.6793
-1.3604
0.55
684
698
Available medicine/vaccine for private
health service: Amoxilline caplet 500mg
(caplets)
23.6419
31.4715
-7.8296
0.09
684
698
Available medicine/vaccine for
government health service: Antalgin
injection 250mg/ml-2ml (ampules)
100
June 2008
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Treatment
Control
Difference
p
NT
NC
Available medicine/vaccine for private
health service: Amoxilline dry syrup
125mg/5ml (bottles)
122.9557
137.0442
-14.0884
0.24
684
698
Available medicine/vaccine for private
health service: Ampicillin caplet 500mg
(caplets)
10.0575
10.6363
-0.5788
0.6
684
698
Available medicine/vaccine for private
health service: Ampicillin dry syrup 125mg/
5ml (bottles)
23.7575
25.3024
-1.5449
0.72
684
698
Available medicine/vaccine for private
health service: Antalgin tablet 500mg
(tablets)
3.2815
3.7502
-0.4687
0.65
684
698
Available medicine/vaccine for private
health service: Antalgin injection 250mg/
ml-2ml (ampules)
150.4119
158.7912
-8.3794
0.59
684
698
Available medicine/vaccine for private
health service: Paracetamol syrup 120mg/
5ml-60ml (bottles)
1.8814
3.4156
-1.5342
0.07
684
698
Available medicine/vaccine for private
health service: Paracetamol tablet 100mg
(tablets)
10.8794
13.024
-2.1446
0.25
684
698
Available medicine/vaccine for private
health service: Paracetamol tablet 500mg
(tablets)
40.9243
39.997
0.9273
0.9
684
698
Available medicine/vaccine for private
health service: Vit A for children under 5
(capsule)
278.3885
295.386
-16.9975
0.42
684
698
Avg hrs per day spent on public services
(hours)
18.1807
20.2509
-2.0703
0.5
684
698
Avg hrs per day spent on private services
(hours)
5.3716
5.5273
-0.1558
0.34
672
685
Government price: general treatment (Rp.)
4.118
3.9944
0.1236
0.53
684
698
Government price: pregnancy check up
(Rp.)
3193.906
4073.9914
-880.0854
0.48
521
539
Government price: normal delivery (Rp.)
2292.9349
2528.7669
-235.8321
0.78
634
649
Government price: delivery with
complication (Rp.)
164491.2373
143881.6087
20609.629
0.05
580
599
Government price: BCG (babies) (Rp.)
219717.3178
173180.4700
46536.848
0.22
246
242
Government price: Anti Polio (babies) (Rp.)
1153.7718
902.0527
251.7191
0.47
530
517
Government price: DPT (babies) (Rp.)
1486.6028
778.4014
708.2014
0.28
526
520
Government price: Measle (babies) (Rp.)
890.7268
881.3793
9.3475
0.92
519
509
Government price: Hepatitis B (babies)
(Rp.)
922.5215
865.2048
57.3167
0.54
525
518
Government price: TT (pregnant mom)
(Rp.)
893.9026
991.6297
-97.7271
0.36
532
532
Government price: Fam planning
consultation (Rp.)
1103.5044
1237.8751
-134.3708
0.28
596
586
Government price: Fam planning pills (Rp.)
594.8711
542.1157
52.7554
0.64
624
630
Government price: Fam planning injection
(Rp.)
1505.2443
1535.3478
-30.1035
0.81
606
620
June 2008
101
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Treatment
Control
Difference
p
NT
NC
Government price: IUD insertion (Rp.)
5546.4761
4970.9035
575.5726
0.1
627
640
Government price: IUD retraction (Rp.)
18104.8226
15435.3305
2669.4921
0.14
354
367
Government price: Subcutaneous
contraceptive insertion (Rp.)
11585.159
10803.3773
781.7817
0.41
373
387
Government price: Subcutaneous
contraceptive retraction (Rp.)
30337.4336
26755.8977
3581.5359
0.26
323
370
Government price: Contraceptive side
effects (Rp.)
17537.5667
15695.6522
1841.9145
0.23
365
400
Private price: general treatment (Rp.)
2754.4932
3584.3046
-829.8113
0.04
462
457
Private price: pregnancy check up (Rp.)
13109.1293
13031.7356
77.3937
0.89
530
546
Private price: normal delivery (Rp.)
11868.3966
12251.5183
-383.1217
0.37
657
674
Private price: delivery with complication
(Rp.)
316824.5805
3.18E+05
-820.3602
0.91
634
661
Private price: BCG (babies) (Rp.)
378367.5822
4.33E+05
-54590.85
0.02
267
268
Private price: Anti Polio (babies) (Rp.)
4859.459
4652.3074
207.1516
0.66
457
434
Private price: DPT (babies) (Rp.)
4909.782
3501.6785
1408.1035
0.37
448
433
Private price: Measle (babies) (Rp.)
4201.3308
4124.0225
77.3083
0.85
441
422
Private price: Hepatitis B (babies) (Rp.)
4372.6827
4632.4028
-259.7201
0.55
450
428
Private price: TT (pregnant mom) (Rp.)
4166.4249
4712.2295
-545.8046
0.23
458
451
Private price: Fam planning consultation
(Rp.)
4678.1761
5010.0915
-331.9153
0.38
554
542
Private price: Fam planning pills (Rp.)
1139.3007
1131.363
7.9377
0.97
621
627
Private price: Fam planning injection (Rp.)
6636.2445
5074.96
1561.2845
0.19
629
643
Private price: IUD insertion (Rp.)
11400.307
11218.9106
181.3964
0.62
653
670
Private price: IUD retraction (Rp.)
79000.7582
79877.9283
-877.1702
0.85
347
362
Private price: Subcutaneous contraceptive
insertion (Rp.)
32609.074
28753.9876
3855.0864
0.05
375
385
Private price: Subcutaneous contraceptive
retraction (Rp.)
93974.359
94237.484
-263.125
0.96
313
356
Private price: Contraceptive side effects
(Rp.)
37750.4904
38185.8693
-435.3789
0.87
358
391
Private price: Contraceptive side effects
(Rp.)
12634.1308
12931.3137
-297.1829
0.71
469
467
Note: Results reflect fractions unless stated otherwise.
