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the master plan renewed - Office of The President
THE MASTER PLAN RENEWED
UNITY, EQUITY, QUALITY, AND EFFICIENCY
IN CALIFORNIA POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION
Commission for the Review of the
Master Plan for Higher Education
STATE OF CALIFORNIA
G E O R G E DEUKMEJIAN,Governor
COMMISSION FOR THE REVIEW OF THE MASTER PLAN FOR HIGHER EDUCATION
1215 FIFTEENTH STREET, SECOND FLOOR
SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA 95814
(916) 445-0132
July, 1987
The Honorable George Deukmejian
Governor, State of California
The Honorable David A. Roberti
President pro Tempore of the Senate
The Honorable Willie L. Brown, Jr.
Speaker of the Assembly
Gentlemen:
The Commission has completed its review of California’s Master
Plan for Higher Education and hereby transmits its report, The
Master Plan Renewed: Unity, Equity, Quality, and Efficiency in
California Postsecondary Education, to the Governor and the
Legislature pursuant to Chapter 1507, Statutes of 1984. The
Commission adopted its report with but one dissenting vote.
The Commission reaffirms the unique and timeless foundation
for postsecondary education originally established in the 1960
Master Plan. Delineation of mission and function among the
public segments and protection against unhealthy intersegmental competition will help ensure the future success of
California postsecondary education.
Within this framework, our report contains recommended
modifications to carry California postsecondary education into
the 21st century. Changing demographics, need for a better
educated citizenry, increased demand for more highly trained
workers, and the evolution toward a global society are the basis
of these recommendations.
Early in our deliberations, we concluded that postsecondary
education and the public schools are closely interdependent parts
of one educational system and that the success of each depends on
the other. Thus, although our statutory charge is limited to
postsecondary education, our recommendations occasionally
affect the public schools as well. We view postsecondary
education as a key to providing better teachers, more useful
research, and expanded outreach programs for the improvement
of the public schools.
J. Gary Shansby
Chairman
Willlam D. Campbell
Vice Chairman
Commissioners
Seth P. Brunner
Henry Der
Patsy Estrellas
Claudia Hampton, Ed.D.
Bill Honlg
Meredith J. Khachlglan
George Davld Kleffer, Esq.
Felix S. LeMarlnel
Peter A. McCuen, Ph.D.
Edward R. Mosley, M.D.
Michael R. Peevey
Ray Remy
Glenn Rothner
Harold M. Wllllams
Executive Director
Lee R. Kerschner, Ph.D.
The Commission is grateful to all who provided information, analysis, and testimony
to assist in our deliberations. We particularly appreciate the detailed studies and
advice provided by the staff of the California Postsecondary Education Commission
and the advice and information provided by the California Community Colleges, the
California State University, the University of California, the Association of
Independent California Colleges and Universities, the student organizations, the
faculty organizations (in particular the academic senates), and numerous other
higher education and public school organizations and individuals.
The Commission is especially indebted to its staff and consultants, who provided
comprehensive background and issue papers under intense pressure and very short
timelines. The final report, however, is the work of the Commission and represents
its careful consideration of each of the various issues.
It has been a pleasure for all of us to serve on the Commission. We gained valuable
knowledge of postsecondary education in California and believe we have made
substantial contributions to strengthening the system.
The reforms we propose are essential to meeting current and foreseeable future
changes. In time, however, further changes in the educational system are likely to
be necessary. We therefore recommend that early in the 21st century a new
commission be established to develop a Master Plan for all California education,
preschool through Ph.D., public and private.
We stand ready to discuss our recommendations at your convenience and look
forward to a thorough examination of the issues.
Sincerely Yours,
J. Gary Shansby
Chairman
THE MASTER PLAN RENEWED
UNITY, EQUITY, QUALITY, AND EFFICIENCY
IN CALIFORNIA POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION
Commission for the Review of the
Master Plan for Higher Education
Sacramento, California
July 1987
THE MASTER PLAN RENEWED
Unity, Equity, Quality, and Efficiency
in California Postsecondary Education
Contents
Page
Introduction
.......................................................
1
I.
Toward a Unified Educational System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
II .
Toward Greater Equity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21
III .
Toward Enhancing Educational Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29
IV .
Toward More Efficient Use of Educational Resources . . . . . . . . . . .
39
V.
Resources and Responsibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
47
Appendices:
A.
Supplementary Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-1
B.
Recommended Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B- 1
C.
Estimated Costs of the Commission’s Recommendations . . . . . .
C-l
D.
Commissioner Comments and Dissents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D-l
E.
The Commission and Its Process
...........................
E-l
F.
Authorizing Legislation: SB 1570 Nielsen;
Chapter 1507,1984 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F-l
Introduction
A vital, comprehensive, accessible, and excellent educational system is essential to
the cultural, political, and economic health of a nation or state. Educational
institutions provide the basic and specialized training necessary for an advanced
workforce. They help to establish the common values underlying a stable,
responsive political system. They nurture the creative talents essential to cultural
richness and to scientific advance.
California has a population that is exceedingly rich in ethnic and cultural diversity.
This diversity is a resource that must be carefully and sensitively developed to
ensure the continued success of our state as a society and as a world leader. As we
approach the 21st century, our interaction with the rest of the world will demand the
entrepreneurship, multiple talents, language abilities, and understanding of other
cultures that a diverse society offers. We believe our renowned system of
postsecondary education, working in concert with the public schools, is key to
developing that resource.
California’s Postsecondary Educational Enterprise
In the last 25 years, California has developed an extraordinary educational system.
From preschool through the postgraduate level, from the traditional classroom to
televised in-home courses, education is the largest, most comprehensive social
institution in the state.
At the postsecondary level, the scope of the enterprise is particularly impressive.
The nine-campus University of California is one of the world’s premier public
research universities. The California State University, with 19 campuses and many
off-campus centers, is one of the nation’s preeminent public teaching institutions.
The 106 California Community Colleges have served as the model for communitybased lower-division academic and vocational instruction in this country and other
nations. The state’s 181 independent accredited degree-granting private colleges
and universities include superb undergraduate teaching institutions and national
and world leaders in scholarship and research. In addition, there are 265 accredited
private occupational schools as well as many other state-authorized or approved but
nonaccredited education providers.
Together, these institutions spend more than $15 billion annually. For this amount,
they produce some 50,000 graduates with associates in arts degrees, 86,000 with
baccalaureate degrees, 28,000 with masters degrees, 6,800 with professional
degrees, 9,000 with doctorates, and a vast number of students with the occupational
The Master Plan Renewed
1
training required for jobs in industry, commerce, finance, agriculture, government,
and many other fields.
Over the past twenty-five years, this comprehensive, diversified educational
enterprise has functioned in reasonable harmony under the state’s Master Plan for
Higher Education. The authors of the 1960 Plan, recognizing the strain that
unprecedented growth in the 1960s and ’70s would place on the system, crafted a
unique blueprint to ensure quality and efficiency through a careful delineation of
institutional functions and through prevention of disruptive competition among the
public segments.
Unforeseen Changes
Since 1960, however, economic and social conditions have changed dramatically in
ways that could not have been foreseen by the original planners.
In 1960, the public schools were not recognized as a significant issue for higher
education. The school system was believed to function reasonably well, college
students were adequately prepared, and little was heard about dropout problems,
inadequate teacher preparation, or the need to improve the public school curriculum.
Since then, our judgements and expectations have changed profoundly, and all of
these matters are now the subject of vigorous debate.
The 1960 Master Plan provided access to higher education to unprecedented
numbers of students. It was, however, still assumed that college was for an
ethnically homogeneous population of financially able, well-prepared, 18-22 year
olds. California’s dramatically changing ethnic make-up was not foreseen, nor was
the fact that growing numbers of older and part-time students would enter the
educational system.
The emerging Community Colleges (known then as Junior Colleges) had academic
instruction as their primary function. The 1960 Master Plan policy of diversion of
students to those colleges was seen as an efficient and effective way to educate lowerdivision students prior to their transfer to the four-year colleges and universities.
Today, the transfer function, still so essential to the health of the postsecondary
system, is beginning to atrophy.
