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DELAPAN ALTERNATIF MODEL E

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DELAPAN ALTERNATIF MODEL E
DELAPAN ALTERNATIF MODEL E-BUSINESS
Richardus Eko Indrajit
Di dalam mengimplementasikan konsep e-business, kajian terhadap model bisnis (business model) yang ingin
diadopsi perusahaan merupakan hal yang krusial. Secara prinsip, e-business model ini sering didefinisikan sebagai
cara atau mekanisme yang akan ditempuh oleh perusahaan dalam memperoleh pendapatan (revenue stream) dari
usaha yang dilakukannya. Karena begitu banyaknya kemungkinan-kemungkinan mekanisme pendapatan yang
dapat dipilih perusahaan, maka manajemen harus benar-benar memperhatikan beberapa hal sebagai berikut:
•
•
•
•
Model E-Business yang dipilih harus sesuai dengan karakteristik dan kekuatan yang dimiliki oleh
perusahaan (core competencies) agar yang bersangkutan dapat benar-benar handal dalam menerapkan
mekanisme terkait;
Seperti apapun tipe Model E-Business yang dipilih, polanya akan sangat mudah ditiru oleh perusahaan
lain sehingga perusahaan harus yakin bahwa jika hal tersebut terjadi, perusahaan tetap menjadi yang
terunggul dalam menerapkannya (adanya unsur competitive advantage);
Fokuskan pengembangan Model E-Business pada mekanisme perolehan pendapatan (revenue stream
generator) yang mungkin ditawarkan oleh perusahaan kepada pelanggannya; dan
Perusahaan harus mampu mengidentifikasikan kunci keberhasilan (critical success factors) dari Model
E-Business yang dipilih agar alokasi berbagai sumber daya yang dimiliki dapat dilakukan secara tepat,
efisien, dan efektif.
Dalam bukunya “Place to Space: Migrating to e-Business Models”, Peter Weill dan Michael R. Vitale
memperkenalkan delapan tipe Model E-Business utama yang dapat dipilih perusahaan. Masing-masing adalah:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Direct to Customer, yaitu melakukan penjualan melalui hubungan yang terjalin secara langsung
antara perusahaan dengan pelanggannya;
Full-Service Provider, yaitu menyediakan berbagai fasilitas dan jasa (sumber daya) yang
dibutuhkan oleh perusahaan lain dalam menjalankan operasi bisnisnya;
Whole of Enterprise, yaitu menawarkan fasilitas satu pintu (single point of contact) kepada
pelanggan yang membutuhkan pelayanan tertentu yang melibatkan banyak pihak (perusahaan);
Intermediaries, yaitu menjadi perantara (broker) dari berbagai jenis keperluan (berdasarkan
data, informasi, segmen industri, komunitas, dsb.);
Shared Infrastructure, yaitu menawarkan penyewaan terhadap berbagai instrastuktur teknologi
informasi, meliputi database, aplikasi, perangkat keras, and jaringan;
Virtual Community, yaitu memanfaatkan komunitas yang ada di dunia maya untuk berbagai
keperluan seperti penawaran berbagai produk dan jasa digital;
Value Net Integrator, yaitu mengintegrasikan berbagai entiti atau sumber daya yang ada di
internet agar produk-produk atau jasa-jasa baru yang belum pernah ada sebelumnya dapat
ditawarkan kepada pasar dan calon pelanggan; dan
Content Provider, yaitu menawarkan pelayanan pembentukan dan distribusi data, informasi,
knowledge (content) yang bernilai tinggi kepada pelanggan.
Obyektif dan Kunci Keberhasilan Model E-Business
Setiap masing-masing Model E-Business tersebut memiliki obyektif strategis dan potensi tipe pendapatan yang
berbeda, seperti yang diperlihatkan pada tabel berikut.