102
June 2008
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Table 50
Midwife characteristics for community CCT treatment and control groups
Variable
Age (year)
Midwife’s last educ: SMA
Midwife’s last educ: 1-yr
diploma prog
Midwife’s last educ: 2-yr
diploma prog
Midwife’s last educ: 3-yr
diploma prog
Midwife’s last educ: 4-yr
diploma prog
Midwife’s last educ: other
Midwife belong to a midwife
association
Work at government health
service facility
Status: Government
employee PNS
Status: Government
employee PTT
Status: Local govt contract
Status: Volunteer
No status since not work at
govt health service facility
Position: Head of facility
Position: Coordinating
midwife
Position: Midwife
Position: Village midwife
Distance of private practice
to government service
facility (Kilometer)
Place of private practice:
government owned facility
Place of private practice:
home
Place of private practice:
other
Place of private practice: no
place
Water source: piped water
(PAM)
Water source: pumped well
Water source: well
Water source: rain
Water source: lake
Water source: spring
Water source: river
Water source: packed water
Water source: other
Water source: inside house
Have latrine
Latrine: own with septic tank
Treatment
I
34.8757
0.0469
Treatment
NI
34.8647
0.0329
34.5863
0.0301
Difference
I–C
0.2895
0.0168
0.6
0.22
Difference
NI – C
0.2785
0.0029
0.62
0.84
N
I
374
377
N
NI
381
382
N
C
382
383
0.6109
0.6856
0.6753
-0.0644
0.06
0.0103
0.77
377
382
383
0.0127
0.002
0.0041
0.0086
0.14
-0.0022
0.71
377
382
383
0.3001
0.2515
0.2749
0.0252
0.44
-0.0234
0.47
377
382
383
0.0205
0.023
0.0135
0.007
0.48
0.0095
0.34
377
382
383
0
0.001
0
0
1
0.001
0.46
377
382
383
0.9687
0.9681
0.9512
0.0175
0.2
0.0168
0.22
377
382
383
0.9707
0.985
0.9855
-0.0148
0.14
-0.0004
0.96
377
382
383
0.7664
0.7894
0.7459
0.0205
0.5
0.0436
0.16
377
382
383
0.1789
0.1737
0.1992
-0.0203
0.47
-0.0255
0.37
377
382
383
0.0176
0.0039
0.014
0.002
0.0353
0
-0.0177
0.0039
0.1
0.23
-0.0213
0.002
0.05
0.54
377
377
382
382
383
383
0.0205
0.011
0.0124
0.0081
0.36
-0.0015
0.87
377
382
383
0.0235
0.018
0.0249
-0.0014
0.89
-0.0069
0.52
377
382
383
0.1691
0.1377
0.1483
0.0208
0.43
-0.0106
0.69
377
382
383
0.2727
0.5054
0.2375
0.5918
0.2178
0.5944
0.0549
-0.089
0.08
0.01
0.0197
-0.0026
0.53
0.94
377
377
382
382
383
383
2.9028
3.2972
3.0861
-0.1833
0.63
0.211
0.58
365
377
377
0.261
0.2405
0.2355
0.0255
0.41
0.005
0.87
377
382
383
0.6784
0.6766
0.6815
-0.0031
0.93
-0.0049
0.89
377
382
383
0.0518
0.0689
0.0788
-0.027
0.13
-0.01
0.58
377
382
383
0
0.01
0.0021
-0.0021
0.65
0.0079
0.09
377
382
383
0.305
0.2136
0.1857
0.1193
0
0.0279
0.37
377
382
383
0.2796
0.1955
0.001
0
0.2102
0
0
0
0.7146
0.9736
0.9374
0.4291
0.1537
0.011
0
0.1717
0.002
0.001
0.004
0.7016
0.9711
0.9481
0.4087
0.1784
0.0041
0
0.2095
0.0083
0.001
0.0021
0.6846
0.9595
0.9429
-0.1291
0.0171
-0.0032
0
0.0006
-0.0083
-0.001
-0.0021
0.0299
0.0141
-0.0055
0
0.54
0.55
.
0.98
0.05
0.58
0.52
0.37
0.27
0.74
0.0204
-0.0247
0.0068
0
-0.0379
-0.0063
0
0.0019
0.0169
0.0115
0.0052
0.56
0.37
0.2
.
0.19
0.13
0.98
0.56
0.61
0.37
0.76
377
377
377
377
377
377
377
377
377
377
377
382
382
382
382
382
382
382
382
382
382
382
383
383
383
383
383
383
383
383
383
383
383
Control
p
p
June 2008
103
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Latrine: own without septic
tank
Latrine: common or public
Do not have latrine
Have electricity
Electricity source: PLN
Electricity source: puskesmas
generator
Electricity source:
community generator
Electricity source: own
generator
Electricity source:
puskesmas/comm/own
generator
Electricity source: solar PV
Number of beds in private
practice place
Number of assistants: total
Number of assistants:
midwife
Number of assistants: nurse
Number of assistants: other
Keep separate books/adm
between private & govt
services
Ever supervised by
Puskesmas
Last month income:
puskemas (‘1000 Rp.)
Last month income:
reimbursement (‘1000 Rp.)
Last month income: private
practice (‘1000 Rp.)
Last month income: other
medical practice (‘1000 Rp.)
Last month total income
(‘1000 Rp.)
Last month total spending:
transport,medicine,equipm
ent,other, fee to puskesmas
(‘1000 Rp.)
Last month net income
(‘1000 Rp.)
Number of children given
high dose vit A last 6 months
Serve at posyandu last
month
Number of posyandu served
last month
Avg time spent at posyandu
each visit (minutes)
Number of babies/children
under 5 visit posyandu last
month (percent)
104
June 2008
Treatment
I
Treatment
NI
Control
Difference
I–C
p
Difference
NI – C
p
N
I
N
NI
N
C
0.0362
0.023
0.0166
0.0196
0.09
0.0064
0.58
377
382
383
0.0088
0.0088
0.9697
0.9257
0.007
0.018
0.9401
0.8992
0.0145
0.0239
0.9678
0.8921
-0.0057
-0.0151
0.0019
0.0336
0.43
0.11
0.9
0.11
-0.0075
-0.0059
-0.0277
0.0071
0.3
0.53
0.05
0.74
377
377
377
377
382
382
382
382
383
383
383
383
0.0098
0.014
0.0093
0.0004
0.95
0.0046
0.54
377
382
383
0.0059
0.004
0.0166
-0.0107
0.11
-0.0126
0.06
377
382
383
0.0156
0.023
0.0405
-0.0248
0.03
-0.0175
0.13
377
382
383
0.0313
0.0409
0.0664
-0.0351
0.02
-0.0255
0.09
377
382
383
0.0088
0
0.0093
-0.0005
0.92
-0.0093
0.1
377
382
383
1.9911
1.9759
1.7963
0.1949
0.09
0.1796
0.12
374
380
382
0.5914
0.513
0.5436
0.0478
0.69
-0.0306
0.8
377
382
383
0.2278
0.1687
0.1577
0.0701
0.2
0.011
0.84
377
382
383
0.1681
0.1955
0.1387
0.2056
0.1234
0.2624
0.0447
-0.0669
0.27
0.44
0.0153
-0.0569
0.71
0.51
377
377
382
382
383
383
0.7488
0.7585
0.7127
0.0361
0.26
0.0458
0.15
377
382
383
0.6391
0.6824
0.684
-0.0449
0.19
-0.0016
0.96
374
381
382
1220.5729
1177.6849
1205.9933
14.5797
0.72
-28.3083
0.5
377
382
383
173.8387
112.1103
164.0472
9.7915
0.73
-51.9369
0.07
377
382
383
1528.9355
1636.3529
1446.2676
82.6678
0.57
190.0853
0.19
377
382
383
60.6256
41.8313
78.1473
-17.5217
0.39
-36.316
0.08
377
382
383
2983.9727
2967.9795
2894.4554
89.5173
0.59
73.5241
0.66
377
382
383
976.7196
954.8504
877.7087
99.0109
0.2
77.1417
0.32
377
382
383
2007.2531
2013.1291
2016.7467
-9.4936
0.94
-3.6176
0.98
377
382
383
180.1825
192.7869
176.7821
3.4004
0.82
16.0049
0.28
358
347
347
0.8573
0.8962
0.888
-0.0307