In 1960, the rapid growth of academic research and graduate education and its
implications for undergraduate instruction were not widely understood. Professors
were still assumed to be scholar-teachers whose first priority was to their students
and to the undergraduate curriculum. The concern that undergraduate teaching
was being sacrificed to the pursuit of leadership in graduate training and research
was not resolved -- it continues to be a major issue in California as throughout the
nation.
2
The Master Plan Renewed
The 1960 Master Plan said little about the role of the postsecondary schools, colleges,
and universities in the accredited private sector, Since then, the accredited private
sector has also grown rapidly and can no longer be left out of the plan. In the coming
years, the state must acknowledge the accredited private institutions’ ability to
shoulder much of the increasing demand for educational services, and the accredited
private institutions must be encouraged to accept that responsibility as partners in a
unified enterprise.
Finally, while the 1960 Master Plan was successful in stemming unhealthy
intersegmental competition, the coordinating agency it produced could not both
ensure harmony within the system and maintain the confidence of those outside the
system. When the agency was subsequently reestablished as a predominantly lay
commission (and thus gained the confidence of those outside the system), it no longer
provided a forum in which segmental leaders could develop cooperative methods of
addressing their common concerns. A valuable agency for evaluation and policy
analysis, it cannot be the unifying body that is now so clearly needed.
Updating the Master Plan for Postsecondary Education
In addition to the many important changes that have occurred since 1960, it is clear
that we can expect new challenges to our postsecondary education system in the
future. California is rapidly becoming a highly diverse society with all of the
benefits and problems that entails. It is this Commission’s firm belief, however, that
California’s increasingly diverse population is a great asset for the state and the
nation. In fact, the continued prosperity of American society may well depend on the
diversity of its population.
Yet, a highly diverse, postindustrial society will also demand ever more advanced
skills in industry, commerce, agriculture, finance, government, and other fields. It
will demand, too, more firmly held common values and a deeper understanding of
the currents of social, cultural, and political change that will continue to shape the
lives of peoples and nations for centuries to come as they have for centuries past.
Education obviously will play a major role in determining how well we respond to
these challenges. Thus, the Master Plan must be renewed in several fundamental
ways. It must maintain but also build upon the successful elements of the 1960 plan
with major new provisions that respond to and meet new challenges. To this end, the
Commission recommends changes that are directed toward the achievement of four
principal goals:
•
Unity, to assure that all elements of the system work together in pursuit
of common educational goals;
•
Equity, to assure that all Californians have unrestricted opportunity to
fulfill their educational potential and aspirations;
The Master Plan Renewed
3
•
Quality, to assure that excellence characterizes every aspect of the
system; and
•
Efficiency, to assure the most productive use of finite financial and
human resources.
These goals cannot be imposed by the Legislature or the Governor. Instead, they
must be accepted and internalized by the institutions, their faculties,
administrators, and especially by their governing boards.
Unity
Section 1, titled “Toward A Unified Educational System,” calls for unity among
the segments in providing an educational system that is fully responsive to the
needs of all Californians. This requires strong structural links among all of the
segments in the areas of policy formulation, operations, and evaluation. The
policy formulation and evaluation linkages are in place; missing is the
operational linkage. We recommend a new voluntary solution.
The Commission has carefully reexamined the roles and missions of the public
and private segments in light of the changes that have occurred and may be
expected as California approaches the 21st century. Much of what was said in
1960 may be reaffirmed. But the responsibilities of each segment, including
the accredited independent and private schools, need clarification. We
recommend clearer mission statements.
The ability of the segments to carry out their assigned functions is in many
ways dependent upon their admission policies. Here, also, the Commission
believes that the policies established in the 1960 Master Plan continue, in
general, to be valid. A key element, maintaining lower-division enrollment in
the four-year institutions at 40 percent or less of undergraduate enrollment,
was subsequently ignored in the pursuit of other priorities. We recommend its
reestablishment.
The ability of qualified students to advance from lower-division instruction in a
community college to upper-division instruction in a four-year institution is
the heart of the California Master Plan. That provision has been allowed to
atrophy. We recommend guaranteed access to the baccalaureate degree for
qualified students.
The Community Colleges, with a weak governance system, have been unable to
carry out their full responsibilities within the postsecondary educational
system. The success of the whole system depends on them. Their governing
structure must be strengthened substantially and held accountable for the
successful operation of the colleges as full partners in the postsecondary
4
The Master Plan Renewed
education enterprise. We recommend an expanded and strengthened Board of
Governors for the California Community Colleges.
Equity
In Section II, titled “Toward Greater Equity,” the Commission confronts the
fact that many of our citizens -- particularly Blacks, Hispanics, and American
Indians -- continue to be underrepresented in the postsecondary system. Not
only are the underrepresented groups themselves severely disadvantaged by
societal barriers to educational opportunity, but the entire state suffers
because of its failure to draw upon the talents of all of its citizens. Educational
equity must be a central priority for our educational institutions. There must
be total commitment to equity as our postsecondary institutions strive to create
environments that give each person, regardless of race, sex, age, or economic
circumstances, a reasonable chance to fully develop his or her potential. We
recommend new commitments and new guarantees.
Quality
Section III, titled “Toward Enhancing Educational Quality,” addresses the
importance of quality at all levels of education but particularly in the public
schools and in undergraduate instruction. Postsecondary education has
responsibility for improving instruction in the public schools through
improvement in the training of teachers, basic research into methods of
teaching and learning, and the encouragement of professional service to the
schools by college and university faculty. We recommend changes in higher
education that will improve the public schools.
Excellence in undergraduate instruction is often sacrificed to the pursuit of
excellence in research. The undergraduate curriculum, particularly at the
lower-division level, is frequently fragmented and incoherent. General liberal
arts and sciences education has been lost in this era of undergraduate
specialization. Teaching is too often neglected, and faculty and teaching
assistants are not trained to teach. We recommend new commitments to
excellence in teaching.
Efficiency
In Section IV, titled “Toward More Efficient Use of Educational Resources,” the
Commission emphasizes cost containment, effective pricing and student aid
policies, equitable budgeting, and, perhaps most importantly, systematic and
continued long-range planning. Certainly in an enterprise as large as
postsecondary education in California, wasteful duplication and excessive
spending are problems to be reckoned with. Every effort must be made to
The Master Plan Renewed
5
eliminate unnecessary duplication and to contain rising costs. We recommend
actions to assure the taxpayers that their money is wisely spent.
Many of these changes can be implemented without additional cost and some will
result in long-term and substantial savings to the taxpayers. Others will require
new resources, but the relatively modest increases in expenditures proposed here
will pay large dividends to the state in terms of a highly-trained, well-educated
populace with enhanced opportunities for social, political, and economic growth. If
the needed resources are to be available, however, it is likely that Article XIIIB of
the California Constitution must be modified or repealed. In the future, as in the
past, California’s strength will depend heavily upon its willingness to invest in the
education of its citizens, young and old, native and immigrant.
6
The Master Plan Renewed
I.
Toward A Unified Educational System
California’s educational system is not unified. It consists of many diverse
institutions, organized under separate governing boards, that are heavily
interdependent and sometimes cooperative but more often operate independently.
There is strength in this independence, but we cannot meet the needs of an
increasingly diverse California without enhanced cooperation among all our
educational institutions. Above all, there must be a policy consensus that from
preschool to doctorate, public and private, we are one system.
The evidence is clear. The elementary and secondary schools depend upon the
quality of teachers educated in the colleges and universities. The colleges and
universities are dependent upon university graduate programs for the quality of
their faculties, and they are dependent upon the public schools for adequately
prepared students. The admission requirements at each level strongly influence the
instructional standards at the preceding level. The success of the whole enterprise is
heavily dependent upon the extent to which qualified students from all backgrounds
are encouraged to progress through the system. Institutions in the private sector are
strongly affected by policies and practices of the public institutions, and the public
institutions are influenced by competition from and cooperation with private
institutions.
If this diverse system is to function effectively, its segments must be linked together
in a manner that reflects their essential unity. There must be a policy formulation
linkage; there must be an operational linkage; and there must be an evaluation
linkage.
