Comparative Law - Law, Politics and Society
R. Herlambang Perdana Wiratraman, SH., MA. Fakultas Hukum Universitas Airlangga E. [email protected] P. +6281357819129 Tujuan Perkuliahan Mahasiswa dapat memahami pengertian/pemaknaan perbandingan hukum, analisis yang dipergunakan dalam membandingkan sistem hukum, baik dari tinjauan filsafat, budaya, politik dan sosial/budayakemasyarakatan. Mahasiswa dapat mengenali sistem-sistem hukum yang berkembang di dunia dan teori-teori yang memberikan dasar untuk mengetahui pergeseran sistem hukum Mahasiswa mampu menjelaskan situasi kekinian atau tren perbandingan hukum dan menggunakan pendekatan kritis untuk berbagai tujuan perbandingan. Alur perkuliahan Konsep , Fungsi dan Tujuan Perbandingan Hukum Sejarah Perbandingan Hukum Metode Perbandingan Hukum Resiko/bahaya perbandingan hukum(The perils of comparative law) dan Keuntungan/nilai lebih perbandingan hukum(The virtues of comparative law) Transplantasi Hukum (Legal transplant) Pengantar Keluarga Sistem Hukum Bahan Perkuliahan (Primary) Alan Watson (1993) Legal Transplants: An Approach to Comparative Law. Georgia: University of Georgia Press. Alan Watson (2007) Comparative Law: Law, Society and Reality. Vanderplas Publishing Konrad Zweigert and Hein Koetz (1998) An Introduction to Comparative Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Mark van Hoecke (ed.) (2004) Epistemology and Methodology of Comparative Law. Oxford and Portland Oregon: Hart Publishing. Peter D. Cruz (1999) Comparative Law in A Changing World. London/Sidney: Cavendish. Bahan Perkuliahan (Secondary) Werner Menski (2006) Comparative Law in A Global Context: The Legal System of Asia and Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Esin Örücü (2000) “Critical Comparative Law: Considering Paradoxes for Legal Systems in Transition.” Nederlandse Vereniging Voor Rechtsvergelijking, Vol. 4.1 June 2000. John W Cairns and Olivia F. Robinson (ed.) (2004) Critical Studies in Ancient Law, Comparative and Legal History. Oxford: Hart Publishing. Annelise Riles (ed.) (2001) Rethinking The Masters of Comparative Law. Oxford: Hart Publishing. Jan M Smits (ed.) (2006) Elgar Encyclopedia of Comparative Law. Glos/UK: Edward Elgar Publishing. Bahan Perkuliahan (Secondary) Shidarta (2004) “Karakteristik Penalaran Hukum dalan Konteks Keindonesiaan”, Disertasi Program Doktor Ilmu Hukum. Bandung: Universitas Katolik Parahyangan. Montesquieu (1993) The Spirit of the Laws. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Roscoe Pound (1931) The Spirit of the Common Law. Francestown/New Hamsphire: Marshall Jones Company. Mary Ann Glendon, Michael Wallace Gordon, and Christopher Osakwe (1994) Comparative Legal Traditions: Text, Materials and Cases on the Civil and Common Law Traditions, with Special Reference to French, German, English and European Law. 2nd Edition. St. Paul, Minn: West Publishing. Konsep Perbandingan Hukum Perbandingan Hukum, apakah itu? Metode, disiplin ataukah ilmu? Apa yang dipelajari dari Perbandingan Hukum? ‘an intellectual activity with law as its object and comparison as its process (Zweigert and Kotz, 1977: 2) ‘systematic study of particular legal traditions and legal rules on a comparative basis’ (Cruz 2007: 3) … and ‘….comparative law is primarily a method of study rather than a legal body of rules’ (Cruz 2007: 5). ‘The tertium comparationis belongs to the paradigmatic framework of the comparatist and as such forms part of the conseptual apparatus with which he approaches his field of science in a primary sense….. Comparability, on the other hand, is part and parcel of positive legal reality. It is dependent on the identity of the ontic characteristics of positive (in casu juridical) phenomena qua juridical phenomena.’ Van Reenen (1995: 420) Alan Watson ‘… the study of the relationship between legal systems or between rules of more than one system… in the context of a historical relationship… [a study of] the nature of law and the nature of legal development’ (Watson, 1974: 6-7) Watson’s approach: (1) historical relationship; (2) inner relationship; and (3) ‘same pattern of development’ theory. Sistem hukum dan tradisi hukum Key distinguishing features: (a) the system’s historical background and development; (b) its predominant and characteristic mode of thought; (c) its particularly distinctive institutions; (d) its sources of law and the way it handles these; and (e) its ideology (Zweigert and Kotz 1998: 68-73). A legal tradition: ‘… deeply rooted, historically conditioned attitudes about the nature of law… the role of law in… society and polity, the proper organization and operation of a legal system, and about the way law is, or should be made , applied, studied, perfected, and taught. The legal tradition relates the legal system to the culture of which it is a partial expression. It puts the legal system into cultural perspective (Merryman, 1985: 2 in Cruz 2007: 4). Fungsi Perbandingan Hukum Apa saja fungsi perbandingan hukum? Tipe Perbandingan Hukum Five possible groups: Comparison of foreign systems with domestic system in order to ascertain similarities and differences Studies that analyses objectively and systematically solutions which various systems offer for a given legal problem Studies that investigate the causal relationship between different systems of law Studies that compare the several stages of various legal systems Studies that attempt to discover or examine legal evolution generally according to periods and systems (Hug (1932) “The History of Comparative Law”, 45 Harvard Law Review 1072). Pembagian Perbandingan Hukum Descriptive Comparative Law ..is the inventory of the systems of the past and present as a whole as well as of individual rules which these systems establish for the several categories of legal relations. Comparative History of Law ..is closely allied to ethnological jurisprudence, folklore, legal sociology and philosophy of law. Comparative Legislation [comparative jurisprudence] represents the effort to define the common trunk on which present national doctrines of law are destined to graft themselves as a result of both of the development of the study of law as a social science, and of the awakening of an international legal consciousness. E Lambert in Waston 1974: 3 Pembagian Perbandingan Hukum Comparative Nomoscopy The description of system of law Comparative Nomothetics The analysis of the merits of the system Comparative Nomogenetics Study of the development of the world’s legal ideas and systems J.H. Wigmore , 1936, in Waston 1974: 3 Tujuan Perbandingan Hukum Apa tujuan [studi] perbandingan hukum? Apakah bisa tujuan tersebut direfleksikan dengan kebutuhan anda/profesi? Bagaimana hal tersebut bisa dilakukan? Esin Örücü (2000) Objectives: Academic study; Law reform and policy development; A tool for research to reach a universal theory of law; The provision of perspective to students; An aid to international practice of the law; International unification and harmonisation - common core research; A gap-filling device in law courts; and an aid to world peace. These objectives are sometimes grouped as practical, sociological, political or pedagogical. Zweigert and Kotz (1998) An aid to the legislative process An instrument of interpretation of the law A vehicle for teaching law at university level A means of promoting legal unification (in Europe) the development of a common private law Pengembangan studi-studi perbandingan hukum Comparative law and legal philosophy (comparative jurisprudence); Comparative law and legal history (historical comparative law or historico-comparative perspective); Comparative law and culture (comparative legal cultures and law and culture studies); and Comparative law and economics. Pengembangan studi perbandingan hukum Comparative constitutional law Comparative administrative law Comparative civil law (in the sense of the law of torts, delicts, contracts and obligations) Comparative commercial law (in the sense of business organizations and trade), and Comparative criminal law Studies of these specific areas may be viewed as micro- or macrocomparative legal analysis, i.e. detailed comparisons of two countries, or broad-ranging studies of several countries.