0.19
0.0082
0.73
377
382
383
4.2828
4.529
4.4813
-0.1985
0.39
0.0476
0.84
328
346
345
200.6499
201.9766
206.6075
-5.9575
0.35
-4.6309
0.47
328
346
345
71.0879
71.8213
72.6773
-1.5894
0.21
-0.856
0.5
327
343
341
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Number of Hb Meter belong
to this private practice
Number of Forceps belong
to this private practice
Number of Vaginal
Speculum belong to this
private practice
Number of Tenaculum
belong to this private
practice
Number of Uterus Sonde
belong to this private
practice
Number of Gynecological
table belong to this private
practice
Number of Clamps belong
to this private practice
Number of Oxygen canister
belong to this private
practice
Number of Incubator belong
to this private practice
Number of Weighing kit
belong to this private
practice
Number of Vaccine carrier
belong to this private
practice
Number of [...] served
for government service:
Baby (0-11 months) BCG
vaccination
Number of [...] served for
government service: Baby
(0-11months) Anti Polio
vaccination
Number of [...] served
for government service:
Baby (0-11months) Hep B
vaccination
Number of [...] served
for government service:
Baby (0-11 months) DPT
vaccination
Number of [...] served for
government service: Baby
(0-11 months) Measle
vaccination
Number of [...] served for
government service: Baby
(0-11 months) DPT-Hb
Combo vaccination
Number of [...] served
for government service:
Pregnant mother given TT
vaccination
Treatment
I
Treatment
NI
Control
Difference
I–C
p
Difference
NI – C
p
N
I
N
NI
N
C
0.991
1.0162
0.9376
0.0534
0.4
0.0786
0.22
371
378
382
0.3386
0.1706
0.1104
0.2282
0
0.0601
0.41
371
378
381
2.7789
2.6751
2.2713
0.5076
0.01
0.4038
0.05
371
378
382
1.1882
1.1645
0.9293
0.2589
0.01
0.2352
0.01
371
378
382
1.4402
1.268
1.0686
0.3716
0
0.1994
0.06
371
378
382
0.495
0.4772
0.4027
0.0923
0.04
0.0744
0.1
371
378
380
2.9253
3.1858
2.8445
0.0808
0.7
0.3413
0.11
371
378
381
0.2873
0.397
0.2817
0.0056
0.89
0.1152
0.01
372
378
382
0.1394
0.2273
0.1281
0.0113
0.73
0.0992
0
371
377
381
1.3469
1.6061
1.4439
-0.0969
0.37
0.1622
0.13
372
378
382
0.9821
1.5086
0.9491
0.033
0.9
0.5596
0.03
372
378
382
8.5888
14.3547
13.1445
-4.5557
0.04
1.2102
0.59
374
381
382
25.002
31.5541
34.053
-9.051
0.11
-2.4989
0.66
374
381
382
17.5493
16.7465
20.526
-2.9767
0.5
-3.7795
0.39
374
381
382
14.0828
11.0631
16.5603
-2.4775
0.48
-5.4972
0.12
374
381
382
9.9349
11.3848
9.6019
0.333
0.87
1.7829
0.38
374
381
382
9.5897
22.2124
15.6435
-6.0537
0.12
6.569
0.09
374
381
382
13.9852
16.3287
15.7297
-1.7445
0.56
0.5989
0.84
374
381
382
June 2008
105
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Number of [...] served for
government service: K1
pregnant mother visit
Number of [...] served for
government service: K4
pregnant mother visit
Number of [...] served
for government service:
Pregnant mother with
compl/high risk treated
Number of [...] served
for government service:
Pregnant mother with
compl/high risk referred
Number of [...] served for
government service: Mother
in labour with compl/high
risk treated
Number of [...] served for
government service: Mother
in labour with compl/high
risk referred
Number of [...] served
for government service:
Delivery
Number of [...] served
for government service:
Neonatal visit
Number of [...] served for
government service: Child
under 5 weighed
Number of [...] served for
government service: Child
under 5 weight under Red
Line of HMC
Number of [...] served for
government service: Mother
in confinement given high
dose vit A
Number of [...] served
for government service:
Pregnant mother given
blood-regeneration tablets
Number of [...] served for
government service: Mother
in confinement given bloodregeneration tablets
Number of [...] served for
private service: Baby (0-11
months) BCG vaccination
Number of [...] served
for private service: Baby
(0-11 months) Anti Polio
vaccination
Number of [...] served for
private service: Baby (0-11
months) Hep B vaccination
106
June 2008
Treatment
I
Treatment
NI
Control
Difference
I–C
p
Difference
NI – C
p
N
I
N
NI
N
C
12.8767
13.5591
10.2245
2.6522
0.28
3.3346
0.17
374
381
382
11.4704
11.3086
8.448
3.0224
0.15
2.8606
0.17
374
381
382
2.4093
1.2575
1.6008
0.8084
0.08
-0.3433
0.46
374
381
382
0.7416
1.0591
0.92
-0.1783
0.51
0.1392
0.61
374
381
382
0.6834
0.8647
0.5457
0.1377
0.67
0.319
0.33
374
381
382
0.8402
0.9088
0.5249
0.3153
0.18
0.3839
0.1
374
381
382
8.2939
7.7445
7.2121
1.0818
0.61
0.5324
0.8
374
381
382
10.1026
14.9128
9.9335
0.1691
0.95
4.9794
0.06
374
381
382
131.8905
164.1353
145.1268
-13.2363
0.3
19.0085
0.14
374
381
382
13.7525
11.4649
13.4127
0.3398
0.91
-1.9478
0.53
374
381
382
5.5897
11.8196
8.9886
-3.3988
0.16
2.8311
0.25
374
381
382
16.6223
23.2715
18.5852
-1.963
0.49
4.6863
0.1
374
381
382
7.1114
10.9739
8.4699
-1.3584
0.39
2.5041
0.11
374
381
382
0.9093
0.8106
0.4085
0.5007
0.02
0.4021
0.05
374
381
382
1.5266
1.1363
0.9543
0.5724
0.1
0.182
0.6
374
381
382
1.141
1.3046
0.973
0.1681
0.56
0.3316
0.25
374
381
382
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Number of [...] served for
private service: Baby (0-11
months) DPT vaccination
Number of [...] served for
private service: Baby (0-11
months) Measle vaccination
Number of [...] served for
private service: Baby (0-11
months) DPT-Hb Combo
vaccination
Number of [...] served for
private service: Pregnant
mother given TT vaccination
Number of [...] served for
private service: K1 pregnant
mother visit
Number of [...] served for
private service: K4 pregnant
mother visit
Number of [...] served for
private service: Pregnant
mother with compl/high risk
treated
Number of [...] served for
private service: Pregnant
mother with compl/high risk
referred
Number of [...] served for
private service: Mother in
labour with compl/high risk
treated
Number of [...] served for
private service: Mother in
labour with compl/high risk
referred
Number of [...] served for
private service: Delivery
Number of [...] served for
private service: Neonatal
visit
Number of [...] served for
private service: Child under
5 weighed