The Missing Link
Policy formulation at the highest level is the shared responsibility of the Governor
and the Legislature. The California Postsecondary Education Commission is the
appropriate agency to provide the evaluation linkage. What is missing is the
operational linkage. CPEC cannot provide this linkage as long as its primary
function is to advise the Governor and Legislature as to the functioning of the
segments. To do so effectively, it must evaluate institutions and programs
objectively, something it could not do with respect to programs it administers.
The existing educational structure is complex; some of it is firmly embedded in the
state’s constitution, some created in statute, and some established through private
association. A constitutional amendment would be required to create a new public
body that could provide reliable operational coordination. Such a recommendation
would have been advanced had it been deemed necessary, but the Commission firmly
The Master Plan Renewed
7
believes that there is a better choice:
executive level.
voluntary coordination at the highest
An appropriate voluntary body, the California Education Round Table, made up of
the Superintendent of Public Instruction, the Chancellor of the California
Community Colleges, the Chancellor of the California State University, the
President of the University of California, the Chairman of the Association of
Independent California Colleges and Universities, and the Director of the California
Postsecondary Education Commission, has recently been formed. With this
membership and the will to succeed, this body should be able to effect a large
measure of cooperation and collaboration among the segments. Therefore,the
Commission recommends that:
1. The California Education Round Table shall be recognized as
the body responsible for providing the necessary operational
1
linkage for the state’s educational system. Among the most
pressing matters that must be addressed by this body are:
1
2
•
Establishing an agenda for practical and broad-based
research into methods of improving instruction and reducing
the dropout rate in the elementary and secondary schools;
•
Overseeing formal consultation among the segments
regarding changes in admissions requirements and
establishing an articulation mechanism to eliminate obstacles
to student progress through the system;
•
Overseeing intersegmental programs established to foster
equity throughout the educational enterprise;
•
Assuring support for coordinated outreach programs in the
public schools;
•
Assuring support for cooperative curriculum development
programs involving elementary and secondary school
teachers and college and university faculties;
•
Overseeing statewide, coordinated development and
application of new information technology networks to meet
instructional and other needs within and among the public
and private sectors; and
•
Creating and overseeing an Intersegmental Degree Programs
Board to guide studies of the need for and expanded
2
development of intersegmental degree programs.
For further detail, see Appendix A, item 1.
For further detail, see Appendix A, item 2.
8
The Master Plan Renewed
The Director of the California Postsecondary Education
Commission shall sit ex officio, without vote. The California
Postsecondary Education Commission shall report biennially to
the Governor, the Legislature, and the segments on the
effectiveness of the Round Table in performing its tasks.
The effectiveness of the Round Table in carrying out its responsibilities must be
evaluated on a continuing basis. The California Postsecondary Education
Commission is the appropriate agency to carry out this function, but the CPEC
director then cannot be a party to the decisions of the Round Table.
Missions Within a Unified System
The principal functions of postsecondary education are instruction and research.
Instruction is the primary function of all but the research university, which must
give equal attention to both instruction and research. The encouragement of
scholarship, creative activity, and public service are responsibilities of every
postsecondary institution and are understood by the Commission to be integral to
instruction and research.
The Commission has carefully reexamined the roles and missions of California’s
public and private postsecondary institutions in light of the changes that have
occurred and may be expected as the state approaches the 21st century. Much of
what is in the Master Plan may be reaffirmed, but the Commission believes that the
mission of each of the public segments should be stated with greater clarity in terms
of its contribution to instruction and research within a unified system.
The Commission believes it is important to state the instructional responsibilities of
the public schools in this context and to assign principal responsibility for vocational
instruction to the Community Colleges. The secondary schools should continue to
offer general vocational education, but the evidence is clear that as our economy
continues to mature the Community Colleges must take the lead in training men
and women for specific occupations. Responsibility for short-term job training shall
continue to be shared by the Community Colleges and Regional Occupational
Programs and Centers.
The Commission has studied, in depth, the issue of providing greater access to the
doctoral degree and has concluded that the need will be met best by expanding
intersegmental degree programs. Therefore, the Commission has specifically
charged the California Education Round Table with creating and overseeing an
Intersegmental Degree Programs Board and has outlined the composition and
responsibilities of the Board in advocating an expanded use of the intersegmental
degree.
The new mission statements must also clarify the role of the California State
University with respect to the research that is appropriate for a teaching university
The Master Plan Renewed
9
faculty. The 1960 Master Plan left ambiguous the state’s commitment to support
research at CSU. CSU is a very different institution than it was when the 1960
Master Plan was written. It offers undergraduate and graduate courses of great
breadth and depth. The CSU faculty, with appropriate state support, has much to
contribute through research to its students and to society in general. In view of the
size of CSU’s teacher education programs, it is particularly important that faculty
from all disciplines contribute to public school improvement through research in
elementary and secondary instruction and in the application of new instructional
technologies. The public schools are heavily invested in the use of new instructional
technologies, and the new teaching staffs must be knowledgable in the effective
application of those technologies. The University of California faculty must also
contribute its research, teaching, and professional skills to improve public school
instruction.
The Commission also believes that the accredited degree-granting independent
colleges and universities and the accredited occupational schools must be included as
the fourth and fifth segments of the postsecondary system. Among the accredited
degree-granting colleges and universities are some of the nation’s leading
independent institutions. These and the many accredited private vocational
training schools offer quality educational opportunities that are not provided by
public institutions, and together they serve large numbers of students who in their
absence would have to be accommodated in public institutions at the taxpayers’
expense. Therefore, the Commission recommends that:
2.
The missions of the public and accredited private segments
shall be as follows:
3
•
The public and private elementary and secondary schools
shall be responsible for academic and general vocational
instruction through the 12th grade, including preparation for
postsecondary instruction and general and academic
preparation for their students’ future participation in the
labor market, and such adult instruction as the state is
resolved to support.
•
The California Community Colleges shall offer academic and
vocational instruction at the lower-division level for the great
majority of “college-age” and older students. In addition, they
shall provide remedial instruction for students inadequately
prepared for postsecondary education, state-supported
noncredit instruction as deemed appropriate by the Board of
3
Governors, and fee-supported community service
For further detail, see Appendix B, item 1.
10
The Master Plan Renewed
instruction. The Community Colleges shall have principal but
not exclusive responsibility for vocational education.
4
5
•
The California State University shall offer undergraduate and
graduate instruction through the master’s degree in the
liberal arts and sciences and professional education,
including teacher education, through the master’s degree.
The doctoral degree may be awarded jointly with the
University of California or with a private institution of
postsecondary education, provided it is approved by the
California Postsecondary Education Commission. (Joint
doctoral programs may be recommended by the
Intersegmental Degree Programs Board, as well as by the
individual segments.) Research, scholarship, and creative
activity in support of its undergraduate and graduate
instructional mission is authorized in the California State
4
University and shall be supported by the state. The
California State University shall have a particular
responsibility among the public institutions for research in
elementary and secondary instruction and for conducting
5
research related to the instructional use of new technology;
4
the state shall also support these research responsibilities.
•
The University of California shall offer undergraduate
instruction and graduate instruction and professional
education through the doctoral degree. It shall have exclusive
jurisdiction in public higher education over instruction in the
profession of law and over graduate instruction in the
professions of medicine, dentistry, and veterinary medicine.
It shall have sole authority among the public segments to
award the doctoral degree in all fields of learning, except that
it may agree with the California State University to award
joint doctoral degrees subject to approval of the California
Postsecondary Education Commission. The University of
California shall be the primary state-supported academic
agency for research.
This is not meant to exclude support from nonstate funds.
Declineation of CSU’s rcsearch rcsponsiblities does not absolve the University of California from
its responsibilities in these areas.
The Master Plan Renewed
11
•
The independent, accredited degree-granting colleges,
universities, and professional schools shall provide
undergraduate and graduate instruction and research in
accordance with their missions.
•
The private, accredited occupational schools shall provide
vocational instruction according to established accreditation
standards.
•
All segments of education are responsible for ensuring that
students who are willing and able to prepare themselves for
advancement through the system have full and equal
opportunity to do so. All three public postsecondary
segments may determine that it is necessary to provide
remedial instruction, but the public schools have primary
responsibility through their regular programs and adult
6
schools for preparing students for postsecondary work.