BUSINESS
MODEL
Direct Customer
STARTEGIC OBJECTIVES
SOURCES OF REVENUE OR VALUE
• Offer a lower price or be more customerintimate than the marketplace
• By pass other value chain participants
• Increase geographical reach without a
physical infrastructure or sales force
• Facilitate competition based on objective
• Income for services provided to
customers
• Lower cost channel for distribution
• Increased margin via bypassing
intermediaries
1
measures,
sucah
as
price
or
independently rated quality
• Own the primary customer relationship
• Meet the complete needs of a target
customer segment
• Integrate the firm’s own products and
services with a selected set of thrid-party
providers
Full-Service
Provider
Whole
Enterprise
of
Intermediaries
Shared
Infrastructure
Virtual Community
Value
Integrator
Net
• Impelement a single point of contact for
certain customer segments of a multiplebusiness-unit enterprise
• Organize by life events or areas of
interest so that the customer is able to
navigate through the enterprise-wide
offerings
• Act as a pinter to various business unit
offerings
• Help the customer identify the need for,
choose, and acquire services provided by
a number of different business units
• Provide a single point of access, bringing
together buyers and sellers
• Make a market by concentrating
information
• Multiple providers cooperate in some
areas in order to compete more
effectively
• Remove competition in some areas
sharing infrastructure and aggregate
industry information resident in those
shared systems
• Reduce cost via economies of scale
• Make a defensive move against a
potentially dominant player
• Provide a powerful barrier to entry for
alternative providers
• Build a community of members around a
common interest
• Capture increasing returns as community
grows
• Coordinate the value net (or chain) by
gathering, synthesizing, and distributing
information
• Occupy a central position in an industry
2
• Annual membership fees
• Fees as a percentage of assets under
management
• Transaction fees
• Margins on in-house products
• Commissions on third-party products
• Advertising or listings fees from thridparty providers
• Fees for selling leads or aggregated data
about customers
• In the for-profit sector: provision of
services to the customer by the business
unit; annual service or membership fees
are possible
• In the government sector: improved
service, reduced cost from sharing more
infrastructure and removing the need to
perform the same transaction in multiple
agencies
• Transaction fees
• Listing fees
• Referral fees on the masis of
clickthroughs
• Sales commissions
• Membership fees from sharedinfrastructure customers
• Transaction fees from alliance partners
and customers
• Sale of data summarizing customer and
partner activity
• Proprietary equipment rental
• Logistics services
• Membership fees
• Advertising revenue from third parties
wishing to gain access to the
community
• Clickthrough fees or commissions on
purchase made by members
• Sale of aggregate or profile data on
members
• Direct sale of goods and services
• Franchise fees or a share of
profit/revenue of other value net
participants from controlling the virtual
value chain
value net (or chain) by working with
other participants
Content Provider
• Develop and provide information or
digital product content via allies
• World-class in an area of expertise
• Share in increased revenues or
decreased costs of the members of the
value net
• Monthly fees for content
• Fees for content or pages accessed by
end consumer
Kunci Keberhasilan dan Kompetensi Inti
Disamping obyektif strategis dan potensi tipe pendapatan yang berbeda, masing-masing Model E-Business juga
memiliki kunci keberhasilan dan kompetensi inti yang unik seperti yang diperlihatkan pada tabel berikut.