Number of [...] served for
private service: Child under
5 weight under Red Line of
HMC
Number of [...] served for
private service: Mother in
confinement given high
dose vit A
Number of [...] served for
private service: Pregnant
mother given bloodregeneration tablets
Treatment
I
Treatment
NI
Control
Difference
I–C
p
Difference
NI – C
p
N
I
N
NI
N
C
0.499
0.4589
0.4979
0.0011
1
-0.039
0.85
374
381
382
0.3767
0.49
0.316
0.0607
0.62
0.174
0.16
374
381
382
1.1292
0.8236
0.7339
0.3953
0.09
0.0898
0.7
374
381
382
2.2209
1.8928
2.0561
0.1648
0.66
-0.1633
0.66
374
381
382
2.5976
3.4289
2.4033
0.1943
0.7
1.0255
0.04
374
381
382
2.789
2.2916
2.1871
0.6018
0.22
0.1045
0.83
374
381
382
0.288
0.1814
0.3087
-0.0208
0.73
-0.1274
0.03
374
381
382
0.2633
0.3707
0.3462
-0.0828
0.19
0.0246
0.7
374
381
382
0.1963
0.1723
0.1653
0.031
0.61
0.0071
0.91
374
381
382
0.2229
0.2645
0.2755
-0.0526
0.31
-0.0109
0.83
374
381
382
3.0168
3.024
2.8129
0.2039
0.53
0.2112
0.51
374
381
382
3.0611
3.0721
3.1601
-0.0989
0.8
-0.0879
0.82
374
381
382
8.4714
11.1353
9.4917
-1.0203
0.76
1.6436
0.62
374
381
382
0.5069
0.3016
0.264
0.2429
0.16
0.0376
0.83
374
381
382
2.1124
2.2856
2.3046
-0.1921
0.49
-0.019
0.95
374
381
382
5.6617
6.0862
5.7464
-0.0846
0.93
0.3398
0.71
374
381
382
June 2008
107
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Number of [...] served for
private service: Mother in
confinement given bloodregeneration tablets
Number of [...] served for
government and private
service: Baby (0-11months)
BCG vaccination
Number of [...] served for
government and private
service: Baby (0-11 months)
Anti Polio vaccination
Number of [...] served for
government and private
service: Baby (0-11 months)
Hep B vaccination
Number of [...] served for
government and private
service: Baby (0-11 months)
DPT vaccination
Number of [...] served for
government and private
service: Baby (0-11 months)
Measle vaccination
Number of [...] served for
government and private
service: Baby (0-11 months)
DPT-Hb Combo vaccination
Number of [...] served for
government and private
service: Pregnant mother
given TT vaccination
Number of [...] served for
government and private
service: K1 pregnant mother
visit
Number of [...] served for
government and private
service: K4 pregnant mother
visit
Number of [...] served for
government and private
service: Pregnant mother
with compl/high risk treated
Number of [...] served for
government and private
service: Pregnant mother
with compl/high risk
referred
Number of [...] served for
government and private
service: Mother in labour
with compl/high risk treated
Number of [...] served for
government and private
service: Mother in labour
with compl/high risk
referred
108
June 2008
Treatment
I
Treatment
NI
Control
Difference
I–C
p
Difference
NI – C
p
N
I
N
NI
N
C
3.4763
3.1653
2.2703
1.2061
0.07
0.8951
0.17
374
381
382
9.498
15.1653
13.553
-4.055
0.07
1.6123
0.48
374
381
382
26.5286
32.6904
35.0073
-8.4787
0.14
-2.3169
0.69
374
381
382
18.6903
18.0511
21.499
-2.8086
0.53
-3.4479
0.44
374
381
382
14.5819
11.522
17.0582
-2.4764
0.49
-5.5362
0.12
374
381
382
10.3116
11.8747
9.9179
0.3938
0.85
1.9569
0.33
374
381
382
10.7189
23.0361
16.3773
-5.6584
0.15
6.6587
0.09
374
381
382
16.2061
18.2214
17.7859
-1.5797
0.61
0.4356
0.89
374
381
382
15.4744
16.988
12.6279
2.8465
0.27
4.3601
0.09
374
381
382
14.2594
13.6002
10.6351
3.6242
0.11
2.9651
0.19
374
381
382
2.6972
1.4389
1.9096
0.7877
0.09
-0.4707
0.32
374
381
382
1.0049
1.4299
1.2661
-0.2612
0.37
0.1637
0.57
374
381
382
0.8797
1.0371
0.711
0.1687
0.62
0.3261
0.33
374
381
382
1.0631
1.1733
0.8004
0.2627
0.28
0.3729
0.13
374
381
382
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Number of [...] served for
government and private
service: Delivery
Number of [...] served for
government and private
service: Neonatal visit
Number of [...] served for
government and private
service: Child under 5
weighed
Number of [...] served for
government and private
service: Child under 5 weight
under Red Line of HMC
Number of [...] served
for government and
private service: Mother in
confinement given high
dose vit A
Number of [...] served for
government and private
service: Pregnant mother
given blood-regeneration
tablets
Number of [...] served
for government and
private service: Mother in
confinement given bloodregeneration tablets
Available medicine/vaccine
for government health
service: Disposable syringe
1ml (sets)
Available medicine/vaccine
for government health
service: Disposable syringe
2.5ml (sets)
Available medicine/vaccine
for government health
service: Disposable syringe
5ml (sets)
Available medicine/vaccine
for government health
service: Amoxilline capsule
250mg (capsules)
Available medicine/vaccine
for government health
service: Amoxilline caplet
500mg (caplets)
Available medicine/vaccine
for government health
service: Amoxilline dry syrup
125mg/5ml (bottles)
Available medicine/vaccine
for government health
service: Ampicillin caplet
500mg (caplets)
Treatment
I
Treatment
NI
Control
Difference
I–C
p
Difference
NI – C
p
N
I
N
NI
N
C
11.3107
10.7685
10.0249
1.2857
0.55
0.7436
0.73
374
381
382
13.1637
17.985
13.0936
0.0702
0.98
4.8914
0.07
374
381
382
140.3619
175.2705
154.6185
-14.2566
0.28
20.652
0.12
374
381
382
14.2594
11.7665
13.6767
0.5827
0.85
-1.9102
0.54
374
381
382
7.7022
14.1052
11.2931
-3.591
0.14
2.8121
0.25
374
381
382
22.284
29.3577
24.3316
-2.0476
0.51
5.0261
0.1
374
381
382
10.5878
14.1393
10.7401
-0.1524
0.93
3.3992
0.06
374
381
382
20.3984
48.1954
36.5873
-16.1889
0.21
11.6081
0.37
374
381
382
92.4241
56.5441
71.6965
20.7276
0.38
-15.1524
0.52
374
381
382
43.4497
32.489
24.7121
18.7376
0.23
7.7769
0.62
374
381
382
176.8777
176.7605
122.8368
54.0409
0.2
53.9237
0.2
374
381
382
267.5907
355.3527
231.5156
36.0751
0.67
123.8371
0.15
374
381
382
18.0158
37.2806
26.262
-8.2462
0.59
11.0186
0.48
374
381
382
96.1834
71.6222
46.5988
49.5847
0.17
25.0235
0.49
374
381
382
June 2008
109
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Available medicine/vaccine
for government health
service: Ampicillin dry syrup