A Unified Admissions and Transfer System
The authors of the 1960 Master Plan, foreseeing an unprecedented surge of
enrollment in public higher education, decided that a large number of lower-division
students (50,000 by their estimate) should be redirected to what were then the
Junior Colleges. They believed that this would be good for the students (by
enhancing access and quality) as well as for the taxpayers (the alternative was to
construct several additional four-year campuses or greatly enlarge existing
campuses). It was to be accomplished by reducing the eligibility pool for each fouryear segment and by asking each to reduce its lower-division enrollment to
40 percent of total undergraduate enrollment by 1975. The means of achieving the
40 percent goal were left to each segment to determine.
The redirection policy was based on the belief that students accommodated in the
Community Colleges would have the same opportunity to complete their lowerdivision studies and go on to upper-division study at a four-year institution as those
admitted to the four-year institutions as freshmen. The authors of the policy noted
explicitly “the high scholastic records made in both the state colleges (CSU) and the
University (UC) by junior college transfers.”
From 1960 through 1975, the California Community Colleges grew and prospered as
intended under the 1960 Master Plan. Many students who were eligible to enter UC
or CSU as freshmen, as well as others who were seeking a second chance, enrolled in
a Community College for the first two years of undergraduate instruction. As a
6
The need for remedial instruction, and for limitations on that instruction among the postsecondary
institutions, is discussed in the next section of this report.
12
The Master Plan Renewed
result, UC and CSU were able to meet the 40 percent goal for lower-division
enrollment in 1975 as agreed upon in the Master Plan, and the Community Colleges
were able to offer strong, comprehensive transfer programs. Throughout this period,
and to the present day, the University of California and the California State
University maintained the practice of admitting, some place within their systems,
all eligible students who applied during the regular enrollment period.
In the mid-1970s, however, the number of high school graduates began to decline in
California, as throughout the nation, and all postsecondary institutions were faced
with the prospect of declining enrollments. Both UC and CSU did suffer some
reductions in undergraduate enrollment but were able to recover quickly and
continue to grow. The Community Colleges also continued to grow for several years,
but only with important changes in their enrollment composition.
The total number of high school graduates continued to decline, and UC and CSU
began to attract a larger percentage of the high school graduates who were eligible
for admission as freshmen. Thus, fewer and fewer high school graduates enrolled as
full-time transfer students in the Community Colleges. As enrollment in the
transfer programs declined, those programs became less and less attractive to
baccalaureate-bound students who might have enrolled, academic standards
declined, and a downward spiral began. With the changes in Community College
funding that followed passage of Proposition 13 in 1978, course offerings were
reduced and counseling and testing services curtailed. The problem was only
compounded by the efforts of some Community Colleges to so broaden their programs
in search of enrollment that their real mission became obscured.
Now we are faced with the necessity of reversing this situation, of revitalizing the
Community Colleges so that they can once again offer solid opportunities for
students to progress through the system toward a baccalaureate degree. The
Commission has recommended a number of actions directed at this objective: the
intersegmentally-developed transfer core curriculum; mandatory assessment,
counseling, placement, and follow-up; minimum skill levels for all. courses; a more
7
focused Community College mission statement; a stronger governing structure; etc.
But all of this will not succeed until and unless the Community Colleges attract a
larger proportion of baccalaureate-bound students, and this will require the active
assistance of the University of California and the California State University in
changing the perception of the validity of the transfer option. There is widespread
agreement with the 1960 Master Planners’ statement that: “The quality of an
institution and that of a system of higher education are determined to a considerable
extent by the abilities of those it admits and retains as students.”
It is the Commission’s strong belief that the admission policy agreed upon in 1960
was correct then and is correct today. The Community Colleges have the physical
capacity and, with the reforms that have been recommended by this Commission,
7
See earlier Commission report., The Challenge of Change.
The Master Plan Renewed
13
will have the academic capacity to absorb a large increase in lower-division transfer
enrollment at substantially less cost than the University of California or the
California State University. The Community Colleges will be revitalized by a
rebuilding of their transfer programs. Initially underprepared students, including
large numbers of underrepresented minority students, will benefit by gaining
greater access to a baccalaureate degree through strong transfer programs in the
Community Colleges, where the great majority of underrepresented minorities are
enrolled.
Lower-division enrollment at the California State University is reported to be
approximately 39 percent of total undergraduate enrollment. Therefore, no action is
currently required of the California State University other than to maintain lowerdivision enrollment at or below 40 percent.
Lower-division enrollment at the University of California is approximately
46 percent of total undergraduate enrollment. Therefore, the University of
California must take steps, in partnership with the Community Colleges and the
California State University, to reinvigorate transfer programs and progress as
rapidly as possible toward a lower-division of not more than 40 percent. For UC to do
so, however, will require the strengthening of the Community College transfer
programs as recommended by the Commission, and the Community Colleges and the
University of California will need time to take the steps necessary to effect these
changes. The Commission is confident that effective steps can be taken and the
Community College transfer programs returned to their vital role in the Master
Plan, thus enhancing student choice among the segments for which they are eligible.
Finally, it has become clear over the past ten years that all public segments of
postsecondary education must work together in planning and administering their
admissions polices -- that there must be, in effect, a unified admissions and transfer
system. The policies and requirements of each public segment, and especially the
most selective segment, have too great an impact on the others to permit each to
operate autonomously. Thus, there must be a strong commitment to work in concert
to make the admission system and transfer programs work. Therefore, the
Commission recommends:
3.
The admission policy of each of the public segments shall be
as follows:
•
14
The California Community Colleges shall remain open to all
high school graduates and others at least eighteen years of
age capable of profiting from the instruction offered. It shall
be the basic policy of the state that all Community College
students shall have access to the Community College of their
choice without regard to district boundaries.
The Master Plan Renewed
•
The California State University shall select first-time
freshmen from those who rank among the top one-third of all
California public high school graduates, with graduates of
private and out-of-state secondary schools held to at least
equivalent levels.
•
The University of California shall select first-time freshmen
from those who rank among the top one-eighth of all
California public high school graduates, with graduates of
private and out-of-state secondary schools held to at least
equivalent levels.
•
Both four-year segments shall maintain lower-division
enrollment systemwide at no more than 40 percent of total
undergraduate enrollment. The means of achieving this goal
is left to each segment to determine. In determining eligibility
and selection, both segments shall consider criteria and
procedures that recognize skills, talents, knowledge, and the
potential for success and shall advise prospective applicants
and school counselors of those criteria. Both segments shall
continue to use special admissions involving exceptions to
these rules to increase the participation rates of
underrepresented groups.
•
The Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges
shall continue to implement the minimum skill level
requirements and mandatory assessment, counseling,
placement, and follow-up programs recommended by this
Commission. All three public segments shall proceed with the
development of the intersegmental transfer core curriculum.
•
The California State University shall maintain its lowerdivision enrollment at or below 40 percent of its
undergraduate enrollment systemwide, and its planning
documents shall reflect this policy.
•
Beginning in the academic year 1989-90, the University of
California shall reduce the percentage that lower-division
enrollment systemwide is of total undergraduate enrollment
by one percentage point each year through the academic year
1994-95. University enrollment planning documents, effective
1987-88, shall reflect this change and the goal of achieving a
lower-division enrollment, system wide, of no more than 40
percent of total undergraduate enrollment by 1995-96 and
maintaining that level thereafter.
The Master Plan Renewed
15
The right of qualified students to progress from a Community College to a
baccalaureate-level institution is fundamental to the objectives of the state’s
postsecondary education system, There must be no needless impediments to
progress if this right is to have meaning and if the transfer programs of the
Community Colleges are to be attractive to high school graduates regardless of their
original eligibility for admission to the California State University or the University
of California.
Early in their school years, all students (and their parents) must know that if they
prepare themselves they are entitled to a place in public postsecondary education.