BUSINESS
MODEL
Direct Customer
Full-Service
Provider
CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS
CORE COMPETENCIES
• Create and maintain customer awareness
directly or via intermediaries
• Increase repeat customer purchase rate
and size of the average transaction
• Reduce customer acquisition costs
• Manage potential brand and channel
conflicts
• Offer fast and efficient service, including
transaction processing, logistics, and
payment
• Insure adequate security for organization
and customers
• Provide interfaces that combine ease of
use with richness of experience
• Balance availability of multiple channels
with cost of supporting them
• Enable easy and secure payments
• Be a leader in the domain
• Create the brand, leadership, credibitliy,
and trust necessary for a customer to look
to the firm fort its complete needs in an
area
• Own the customer relationship in onde
domain; integrate and consolidate the
offerings of many third parties into a
single channel or channels
• Own more of the customer data in the
domain than any other player
• Manage tension between internal and
external products
• Create and enforce policies to protect
interests of internal and external
providers as wll as customers
• Form and manage strategic parnerships
with suppliers, fulfillment houses, and
others in the supply chain
• Use customer information to increase
salses and service
• Use marketing and effective customer
prospecting
• Manage business processes and systems
integration
• Create own content
3
• Form and manage strong, enduring
relationships with customers
• Create a strong value proposition
involving brand, breadth of offerings,
price/value equation, and completeness
of the consolidation into a single
offering
• Collect, synthesize, and analyze
information about customer segments
and match these with existing and new
service offerings
• Develop and integrate firmwide
transaction
processing,
customer
databases, and electronic linkages to
suppliers and security
• Develop and nurture a trusted brand to
set the expectation to credibly deliver all
the customer’s needs in onde domain;
scan the environment to identify thirdparty
products
and
establiseh
partnerships
• Maintain and use a customer
relationship
database;
anticipate
Whole
Enterprise
of
Intermediaries
Shared
Infrastructure
Virtual Community
Value
Integrator
Net
• Change customer behavior to make use
of the new enterprise-wide model
• Reduce costs in the business units as the
direct demands on them fall; manage
transfer pricing
• Take an enterprise-wide view that
includes broad product awareness,
training, cross-selling, and incentives
• Identify compelling and practical life
events that customers use as triggers to
access the enterprise
• Reengineer business processes to link to
the life events at the front end and to
existing legacy processes and systems at
the back end
• Attain a critical mass of users
• Capture data on customer needs;
complete any uncompleted transactions
• Scale up infrastructure quikly
• Increase level of service completeenss
over time
• Own customer relationship, resulting in
high level of “stickness”
• Share benefits equitably with no
dominant partner
• Present product and service information
objectively
• Archieve a critical mass of both alliance
partners and customers
• Manage channel conflict with the
ongoing e-business inititatives of the
alliance partners
• Compile and deliver accurate and timely
statements of the services and benefits
provided to each member of the alliance
• Create
and
maintain
systems’
interoperability
• Find and retain members who share a
common interest
• Build loyalty to the community by
providing attractive content
• Maintain privacy and security of member
information
• Balance commercial potential with
members’ interests
• Leverage member profile information
with service providers
• Reduce ownership of physical assets
while retaining ownership of data ssets
• Own or have access to the complete
industry virtual value chain
• Establish a trusted brand recognized at all
4
changes in customer needs
• Identify channels and life events that are
meaningful to customers
• Move the enterprise from a businessunit orientation to an enterprise-wide
orientation
• Manage
complex,
heterogeneous
system environments
• Negotiate (and police) agreements
among
managers
of
different
organizational units
• Evolve a business model that meets
changing customer expectations
• Achieve the desired level of service
completeness
• Perform customer information analysis
and segmenetation
• Collect, synthesize, and use information
about products, prices, and customer
needs
• Deliver the infrastructure service(s)
around which the alliance was formed
• Manage of focused coalition of
competitors, generally having diverse
backgrounds, resources, and goals
• Run complex infrastucture efficiently
• Discover
customer
needs
and
understand the value customers attach
to meeting those needs
• Build an enduring sense of community
• Source attractive content
• Manage relationships with customers
and all major players in the value chain
• Manage information assets by
collecting, synthesizing, distributing,
and presenting information
Content Provider
places in the value chain
• Operatie in markets where information
can add significant value, such as those
that are complex, fragmented, regulated,
multilayerd, inefficient, large with many
sources of information, and require
specilized knowledge
• Present the information to customers,
allies, partners, and suppliers in clear and
innovative ways that provide value
• Help other value chain participants
capitalize on the information provided by
the value net integrator
• Provide reliable, timely content in the
right format and at the right price
• Brand content to create customer
rexognition
• Be recognized as best in class
• Esbatlish a network of allies through
which content is disseminated
5
• Link the IT architecture to strategic
objectives
• Develop and manage the brand
• Analyze and interpret information from
multiple sources
• Identify and use levers of influence,
rather than direct control
• Evaluate cost and customer benefit
from various types of information
• Provide leadership and expertise in the
field
• Maintain a critical mass of professional
content creators
• Modularize, store, retrieve, combine,
and distribute content at a reasonable
cost
• Understand marketplace value and
pricing of content
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