125mg/5ml (bottles)
Available medicine/vaccine
for government health
service: Antalgin tablet
500mg (tablets)
Available medicine/vaccine
for government health
service: Antalgin injection
250mg/ml-2ml (ampules)
Available medicine/vaccine
for government health
service: Paracetamol syrup
120mg/5ml-60ml (bottles)
Available medicine/vaccine
for government health
service: Paracetamol tablet
100mg (tablets)
Available medicine/vaccine
for government health
service: Paracetamol tablet
500mg (tablets)
Available medicine/vaccine
for government health
service: Vit A for children
under 5 (capsules)
Available medicine/vaccine
for private health service:
Disposable syringe 1ml (sets)
Available medicine/vaccine
for private health service:
Disposable syringe 2.5ml
(sets)
Available medicine/vaccine
for private health service:
Disposable syringe 5ml (sets)
Available medicine/vaccine
for private health service:
Amoxilline capsule 250mg
(capsules)
Available medicine/vaccine
for private health service:
Amoxilline caplet 500mg
(caplets)
Available medicine/vaccine
for private health service:
Amoxilline dry syrup 125mg/
5ml (bottles)
Available medicine/vaccine
for private health service:
Ampicillin caplet 500mg
(caplets)
Available medicine/vaccine
for private health service:
Ampicillin dry syrup 125mg/
5ml (bottles)
110
June 2008
Treatment
I
Treatment
NI
Control
Difference
I–C
p
Difference
NI – C
p
N
I
N
NI
N
C
12.9477
22.4679
11.8035
1.1442
0.93
10.6644
0.45
374
381
382
392.3185
297.8667
291.5915
100.7271
0.1
6.2753
0.92
374
381
382
15.2278
18.1523
12.9491
2.2787
0.63
5.2032
0.27
374
381
382
13.6361
46.6814
60.8316
-47.1955
0.04
-14.1502
0.53
374
381
382
107.9576
87.1072
97.6299
10.3277
0.72
-10.5227
0.71
374
381
382
451.2682
510.3868
404.0083
47.2599
0.57
106.3785
0.21
374
381
382
151.5128
176.512
74.2391
77.2737
0.07
102.2729
0.02
374
381
382
9.1252
18.1733
10.0977
-0.9725
0.79
8.0756
0.03
374
381
382
39.2406
42.3627
39.1362
0.1045
0.99
3.2266
0.58
374
381
382
12.0592
14.9369
14.7048
-2.6456
0.42
0.2321
0.94
374
381
382
24.1154
25.6463
24.8202
-0.7048
0.91
0.8261
0.89
374
381
382
104.43
107.7164
113.5104
-9.0804
0.46
-5.794
0.64
374
381
382
7.8393
13.5882
7.2058
0.6334
0.85
6.3824
0.05
374
381
382
14.8097
23.9469
22.4127
-7.603
0.2
1.5342
0.8
374
381
382
1.783
7.6333
3.8399
-2.0569
0.51
3.7933
0.23
374
381
382
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Available medicine/vaccine
for private health service:
Antalgin tablet 500mg
(tablets)
Available medicine/vaccine
for private health service:
Antalgin injection 250mg/
ml-2ml (ampules)
Available medicine/vaccine
for private health service:
Paracetamol syrup 120mg/
5ml-60ml (bottles)
Available medicine/vaccine
for private health service:
Paracetamol tablet 100mg
(tablets)
Available medicine/vaccine
for private health service:
Paracetamol tablet 500mg
(tablets)
Available medicine/vaccine
for private health service:
Vit A for children under 5
(capsule)
Avg hrs per day spent on
public services (hours)
Avg hrs per day spent on
private services (hours)
Government price: general
treatment (Rp.)
Government price:
pregnancy check up (Rp.)
Government price: normal
delivery (Rp.)
Government price: delivery
with complication (Rp.)
Government price: BCG
(babies) (Rp.)
Government price: Anti Polio
(babies) (Rp.)
Government price: DPT
(babies) (Rp.)
Government price: Measle
(babies) (Rp.)
Government price: Hepatitis
B (babies) (Rp.)
Government price: TT
(pregnant mom) (Rp.)
Government price: Fam
planning consultation (Rp.)
Government price: Fam
planning pills (Rp.)
Treatment
I
Treatment
NI
Control
Difference
I–C
p
Difference
NI – C
p
N
I
N
NI
N
C
118.1272
107.979
119.263
-1.1358
0.94
-11.284
0.49
374
381
382
1.7604
5.7846
1.5707
0.1897
0.94
4.2139
0.13
374
381
382
10.8481
13.5912
9.6913
1.1569
0.72
3.8999
0.23
374
381
382
29.1617
30.4449
28.6403
0.5214
0.95
1.8046
0.82
374
381
382
241.7298
233.4309
239.9054
1.8244
0.94
-6.4745
0.8
374
381
382
17.3846
17.0401
12.2474
5.1372
0.24
4.7927
0.28
374
381
382
5.8281
5.8028
5.4239
0.4043
0.09
0.3789
0.12
367
377
377
3.6926
3.7118
3.7096
-0.017
0.96
0.0021
0.99
374
381
382
11741.96
4755.1948
2753.4591
8988.4963
0.27
2001.7357
0.81
305
311
318
2807.6923
2688.1134
3171.7514
-364.0591
0.54
-483.638
0.41
343
357
359
133602.17
139775.81
152922.2
-19320.03
0.11
-13146.3908
0.27
329
342
333
180348.95
189521.90
172338.03
8010.918
0.73
17183.8696
0.47
150
169
157
894.8069
1853.4137
699.688
195.1189
0.83
1153.7257
0.22
279
288
260
816.7989
754.6917
650.1524
166.6465
0.15
104.5392
0.37
281
288
265
873.0053
872.14
720.155
152.8503
0.22
151.9849
0.22
280
287
260
878.6667
941.689
710.1227
168.544
0.17
231.5663
0.06
279
288
263
884.6154
906.0847
778.2546
106.3607
0.41
127.83
0.32
292
292
281
1168.4848
995.6085
877.8772
290.6076
0.03
117.7313
0.37
314
308
314
917.5947
553.0055
756.4252
161.1694
0.33
-203.4198
0.22
336
351
344
1665.1376
1630.1908
1540.0718
125.0658
0.46
90.119
0.6
329
345
334
June 2008
111
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Government price: Fam
planning injection (Rp.)
Government price: IUD
insertion (Rp.)
Government price: IUD
retraction (Rp.)
Government price:
Subcutaneous contraceptive
insertion (Rp.)
Government price:
Subcutaneous contraceptive
retraction (Rp.)
Government price:
Contraceptive side effects
(Rp.)
Private price: general
treatment (Rp.)
Private price: pregnancy
check up (Rp.)
Private price: normal
delivery (Rp.)
Private price: delivery with
complication (Rp.)
Private price: BCG (babies)
(Rp.)
Private price: Anti Polio
(babies) (Rp.)
Private price: DPT (babies)
(Rp.)
Private price: Measle (babies)
(Rp.)
Private price: Hepatitis B
(babies) (Rp.)
Private price: TT (pregnant
mom) (Rp.)
Private price: Fam planning
consultation (Rp.)
Private price: Fam planning
pills (Rp.)
Private price: Fam planning
injection (Rp.)
Private price: IUD insertion
(Rp.)
Private price: IUD retraction
(Rp.)
Private price: Subcutaneous
contraceptive insertion (Rp.)
Private price: Subcutaneous
contraceptive retraction
(Rp.)
Private price: Contraceptive
side effects (Rp.)