There should be an aggressive outreach program to identify and encourage
Californians, in particular underrepresented minorities and students whose family
members have never been to college, to attend a postsecondary institution. Those
who enroll in a Community College must know that if they prepare themselves by
successfully completing the transfer curriculum they can progress to the upperdivision levels in a four-year university and, where capacity permits, at the public
campus of their choice. An effective transfer system is essential to meeting the needs
of California’s highly diverse population. Absent an effective transfer system, there
will be neither unity nor equity. Therefore, the Commission recommends that:
4.
The transfer function shall be recognized by the Governor,
Legislature, and governing boards as a central institutional
priority of all three public segments of postsecondary education:
16
•
The state shall guarantee by statute a place in postsecondary
education for all qualified California students who wish to
attend. Students who are eligible to enter the University of
California or the California State University directly out of
high school, but who attend a Community College, and all
others who succeed in the transfer curriculum at the
Community College level, shall be guaranteed future
enrollment as upper-division students at the University of
California or the California State University. The grade point
average required of all such transfer students shall be the
same within each segment regardless of their original
eligibility, and all such transfer students shall be treated
equally with continuing students for admission to the
programs of their choice.
•
Students who are eligible for admission to the University of
California or to the California State University as first-time
freshmen, but who elect to attend a Community College and
who complete the required number of units, including the
intersegmentally developed transfer core curriculum, with
the requisite grade point average, shall be admitted to the
The Master Plan Renewed
University of California campus or to the California State
University campus of their choice, depending upon their
original eligibility, subject to the planned enrollment
composition and growth for each campus.
•
The University of California and the California State
University shall require students who are not regularly
eligible for admission as freshmen (other than those admitted
under special provisions) to complete the intersegmentally
developed transfer core curriculum at a Community College.
Those who complete the required courses with the requisite
grade point average shall then be assured access to the
California State University system or the University of
California system as transfer students with full degree credit
for that coursework.
•
The Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges
shall have the authority and responsibility to guarantee that
all Community College students have access to courses that
meet the lower-division baccalaureate degree requirements of
California public universities. The Board, with the
cooperation of the University of California Regents and the
California State University Trustees, shall make sure that
students are clearly and fully informed as to which
Community College courses and units are transferable and
that requirements in the Community Colleges correspond to
the requirements for, entry to, and success in, upper-division
coursework.
•
The governing boards of the University of California, the
California State University, the California Community
Colleges, and the Association of Independent California
Colleges and Universities and the State Board of Education
shall be accountable for the implementation of formal
systemwide articulation agreements and comparable course
numbering systems within and among the segments as
developed through the articulation mechanism to be
established by the California Education Round Table.
•
The Governor and Legislature shall provide the financial
support necessary for the Community Colleges to offer
comprehensive transfer programs and supporting services
essential to an effective transfer function.
The California Postsecondary Education Commission shall advise
the Governor and Legislature annually as to the adequacy of state
support in this regard and as to compliance with these
The Master Plan Renewed
17
recommendations regarding both admissions and transfer on the
part of all three public segments of postsecondary education.
The chairs of the governing boards of the California State
University, the University of California, and the California
Community College system shall present yearly reports to the
Legislature on the status of transfer policies and rates and
outstanding problems of intersegmental articulation and
coordination.
Governance in a Unified System
The governing boards of public postsecondary institutions manage those institutions
as public trusts. They derive their authority either directly from the people through
the state constitution or indirectly through the Governor and Legislature by statute.
Either way, they must be fully empowered to carry out their responsibilities or they
are likely to be subject to frequent intervention by a variety of interests acting
through the Governor and Legislature. The California State University and the
University of California have strong governing structures that permit effective
management at the segmental as well as the campus level. The University of
California has been governed by the Board of Regents under Article IX of the
California Constitution from its founding. The California State University is
governed, as recommended in the 1960 Master Plan, by a statutorily created Board
of Trustees, a body to which the Legislature has delegated full authority for the
administration of all CSU campuses and programs. In practice, both boards delegate
substantial authority to their chief executive officers and academic senates, and
much of that authority is further delegated to the campuses.
The Community Colleges, on the other hand, have a weak central governing body
that has not enjoyed the confidence of the Governor and the Legislature and that
has, at best, unclear lines of authority with respect to the colleges. Moreover, the
evolution of the colleges from predominately locally-supported to state-supported
institutions has been accompanied by diminishing local responsibility and
increasing legislative intervention in their management and administration. The
state-level coordinating body, the Board of Governors, has not been delegated the
clear authority necessary to establish and enforce policies on a statewide basis. Such
authority is required to maintain a strong statewide system that can function
effectively as a full partner with the University of California, the California State
University, and the private institutions. That partnership is essential to the unified
system.
If the Community Colleges are to carry out their responsibilities within the unified
system, their governance structure must be strengthened substantially. In its
earlier report on the California Community Colleges titled The Challenge of Change,
this Commission recommended a number of measures to increase the authority and
stature of the Board of Governors, to strengthen the district governing boards, and to
18
The Master Plan Renewed
enhance the roles of faculty senates and student organizations in campus
administration. These measures are necessary but not sufffcient.
After detailed study and lengthy debate, the Commission has determined that the
Board of Governors must be delegated primary responsibility with respect to
academic and financial administration of the colleges and that a direct relationship
between the Board of Governors and the districts is necessary. Therefore,the
Commission recommends that:
5. The Governor and Legislature shall create the California
Community College system to be administered as a unified statelocal system by the Board of Governors with broad policy-making
and management responsibilities in both academic and financial
matters. The Community Colleges shall be acknowledged to be
postsecondary institutions and not part of the public school
8
system.
The proposed system provides for a unified state-local system that gives the Board of
Governors primary authority and responsibility with respect to academic and
financial management. While the Board undoubtedly will delegate many of the
responsibilities already assumed by the local district boards, the districts will now be
directly accountable to the Board for the implementation of statewide policy. The
new system provides for specific acknowledgement of the Community Colleges as
postsecondary institutions, removed from constraints associated with public school
governance.
The proposed system will greatly reduce the incentive for individual district officials
to approach the Legislature on their own. There will be one voice for the Community
Colleges in terms of statewide policy and appropriations, and the Legislature will be
less actively involved in trying to resolve individual problems raised by special
interest groups. The Community College system will be able to speak with one
authoritative voice as it develops an equal partnership with the other public and
private postsecondary segments.
Faculty and Student Participation in Governance
College and university faculties have a major role to play through their established
faculty senates in the academic administration of their campuses and segments. It is
appropriate that they be delegated by the governing board appropriate responsibility
with respect to such matters as establishing and enforcing academic standards,
developing the curriculum, the policies for hiring, evaluation, and retention of
faculty colleagues, and other academic matters. That is already the practice at the
University of California; it is less true at the California State University and only
8
For further details, see Appendix A, item 3.
The Master Plan Renewed
19
marginally true in the California Community Colleges. There is an Intersegmental
Committee of the Academic Senates, and if it is to play its part in a unified system all
academic senates must be able to work as peers with their colleagues.
The students must also be assured an opportunity to participate alongside the
faculty and administrators in those aspects of campus and segmental administration
that influence the achievements of their educational goals. Statewide student
organizations also need to cooperate with each other and draw on institutionally
based, effective student organizations.
The institutions will be strengthened through such delegation of authority by the
governing boards as long as ultimate responsibility and accountability remains, as it
must, with the governing boards. Therefore, the Commission recommends that:
6.
All three governing boards shall delegate appropriate
authority to faculty senates with respect to academic standards;
curriculum; policies for hiring, evaluation, and retention of faculty;
and other academic matters. Students in all three public segments
shall participate in appropriate aspects of campus and segmental
governance. Regardless of the extent to which they delegate
authority to administrators and the faculties, however, the
governing boards shall be accountable for achieving and
maintaining equity, quality, and efficiency in the operation of their
institutions.
20
The Master Plan Renewed
Toward Greater Equity
II.
California’s greatest asset is its diverse population. Such diversity is a blessing. It
will fuel continuing growth in the state’s economy, its cultural life, its opportunities.
But it will do so only if all citizens of the state have a full opportunity to share in that
growth. Assuring educational equity is key to meeting this challenge.
Educational equity goes beyond the legal guarantee of access to education. It is an
environment of fairness and responsiveness necessary for each person to fully reach
his or her educational potential. We will not succeed as a society unless there is a
commitment by the state and our educational institutions to equip all people to fully
participate in and contribute to the growth of our social institutions. An equitable
society is stronger because it draws on the talents of all its citizens.
A Guarantee of Equity
Educational equity is not new to California. It has long been a major priority in
educational policy, and a number of important programs and activities have been
established to achieve educational equity. Yet with few exceptions these programs
and activities have not yielded satisfactory results. Success in postsecondary
education -- and in the public schools -- continues to elude large numbers of
Californians, who as a consequence are unable to participate fully in the economic
growth of their communities.
With this experience, there are two choices. We can give up the effort, or, learning
from our mistakes, we can make our commitment more profound. The Commission
believes that California can and must choose the second course.
The most important lesson to be learned from past failures is that programs to
achieve equity cannot be treated as the responsibility of just another group or office.
Institutional barriers such as faculty and administrator attitudes, differential
treatment, discriminatory curricula, and indifference must be addressed. Equity
must be incorporated into every function of every educational institution, and
leadership must come from the governing boards and from the California Education
Round Table, which was originally formed for this purpose. Moreover, efforts to
achieve equity must be fully funded by the state and appropriate positive financial
incentives provided. Therefore, the Commission recommends that:
7.
Educational equity must have the commitment of the Governor,
Legislature, the segmental governing boards, and the California
Education Round Table and be a principal element in every aspect
of institutional operations:
The Master Plan Renewed
21
•
The governing boards must exercise continuing oversight of
their institutions’ effectiveness in achieving educational
equity. They must hold faculty and administrators
accountable for the success of each institution in achieving
equity, and themselves accept accountability to the people of
the state. They must regularly assess and evaluate
institutional progress toward equity, requesting reports by
campus that rate (1) diversification of the undergraduate and
graduate student bodies, (2) retention rates, with emphasis on
underrepresented and special-action students, (3) faculty
diversification, and (4) outreach efforts. They shall regularly
report to the Governor and Legislature on progress made
toward achieving educational equity.
•
The Governor and Legislature should develop and fund
positive performance driven incentives to encourage
improvement in each of the four areas listed above and
require regular reports from the segmental governing boards
on their progress in achieving educational equity.
The achievement of educational equity requires the presence of increased numbers of
minorities and women on the campuses as students, faculty, and staff. To
substantially raise the admission and retention rates for underrepresented
minorities, we must significantly increase the number of minority faculty mentors
on the campuses. Very small numbers of underrepresented minorities are now in the
“academic pipeline,” and national competition for their recruitment will be intense.
Women are underrepresented at the graduate level outside of the traditionally
female fields of English Literature and Education. There will be no change in the
composition of the CSU and UC faculties or student bodies in the absence of a
concerted effort to attract larger numbers of women and underrepresented
minorities into the pipeline -- now.
The Commission believes the state must increase financial aid for graduate
students. The state funds approximately 870 awards under its Graduate Fellowship
program. The doubling of this effort, coupled with affirmative action recruitment
programs, will produce a significant increase in the number of minority and female
doctoral candidates. In the meantime, early appointment of new faculty in
anticipation of vacancies, and additional support for research and teaching are
among the immediate steps necessary to ensure that the state can effectively
compete in the market for the most highly qualified faculty and can encourage
academic careers among underrepresented populations. Therefore, the Commission
recommends that:
22
The Master Plan Renewed
8.
The Governor and Legislature shall support responsible
governing board plans to enhance the quality, diversity, supply,
and recruitment of candidates for faculty and administrative
positions:
•
The Regents of the University of California, the Trustees of the
California State University, and the Board of Governors of the
California Community Colleges shall establish and the
Governor and Legislature fund a statewide program for the
early identification, recruitment, and training of minority and
women undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate students
for faculty and academic administrative positions.
Additionally, the Regents of the University of California and
the Board of Trustees of the California State University shall
establish and maintain a program for articulation between
CSU undergraduate and master’s programs and UC doctoral
and professional programs for the purpose of recruiting
9
underrepresented minorities and women to advanced study.
The independent institutions should be encouraged to
participate in all of these endeavors.
•
The Governor and Legislature shall increase support for
graduate student financial aid for all programs, with the
particular objective of increasing the number of female and
underrepresented minority students in the public and
independent universities who are preparing to become college
and university teachers.
The California Postsecondary Education Commission shall submit
to the Legislature an annual report on the status of faculty and
staff diversification in the public institutions. The report shall
include information by campus and, where necessary, by
department. Particular attention shall be given to those programs
that evidence special success or failure in recruiting and retaining
women and underrepresented minority faculty.
A Guarantee of Financial Assistance
For many potential students, the guarantee of a place in postsecondary education (as
stated in Chapter I) is insufficient to convince them and their parents that
postsecondary education is a reasonable aspiration. Low-income parents often see
9
CSU has institutions with large numbers of underrepresentcd minorities who do not see a natural
progression to the doctoral level at UC campuses.
The Master Plan Renewed
23
little hope of saving the funds necessary to allow their sons or daughters to attend
college, even a relatively low-cost community college, or of doing without the income
a son or daughter in school might otherwise provide. Knowledge of guaranteed
future financial assistance, however, can be a powerful incentive for high school
students to pursue rigorous programs in preparation for college study and for their
parents to give them the necessary encouragement and support.
State support for undergraduate student financial aid has risen greatly since 1960,
but it has not always kept pace with undergraduate enrollment growth in the public
and private institutions. Moreover, the maximum award amount under the Cal
Grant program has been permitted to lag well behind increases in the cost of
attending independent colleges and universities. As a consequence, many students
who might have attended an independent institution, at substantially less cost to the
taxpayers, have been unable to do so. The maximum award amount should be
increased to equal the average of the operating cost per student at UC and at CSU.
As long as the maximum award amount is at the combined average operating cost
per student for UC and CSU, the state will be assured that students may make full
use of the independent institutions without those institutions determining the cost of
state aid.
It is also important that state-funded student aid be “portable” -- that it be awarded
to the student rather than to the institution. When student aid is available only to
students enrolled in a public institution, the cost difference between public and
independent institutions is increased and student choice is diminished.
Over the past dozen years, there has been a dramatic change in the form in which
financial aid is provided to California students. Loans have risen from 25 percent to
50 percent of the total, while grants have declined from 65 percent to 43 percent (the
balance being student employment). As a consequence, indebtedness among
students, former students, and their parents has also risen rapidly.
The growth of student loans has enabled many students to enroll in postsecondary
institutions, and in California the bulk of grant aid continues to go to financially
needy students. Nevertheless, the Commission believes that loans should not be
allowed to be the primary form of student aid and that there should be increased
state support for student employment and grants. Moreover, the Commission
strongly favors the development of opportunities for graduates to repay their student
loans through public service employment. Therefore the Commission recommends
that:
9.
The Governor and Legislature shall guarantee student financial
aid in a manner which optimizes student choice:
•
24
The Governor and Legislature shall guarantee by statute that
all needy students who perform well, as evidenced by being
regularly admissible to the University of California or the
California State University, will be provided adequate
The Master Plan Renewed
financial support to attend an accredited California
institution of their choice, based on uniform estimates of need.
•
The Governor and Legislature shall adjust support for
undergraduate student financial aid so that the number of
awards keeps pace with enrollment growth. The maximum
award amount shall be raised and maintained at the
equivalent of the average full operating cost per student for
the California State University and the University of
California.
•
The Governor and Legislature shall seek to fund approximate
equality in grant and loan aid to stem the problem of
overreliance on loans. In addition, state support for student
employment both on campus and off campus shall be
provided to supplement grants and loans, and loan recipients
shall have an opportunity to repay their loans through public
service employment following completion of their studies.
The California Student Aid Commission shall regularly report to
the Governor and Legislature on the effectiveness of these
recommendations in accomplishing state policy.