Treatment
I
Treatment
NI
Control
Difference
I–C
p
Difference
NI – C
p
N
I
N
NI
N
C
5254.4346
5070.5623
4761.0723
493.3623
0.26
309.49
0.48
340
353
347
15049.57
12182.07
14547.228
502.3373
0.86
-2365.1577
0.42
189
213
201
8895.1342
9052.4911
8718.5115
176.6228
0.89
333.9797
0.8
204
220
213
26899.82
22614.32
28706.935
-1807.1109
0.69
-6092.6189
0.2
203
201
193
14481.39
15906.83
14523.904
-42.5169
0.98
1382.9279
0.46
213
209
214
2801.7241
3367.2566
2566.6667
235.0575
0.67
800.59
0.15
243
265
245
12500
12244.56
12416.262
83.7379
0.9
-171.7039
0.8
312
303
326
11312.56
11804.721
12502.186
-1189.622
0.18
-697.4648
0.44
362
352
366
272985.71
299533.55
283394.79
-10409.08
0.36
16138.7524
0.16
361
355
368
288728.61
344692.12
318625
-29896.39
0.23
26067.1182
0.3
152
171
164
2925.6198
4854.7297
8049.5238
-5123.904
0.15
-3194.7941
0.37
226
227
215
2331.1367
2652.6138
2185.3933
145.7435
0.76
467.2206
0.34
228
227
217
2917.7632
3081.3559
2251.9084
665.8548
0.2
829.4475
0.11
228
226
213
2961.6027
3610.5442
2649.1557
312.4469
0.57
961.3885
0.08
225
226
217
2758.4098
3325
2624.5791
133.8307
0.79
700.4209
0.17
244
231
238
3968.6275
3137.2688
4225.2825
-256.655
0.64
-1088.0136
0.05
286
263
282
1336.1433
1125.7015
1028.2686
307.8748
0.31
97.4329
0.75
347
336
335
4774.3644
5161.9411
4660.9977
113.3667
0.73
500.9434
0.13
345
346
350
10515.17
10977.75
10874.183
-359.0162
0.39
103.5712
0.81
364
356
368
64547.95
62893.77
67866.142
-3318.1965
0.56
-4972.3688
0.4
196
212
205
25110.75
27929.20
27355.556
-2244.8011
0.33
573.648
0.81
216
217
216
87081.88
82971.80
88022.472
-940.5904
0.9
-5050.6715
0.52
207
194
192
31407.29
31478
30335.671
1071.6134
0.67
1142.3287
0.66
219
210
214
10782.98
11223.741
12630.259
-1847.2757
0.05
-1406.5179
0.14
253
262
248
Note: Results reflect fractions unless stated otherwise.
112
June 2008
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Table 51
School characteristics for household CCT treatment and control groups
Variable
Male principal
Education of principal
SMA/SMK/MA
Diploma 1/2
Diploma 3
Diploma 4
Post graduate (S2/S3)
Experience of the principal as a teacher (year)
Experience of the principal at other school
(year)
Age of school principal
Main SMP
Public SMP
Schools that have accreditation
Language use at school: Indonesian
School has school final exam (UAS)
School has national final exam (UN)
Percentage of students passed school final
exam
Percentage of students passed national final
exam
Facilities
Number of class rooms
Number of laboratories
Number of libaries
Number of all purpose room
Number of school health affairs room
Number of BP/BK room
Number of school pricipal room
Number of teachers room
Number of admnin room
Number of teacher wc
Number of student wc
Number of soccer fields
Number of computers
Total Number of teacher in a school
Number of students per classroom in 1st
grade
Number of students per classroom in
2ndgrade
Number of students per classroom in 3rd
grade
Percentage of repeat students in 1st grade
Percentage of repeat students in 2nd grade
Percentage of repeat students in 3rd grade
Percentage of dropout students in 1st grade
Percentage of dropout students in 2st grade
Percentage of dropout students in 3st grade
Treatment
0.8719
Control
0.9129
Difference
-0.041
p
0.03
NT
504
NC
507
0.0014
0.0305
0.0652
0.1112
0.6157
12.903
0.0027
0.0486
0.0765
0.0808
0.5571
12.095
-0.0013
-0.0181
-0.0113
0.0305
0.0586
0.8081
0.64
0.14
0.49
0.1
0.06
0.18
504
504
504
504
504
487
507
507
507
507
507
492
9.6711
10.6085
-0.9375
0.11
500
505
0.3595
0.9244
0.4037
0.1057
0.9824
0.8809
0.9716
0.3749
0.9432
0.3465
0.0986
0.9857
0.8747
0.9663
-0.0155
-0.0188
0.0572
0.007
-0.0033
0.0062
0.0053
0.61
0.23
0.06
0.71
0.67
0.76
0.63
500
504
504
504
504
504
504
503
507
507
507
507
507
507
0.9969
0.9981
-0.0012
0.68
437
429
0.9702
0.9703
-0.0002
0.98
432
423
8.7776
0.9466
0.8647
0.3098
0.5704
0.6629
0.8943
0.9637
0.8593
1.7003
3.7348
1.0798
10.1471
25.4566
9.1875
0.9041
0.8417
0.3673
0.6175
0.6597
0.9166
0.9488
0.8326
1.6162
4.2371
1.1235
7.8333
25.8833
-0.4099
0.0425
0.0231
-0.0575
-0.0471
0.0032
-0.0223
0.0149
0.0267
0.0842
-0.5023
-0.0437
2.3138
-0.4267
0.32
0.56
0.31
0.08
0.14
0.92
0.24
0.35
0.27
0.17
0.04
0.43
0
0.63
504
504
504
504
504
504
504
504
503
504
504
504
504
503
507
507
507
507
507
506
506
506
506
507
507
507
507
507
38.011
36.2254
1.7856
0.03
501
504
36.2077
35.1709
1.0367
0.18
499
498
34.2747
33.0477
1.227
0.13
488
487
0.0078
0.0079
0.037
0.0195
0.0187
0.02
0.0073
0.0087
0.038
0.0239
0.0238
0.0252
0.0005
-0.0008
-0.001
-0.0044
-0.005
-0.0052
0.83
0.72
0.9
0.24
0.15
0.27
487
475
472
488
477
473
489
479
475
489
478
474
June 2008
113
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Percentage of additional students in 1st grade
Percentage of additional students in 2nd
grade
Percentage of additional students in 3rd
grade
Average grade for UN: Indonesian (grade
scale 1 to 10)
Average grade for UN: Math (grade scale 1 to
10)
Average grade for UN: English (grade scale 1
to 10)
Average amount received per student in
2006/2007 (Rp.)
Percent of students with scholarship
Average amount of scholarships per capita
(Rp.)
School absence without permission
Number of classes in school branches
Number of students in school branches
Number of classes in open school
Number of students in open school
Teacher age (year)
Teacher experience (year)
Education of teachers
SMA/SMK/MA
Diploma 1/2
Diploma 3
Diploma 4
Post graduate (S2/S3)
Total budget 2006/2007 (1000’ Rp.)
Total revenue 2006/2007 (1000’ Rp.)
BOS (1000’ Rp.)
Total education expenditure spent by parents
in 2006/2007 (1000’ Rp.)
Infrastructure maintenance (1000’ Rp.)
Infrastructure maintenance and rehabilitation
(1000’ Rp.)
Study-teaching and extracurricular activities
(1000’ Rp.)
Total expenditure for teaching materials (e.g.
books and others, 1000’ Rp.)
School sanitation condition clean
Table available teachers in class
Blackboard and chalk/markers in class
Floor made of earth
Functioning lights in class
Leaks in ceiling
Note: Results reflect fractions unless stated otherwise.