A Guarantee of Equity for Older, Part-Time Students
There are implicit assumptions throughout the 1960 Master Plan that college
students would continue to be ethnically homogenous, well-prepared, recent high
school graduates who would attend college on a full-time basis. The organization of
California’s four-year universities continues to reflect these assumptions (with
important exceptions at some CSU campuses), but with the urbanization of the state
and its rapidly changing demographics, student characteristics have begun to
change significantly: the average age of the graduating college senior is beyond 24,
and the average age of the Community College student is 30; an increasing number
of students need to work; many former students are “retooling,” coming back to
Community Colleges or to four-year colleges for new skills or a second B.A.; there are
more reentry students, particularly women, returning to college to finish degrees;
and more students need to make up course deficiencies or take noncredit remedial
offerings and thus take longer to complete a degree.
The Commission has emphasized the centrality of the transfer function to the
successful operation of the educational system. Yet one of the clearest barriers to
student progression is the “full-time” nature of education at the University of
California and, to a lesser degree, the California State University. Some 70 percent
of Community College students are employed at least thirty-five hours per week, but
it is very difficult to combine full-time employment and study at the University of
California. The California State University system does somewhat better, but
The Master Plan Renewed
25
students who must work full-time during the day may find it difficult to take the
classes they need to graduate.
The trend toward the older, part-time student who works and has a family is clear.
The Community Colleges have been responsive, but the need to adapt university
programs to accommodate those students who wish to pursue a baccalaureate degree
is apparent. Therefore, the Commission recommends that:
10.
The California State University shall have responsibility for
meeting the needs of older, part-time students who desire to pursue
the baccalaureate degree. The University of California, however,
shall seek to accommodate those students whose aspirations lead
them to that institution. The role and mission statements of both
segments must contain a specific commitment to integrating such
students who are eligible to matriculate into academic degree
programs. The Regents and the Trustees shall make whatever
specific organizational changes are necessary to carry out that
commitment, and shall review and where necessary adapt
admissions standards for older students to account for the skills
and experience that are a better measure of potential success than
are out-of-date high school records.
The Governor and Legislature shall further express the state’s
commitment to equity for older, part-time students by funding at
the University of California and the California State University all
courses and programs leading to degrees for matriculated
students, whether on campus or off campus.
A Guarantee of the Chance to Succeed
Retention has become a major issue for the universities, both in terms of educational
equity and in preparing citizens of the state for future economic changes. If
California is to respond to the challenges of the emerging “high-tech” and serviceoriented economy, then increasing numbers of its citizens must be educated to at
least the baccalaureate level.
California currently ranks second nationally in percentage of adult citizens with at
least four years of college, but this is true in part because it attracts so many college
graduates from other states and nations. Graduation rates for the California State
University are much lower than for similar institutions. Graduation rates among
Black, Hispanic, and American Indian, and certain other underrepresented groups
are low in both the California State University and the University of California.
A variety of factors contribute to retention rates, and some are beyond the influence
of the institutions. However, there are both ethical and economic implications to
relatively low rates, and these must be addressed by the system. Students, of course,
26
The Master Plan Renewed
bear some responsibility for their own success, but the educational institutions must
share responsibility for the students they admit, including students who are
admitted as exceptions to regular admission criteria. Both the University of
California and the California State University have especially low retention rates
for special-action students. These rates must be improved substantially. Many of
the methods by which this objective can be attained -- mandatory assessment and
counseling, greater student-faculty interaction, tutorial assistance, or other means -may be chosen by each governing board according to the needs of its students at each
campus.
Remediation, however, is essential to retention. The authors of the 1960 Master
Plan thought the Community Colleges would “relieve” the four-year institutions “of
the burden of doing remedial work.” This has not proved true. Remediation has
been necessary in the four-year institutions not only for those admitted as exceptions
to the regular admission requirements but also for large numbers of regularly
admitted students. Many otherwise qualified students are inadequately prepared in
English or mathematics, or both.
In addition, the English speaking ability of recent immigrants, regardless of their
educational background, often must be improved before they can pursue a college
degree. Developing English as a Second Language (ESL) for immigrants new to
California is critical to the state’s future success. At present, ESL programs are
generally uncoordinated and vary greatly in their design and implementation. More
information is necessary to assure the development of the most effective ESL
programs.
The principal solution to these problems is to improve preparation in the public
schools, but that will take time. In the meantime, remedial instruction and
instruction in English as a Second Language will be necessary in the four-year
institutions to guarantee that otherwise qualified students, once admitted, have an
10
opportunity to succeed. Remedial education is not, however, a primary role. It
must be held to a minimum and it must not be credited toward fulfilling
baccalaureate degree requirements. The limitations will prevent remediation from
overtaking and supplanting the more fundamental instructional functions of each
segment. Successful remediation requires careful monitoring of student
development and progress. Therefore, the Commission recommends that:
11. The governing boards of the three public segments must be
held accountable for the retention rates among students admitted
to their institutions. The Board of Trustees of the California State
University and the Regents of the University of California shall
seek to achieve and maintain systemwide graduation rates that are
at least equal to or above the national averages for similar
10
See Appendix A, item 5, for a taxonomy of remedial instruction.
The Master Plan Renewed
27
institutions with comparable admission requirements. By 1995, the
University of California and the California State University should
improve their retention rates of special-action admittees to at least
two-thirds of those of the regularly admitted student body.
The segments may offer remedial courses, but only if such courses
are based on careful student assessment, counseling, placement,
and follow-up to improve the retention and success of
underprepared students -- particularly those admitted by special
action. The California Community Colleges shall limit the number
of units of remedial coursework a student may take -- with
exemptions or waivers possible in certain cases -- directing
students needing additional work to the adult basic education
programs. The University of California and the California State
University shall establish and maintain clearly defined academic
floors below which they shall not offer remedial courses and they
shall eventually phase-out remedial instruction, other than that
required for reentry students, as preparation of students by the
public schools improves. Remedial courses shall be state-funded
and shall carry workload credit, but may not be credited toward
the baccalaureate.
The California Postsecondary Education Commission shall
establish a Task Force on English as a Second Language to study,
evaluate, and make recommendations to the segments regarding
the development of effective ESL programs, and the three public
segments shall assure the effective articulation, coordination, and
11
quality of English as a Second Language programs.
11
See Appendix B, item 2 for further details.
28
The Master Plan Renewed
III.
Toward Enhancing Educational Quality
Without quality, the objectives of unity, equity, and efficiency are of little
consequence. The state and its educational institutions must share a commitment to
educational quality.
Quality in the Public Schools
Serious criticism has been leveled at the nation’s public schools. In response, many
reforms and initiatives have been put in place to improve their quality. The state’s
goal for the public schools is to graduate educated young men and women of all
backgrounds who have the skills and knowledge to continue on the academic or
occupational path of their choice and contribute to society. To do so requires
particular attention to high risk students and a sharp reduction in the dropout rate.
When that ideal is realized, the educational continuum will be strengthened to the
benefit of the students, the system, and the state. Postsecondary education must
contribute its expertise and resources to this high state priority.
The recruitment and training of greater numbers of talented, committed future
public school teachers of all backgrounds continues to be a pressing need. Research
into methods of teaching and learning are fundamental to greater success in the
public schools. The governing boards must impress upon their institutions that
better education of teachers is essential to improvement in the public schools, and
ultimately to the success of the universities themselves. The education of teachers is
a crucial institutionwide responsibility and must be reflected through faculty
commitments and priorities and through careful evaluation of prospective teachers
prior to their entry into the classroom. Public school personnel must be more fully
involved in all evaluative processes, not only of teachers but also in determination of
the research agenda for public school improvement. Therefore, the Commission
recommends that:
12. The Trustees of the California State University, the Regents of
the University of California, and the governing boards of
accredited degree-granting independent colleges and universities
shall make sure that the education of teachers is among the highest
priorities for institutional and systemwide support.
The Trustees of the California State University and the Regents of
the University of California shall formally recognize professional
service to the public schools as part of their faculties’
responsibilities. Faculty who contribute in this role should be
rewarded through the retention, promotion, and tenure process or
by other appropriate means such as reduced teaching loads or
released time for related research. The Board of Governors of the
California Community Colleges shall establish a pilot program or
The Master Plan Renewed
29
explore other means to encourage an enhanced role for
Community College faculty.