114
June 2008
Treatment
0.0963
Control
0.0679
Difference
0.0284
p
0.23
NT
492
NC
491
0.0944
0.1358
-0.0413
0.1
480
480
0.0838
0.0794
0.0044
0.85
476
477
7.5283
7.9882
-0.4599
0.23
472
468
7.5001
7.6531
-0.153
0.67
470
468
7.1827
7.3628
-0.1801
0.63
470
467
161700.22
141510.50
20189.72
0.34
310
333
0.2945
0.3421
-0.0476
0.14
309
332
692.3552
711.9297
-19.5745
0.88
309
332
0.026
3.4459
90.0338
3.7384
119.7994
38.3338
8.955
0.027
2.6533
87.794
3.4719
129.1208
38.2333
9.1319
-0.0009
0.7927
2.2398
0.2665
-9.3214
0.1005
-0.1769
0.8
0.44
0.96
0.58
0.65
0.72
0.51
463
22
22
71
71
502
500
468
16
16
62
62
503
503
0.0017
0.1123
0.1055
0.1111
0.6499
2372700.00
639767.43
120985.86
0.0043
0.1081
0.1009
0.1067
0.6655
2109600.00
2762800.00
172240.95
-0.0026
0.0042
0.0046
0.0043
-0.0156
263065.09
-2123100.00
-51255.0925
0.21
0.69
0.57
0.61
0.3
0.90
0.21
0.55
503
503
503
503
503
452
478
480
507
507
507
507
507
447
473
479
321.4654
441.6581
-120.1927
0.36
503
506
23945.7203
18121.18
5824.5362
0.02
470
471
33894.2516
29184.95
4709.2967
0.25
470
470
78085.1932
34391.41
43693.7831
0.03
469
472
21299.8184
18201.37
3098.4469
0.22
471
470
0.8181
0.99
0.9894
0.0553
0.7598
0.2219
0.7615
0.9844
0.9747
0.0724
0.7413
0.2098
0.0566
0.0057
0.0147
-0.0171
0.0184
0.0122
0.03
0.42
0.08
0.27
0.5
0.64
503
503
503
503
503
503
506
506
506
506
506
506
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Table 52
School characteristics for community CCT treatment and control groups
Variable
Male principal
Education of principal
SMA/SMK/MA
Diploma 1/2
Diploma 3
Diploma 4
Post graduate (S2/S3)
Experience of the principal as a
teacher (year)
Experience of the principal at
other school (year)
Age of school principal
Main SMP
Public SMP
Schools that have accreditation
Language use at school
Indonesian Language
School has school final exam
(UAS)
School has national final exam
(UN)
Percentage of students passed
school final exam
Percentage of students passed
national final exam
Facilities
Number of class rooms
Number of laboratories
Number of libaries
Number of all purpose room
Number of school health
affairs room
Number of BP/BK room
Number of school pricipal
room
Number of teachers room
Number of admnin room
Number of teacher wc
Number of student wc
Number of soccer fields
Number of computers
Total Number of teacher in a
school
Number of students per
classroom in 1st grade
Number of students per
classroom in 2ndgrade
Number of students per
classroom in 3rd grade
Percentage of repeat students in
1st grade
Treatment
I
0.8795
Treatment
NI
0.8706
Control
0.9111
Difference
I–C
-0.0316
0.0020
0.0522
0.0442
0.0904
0.6867
p
0.25
Difference
NI – C
-0.0405
p
N
N
N
I
NI
C
0.14 270 275 269
0.0000
0.0275
0.0902
0.1176
0.5961
0.0000
0.0404
0.0667
0.1111
0.6424
0.0020
0.0118
-0.0225
-0.0207
0.0443
0.37
0.48
0.30
0.44
0.28
-0.0000
-0.0130
0.0235
0.0065
-0. 0463
1.00
0.44
0.27
0.80
0.26
11.9226
12.4243
13.1770
-1.2543
0.13
-0.7527
0.36 264 269 262
8.1004
9.0549
9.4242
-1.3238
0.10
-0.3693
0.64 270 275 269
0.3179
0.9518
0.4518
0.0683
0.3563
0.9275
0.4510
0.0725
0.2384
0.9232
0.4364
0.1071
0.0795
0.0286
0.0154
-0.0388
0.04
0.18
0.72
0.10
0.1179
0.0042
0.0146
-0.0345
0.00
0.84
0.73
0.14
0.9819
0.9725
1.0000
-0.0181
0.09
-0.0275
0.01 270 275 269
0.9438
0.9412
0.9293
0.0145
0.49
0.0119
0.57 270 275 269
0.9719
0.9569
0.9758
-0.0039
0.80
-0.0189
0.21 270 275 269
0.9985
0.9975
0.9997
-0.0012
0.52
-0.0022
0.25 236 236 236
0.9826
0.9487
0.9742
0.0085
0.74
-0.0255
0.31 236 235 233
8.3835
0.7390
0.7169
0.2671
9.0843
0.7431
0.7706
0.3745
8.9051
0.7859
0.7273
0.2854
-0.5215
-0.0469
-0.0104
-0.0184
0.33
0.54
0.78
0.65
0.1793
-0.0427
0.0433
0.0891
0.74
0.57
0.25
0.03
0.5020
0.5686
0.4343
0.0677
0.12
0.1343
0.00 270 275 269
0.5422
0.5824
0.5434
-0.0013
0.98
0.0389
0.36 270 275 269
0.8815
0.8961
0.9212
-0.0397
0.13
-0.0251
0.33 270 275 269
0.9578
0.8333
1.7610
3.9217
1.2490
7.1968
0.9529
0.8392
1.5235
3.4412
1.1216
6.6451
0.9758
0.8283
1.5919
3.9051
1.1697
7.8020
-0.0179
0.0051
0.1691
0.0166
0.0793
-0.6052
0.42
0.88
0.05
0.96
0.38
0.46
-0.0228
0.0109
-0.0684
-0.4639
-0.0481
-1.1569
0.30
0.74
0.43
0.15
0.59
0.15
22.3876
24.6020
23.5483
-1.1607
0.29
1.0537
0.33 270 275 265
35.2304
35.3365
36.1720
-0.9416
0.31
-0.8355
0.36 268 273 267
34.6934
34.1910
34.0487
0.6448
0.49
0.1424
0.88 263 264 263
31.3977
32.6857
31.6592
-0.2615
0.78
1.0265
0.26 257 257 252
0.0124
0.0180
0.0113
0.0010
0.88
0.0066
0.35 260 261 255
270
270
270
270
270
269
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
275
275
275
275
275
274
275
275
275
275
275
275
275
275
275
275
275
275
275
June 2008
269
269
269
269
269
269
269
269
269
269
269
269
268
269
269
269
269
269
269
115
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Tables
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Percentage of repeat students in
2nd grade
Percentage of repeat students in
3rd grade
Percentage of dropout students
in 1st grade
Percentage of dropout students
in 2st grade
Percentage of dropout students
in 3st grade
Percentage of additional students
in 1st grade
Percentage of additional students
in 2nd grade
Percentage of additional students
in 3rd grade
Average grade for UN: Indonesian
(grade scale 1 to 10)
Average grade for UN: Math
(grade scale 1 to 10)
Average grade for UN: English
(grade scale 1 to 10)
Average amount received per
student in 2006/2007 (Rp.)
Percent of students with
scholarship
Average amount of scholarships
per capita (Rp.)
School absence without
permission
Number of classes in school
branches
Number of students in school
branches
Number of classes in open school
Number of students in open
school
Teacher age (year)
Teacher experience (year)
Education of teachers
SMA/SMK/MA
Diploma 1/2
Diploma 3
Diploma 4
Post graduate (S2/S3)
Total budget 2006/2007 (1000’
Rp.)
Total revenue 2006/2007 (1000’
Rp.)
BOS (1000’ Rp.)
Total education expenditure
spent by parents in 2006/2007
(1000’ Rp.)
Infrastructure maintenance (1000’
Rp.)
116
June 2008
Treatment
I
Treatment
NI
Control
Difference
I–C
p
Difference
NI – C
0.0131
0.0136
0.0100
0.0030
0.68
0.0036
0.63 254 254 249
0.0479
0.0650
0.0691
-0.0212
0.14
-0.0041
0.78 249 244 246
0.0328
0.0409
0.0239
0.0089
0.27
0.0170
0.03 260 261 254
0.0245
0.0367
0.0198
0.0047
0.52
0.0169
0.02
0.0208
0.0191
0.0333
-0.0125
0.05
-0.0142
0.03 249 242 244
0.1466
0.0810
0.1201
0.0266
0.57
-0.0391
0.40 261 262 257
0.1275
0.1435
0.1455
-0.0180
0.62
-0.0020
0.96 256 255 250
0.0865
0.0794
0.0991
-0.0126
0.67
-0.0197
0.51 250 245 246
7.5480
8.8321
8.2923
-0.7443
0.32
0.5398
0.47 243 238 234
7.1843
8.3256
7.7510
-0.5667
0.42
0.5746
0.41 243 237 234
6.7464
8.0285
7.1377
-0.3912
0.55
0.8908
0.17 243 238 234
176856
186591
182861
-6004
0.86
3729
0.91 204 198 189
0.2762
0.2233
0.1987
0.0775
0.02
0.0246
0.47 203 198 188
727
975
757
-29
0.90
218
0.35 203 198 188
0.0244
0.0250
0.0195
0.0048
0.24
0.0054
0.18 240 250 238
2.5789
2.2703
2.6842
-0.1053
0.89
-0.4139
0.57
23
15
13
78.6579
50.5676
105.3684
-26.7105
0.27
-54.8009
0.03
23
15
13
4.4638
3.7941
4.2813
0.1825
0.78
-0.4871
0.46
40
42
36
97.7246
92.8507
110.4063
-12.6816
0.47
-17.5555
0.32
40
41
36
38.0224
7.9777
38.0532
8.2784
38.1638
7.9417
-0.1415
0.0360
0.72
0.92
-0.1107
0.3368
0.78 270 274 268
0.37 268 275 267
0.0044
0.0990
0.1144
0.1109
0.6605
0.0038
0.1184
0.1285
0.1101
0.6285
0.0016
0.1088
0.1247
0.1273
0.6251
0.0028
-0.0098
-0.0103
-0.0163
0.0353
0.21
0.48
0.43
0.20
0.11
0.0022
0.0096
0.0037
-0.0172
0.0034
0.32
0.49
0.77
0.17
0.88
438680
2.2041e+06
360467
424059
88105
357059
195
141
244
-49
15960
15876
16088
-127.8444
4.0435e+06 -3.6048e+06 0.14
341695
18772
p
N
I
N
NI
N
C
255 254 248
270
270
270
270
270
275
275
275
275
275
269
269
269
269
269
-1.8394e+06
0.44 249 249 234
82364
0.15 251 252 242
-7.2034e+05
0.38 256 253 249
0.44
-103
0.11 270 275 269
0.96
-211
0.93 252 247 242
0.75
1.0774e+06 -9.8930e+05 0.23
Tables
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Variable
Infrastructure maintenance and
rehabilitation (1000’ Rp.)
Study-teaching and
extracurricular activities (1000’
Rp.)
Total expenditure for teaching
materials (e.g. books and others,
1000’ Rp.)
School sanitation condition clean
Table available teachers in class
Blackboard and chalk/markers
in class
Floor made of earth
Functioning lights in class
Leaks in ceiling
Treatment
I
Treatment
NI
Control
Difference
I–C
p
Difference
NI – C
p
N
I
N
NI
N
C
22581
21461
21466
1115
0.73
-4.6255
1.00 252 246 242
30606
44091
29569
1036.9814
0.93
14522
0.20 249 248 243
16423
17809
18905
-2482
0.44
-10962
0.73 252 248 242
0.7691
0.9779
0.8137
0.9784
0.7854
0.9818
-0.0163
-0.0039
0.64
0.75
0.0283
-0.0034
0.42 270 275 268
0.78 270 275 268
0.9799
0.9902
0.9413
0.0386
0.01
0.0489
0.00 270 275 268
0.0522
0.6807
0.1606
0.1059
0.6745
0.1902
0.0709
0.6377
0.2834
-0.0186
0.0431
-0.1228
0.42
0.29
0.00
0.0350
0.0369
-0.0932
0.12 270 275 268
0.36 270 275 268
0.01 270 275 268
Note: Results reflect fractions unless stated otherwise.
June 2008
117
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Figures
118
June 2008
Figures
Figure 1
Provinces
20% richest districts
(based on transition rate,
% malnutrition and % poor)
80% poorest districts
(based on transition rate,
% malnutrition and % poor)
(i) Non KDP eligible districts
in 5 PNPM provinces
(ii) Districts in DKI Jakarta and
West Sumatra
KDP eligible districts
in 5 P NPM provinces
Selection and randomization procedures
Sub -districts not supply ready
District not selected for
Community CCT
Sub -districts supply ready
Sub -districts n ot supply ready
Randomly select 316 sub -districts
PKH Control group
Randomly select 769 sub -districts
Household CCT
(until provincial quota
Randomly select 100 sub -districts
PNPM Control group
Randoml y select 100 sub -districts
Community CCT without rewards
Randomly select 100 sub -districts
Community CCT with rewards
Figures
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Baseline Survey Report
June 2008
119
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Figures
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Figure 2
Baseline sample selection PNPM
20 PNPM districts
Treatment with rewards
100 sub-districts
Select all 100 sub-districts
120
Treatment without rewards
100 sub-districts
Select all 100 sub-districts
Control
100 sub-districts
Select all 100 sub-districts
Randomly select 8
villages per sub-district
Randomly select 8
villages per sub-district
Randomly select 8
villages per sub-district
Randomly select 1 ward
per village
Randomly select 1 ward
per village
Randomly select 1 ward
per village
Randomly select
5 households per ward
• 2 households with
pregnant/lactating
women
• 2 households with
children age 6 to 15
• 1 household from the
remaining group
Randomly select
5 households per ward
• 2 households with
pregnant/lactating
women
• 2 households with
children age 6 to 15
• 1 household from the
remaining group
Randomly select
5 households per ward
• 2 households with
pregnant/lactating
women
• 2 households with
children age 6 to 15
• 1 household from the
remaining group
June 2008
Figures
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Figure 3
Baseline sample selection PKH
44 PKH districts
Treatment 769 sub-districts
Treated 316 sub-districts
Randomly select 180 sub-districts
Stratified by urban/rural
Randomly select 180 sub-districts
Stratified by urban/rural
Randomly select
8 villages per sub-district
Conditional on UCT eligibility
Randomly select
8 villages per sub-district
Conditional on UCT eligibility
Randomly select 1 ward per village
Randomly select 1 ward per village
Randomly select
5 households per ward
• 2 households with pregnant/lactating women
• 3 households with children age 6
to 15
Conditional on UCT eligibility
Randomly select
5 households per ward
• 2 households with pregnant/lactating women
• 3 households with children age 6
to 15
Conditional on UCT eligibility
June 2008
121
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Figures
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
Distribution of Ln per capita monthly expenditures for treatment and control groups
0
.2
.4
.6
.8
Figure 4
10
12
14
16
18
Ln per capita expenditure
Household CCT: T
Community CCT: T (Inc)
Community CTT: C
Distribution of Ln per capita monthly education expenditures for treatment and
control groups
0
.1
.2
.3
Figure 5
Household CCT: C
Community CCT: T (No Inc)
0
5
10
Ln per capita education expenditure
Household CCT: T
Community CCT: T (Inc)
Community CTT: C
122
June 2008
Household CCT: C
Community CCT: T (No Inc)
15
Figures
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
.1
.2
.3
Distribution of Ln per capita monthly health expenditures for treatment and control
groups
0
Figure 6
5
10
15
20
Ln per capita health expenditure
Household CCT: T
Community CCT: T (Inc)
Community CTT: C
Household CCT: C
Community CCT: T (No Inc)
June 2008
123
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and PNPM-generasi
124
June 2008
Figures
Conditional Cash Transfers in Indonesia:
Baseline Survey Report
Program Keluarga Harapan and
PNPM-Generasi
June 2008
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