The Trustees of the California State University shall establish a
system of consultation with the public schools so that public school
teachers and administrators will have an opportunity to assist in
determining the education research agenda of the California State
University.
The teaching profession itself should bear a major responsibility
for the improvement of teacher education. The California State
University and the University of California shall require teacher
candidates to participate in classroom programs in which each is
jointly evaluated by a district teacher and a faculty member of the
student’s teacher training program. In addition, the state by
statute shall require professional appraisal of individual teacher
candidates -- as well as program approval of the institution -- prior
to certification.
Quality in Undergraduate Instruction
Questions about quality are not unique to the public schools. California’s
postsecondary institutions have long enjoyed world renown for their exceptional
quality, but in an era when specialized research is increasingly the primary measure
of faculty quality, undergraduate teaching suffers.
General education has been neglected in the undergraduate curriculum. The
purpose of undergraduate education is to prepare students to lead full, productive,
and useful lives and the flexibility to adapt to changing economic and social
conditions, new work-force needs, and demands of a multicultural society. General
education must therefore help students to develop critical thinking, creativity,
adaptability, and intellectual flexibility. The experience must draw not only on
western historical and philosophical traditions, but also on the traditions of the
broader world community and California’s new citizens. It must provide the
foundations of scientific theory and methods and the ideas, issues, and controversies
of technology. Ultimately, it should create common cultural frames of reference that
are civilizing influences on society as a whole. It should include language study and
instruction in the thought and history of other cultures. And it should teach the
value and importance of public service.
A strong general education program is at the core of undergraduate instruction. It
must provide a coherence and breadth to the students studies that prepare them for
productive lives while developing common values.
Especially at the lower-division level, however, the undergraduate curriculum is too
often fragmented and incoherent. Effective teaching and learning depend in part on
30
The Master Plan Renewed
the existence of a coherent rationale underlying the undergraduate curriculum.
Faculty must know how the courses they teach serve the intellectual development of
their students, and students need a fundamental understanding of why they study a
particular subject within the larger whole. Campuses must establish clear
curricular objectives, match curricular development to those objectives, and
institutionalize systematic evaluation of program and individual curricular
offerings. Therefore, the Commission recommends that:
13. The governing boards, in consultation with the faculty, shall
be responsible for the coherence and the quality of the
undergraduate curriculum, and, consistent with statutory mission
and role, they shall publish clear statements citing specific
curricular goals, objectives, and priorities for the segments as a
whole and for each of the campuses.
Governing boards must be forceful and proactive in protecting and
advancing general education within the undergraduate
curriculum and shall carefully consider in consultation with the
faculty the following actions: (1) creating a common general
education core curriculum, or designing coherent breadth
requirements with comprehensible goals and objectives; (2)
requiring two full years of general education, or developing
programs to ensure that general education is a continuing part of a
student’s education through the undergraduate years; (3)
expanding international and multicultural education programs to
enhance opportunities for developing understanding in these
areas; (4) requiring competency in a second language for all
college graduates both to meet the needs of a multilingual world
and to have the opportunity to understand a different culture
through its primary mode of expression; and (5) providing for
voluntary public service for credit, when appropriate, to enhance
opportunities for the development of civic responsibility.
The quality of classroom instruction is crucial to the success of students, not simply
as a means of conveying information, but because good teachers can motivate
students to seek greater academic challenges and achievement. Faculty
performance in the classroom must be a primary concern of the governing boards,
administration, and faculty. Faculty excellence in teaching must be a high
institutional priority. The principal mission of the California State University is
instruction, and faculty should be evaluated accordingly. The principal missions of
the University of California are instruction and research, and faculty should be
evaluated on both these grounds. At both CSU and UC, however, there is evidence
that teaching is not given appropriate priority. At some CSU campuses, research
has become an increasingly important criterion for faculty promotion. At UC,
although university policy theoretically gives equal weight to teaching and research,
teaching has been subordinate to the research imperative. In certain cases, there
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31
may be justification for emphasizing one over the other, but the general policy must
be that teaching is weighed equally with research for UC faculty and given greater
weight for CSU faculty. The governing boards must make sure that their policies to
this end are enforced. Therefore, the Commission recommends that:
14. The segmental governing boards must affirm that the
oversight of teaching quality is as important a governance issue as
their other management and administrative responsibilities. They
must require regular reports from the campuses and the
systemwide chief executive officers as to the state and quality of
undergraduate instruction for each campus and for the segment as
a whole. Such reports should have specific performance measures
that make it possible to determine the quality of instruction in each
of the colleges and universities.
The Trustees of the California State University shall by policy
declare and ensure that teaching is given the greatest weight
among the factors considered in the retention, promotion, and
tenure process. The Regents of the University of California shall
by policy declare and ensure that teaching is in fact of equal weight
to research in retention, promotion, and tenure. All three public
segmental governing boards shall ensure that teaching is of major
importance in post-tenure review.
The governing boards of the University of California and California’s independent
colleges and universities should examine requirements for the doctoral degree and
should insist on a restructuring of programs, where appropriate, toward greater
emphasis on the development of teaching skills for those candidates about to enter
the professoriate. Whether taught at public institutions in California, or elsewhere,
all faculty should be trained to teach before entering the classroom. Therefore, the
Commission recommends that:
15. The governing boards shall ensure that all faculty and
teaching assistants have the necessary instructional skills prior to
entering a classroom. They shall provide incentives for teaching
excellence not only through the retention, promotion, and tenure
process but by other appropriate mechanisms as well. Direct
faculty interaction with students through advising and other outof-classroom contact are integral parts of the teaching function
and should be encouraged and rewarded accordingly.
The public colleges and universities must be free to employ both part-time and fulltime faculty to fill specific needs and to make the best use of available resources.
Part-time faculty have much to contribute and frequently bring special knowledge
and background to the classroom. Some, however, are overextended and teach at
multiple institutions with little time for out of classroom contact with students or
other faculty responsibilities. The institutions must make sure that the teaching,
counseling, and curricular responsibilities of part-time faculty are similar to those
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The Master Plan Renewed
for full-time faculty, both in and out of the classroom, and that part-time faculty are
compensated accordingly. Part-time faculty are more frequently used in the
Community Colleges to fill the need for additional faculty. Thus, the Board of
Governors must make an extra effort to ensure that instructional quality does not
suffer as a result. Therefore, the Commission recommends that:
16. The segmental governing boards shall thoroughly evaluate
policies regarding part-time faculty to ensure that all departmental
and collegial responsibilities are met. Through periodic review,
they shall make sure that the use of part-time faculty does not
undermine instructional quality or become excessive and is
reduced where it is already excessive.
The Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges
shall develop pilot programs that offer faculty rolling contracts of
two to five years in length as an alternative to multiple part-time
appointments at several institutions, giving the college greater
latitude in meeting staffing needs and permitting part-time faculty
to better meet student needs. Tenured faculty members should not
be discouraged from transferring between districts as need occurs,
and the Board shall by policy ensure that tenure in one district can
be regained in a new district in a relatively short period of time.
Changing educational conditions dictate changes in the skills needed by college
faculties. Faculty members must remain current in rapidly advancing fields if they
are to adequately address student needs. They must have the time and support
necessary to develop new pedagogical approaches in light of inadequacies in the
lecture system, the need for closer student-faculty interaction, and the development
of new instructional technologies. Many faculty members need further development
in intercultural and interpersonal skills if they are to respond sensitively and
effectively to much more heterogeneous student bodies and a variety of new student
concerns. Thus, professional development is needed not only in the scholarly field,
but also for professional renewal to meet changing circumstances. Therefore, the
Commission recommends that:
17. The Governor and Legislature, by providing adequate state
financial support, and the governing boards, by policy, shall
actively encourage and support faculty professional development.
The burden of too many students per class and too many classes to teach often
prevents faculty from giving careful attention to all their students, adequately
preparing for classes, meeting public service and research obligations, and seeing to
their own professional growth. All of these demands are exacerbated when studentfaculty ratios are allowed to increase as they have in recent years. Rising studentfaculty ratios are clearly detrimental to instructional quality. Therefore, the
Commission recommends that:
The Master Plan Renewed
33
18.
The Governor and Legislature shall stem the trend toward
increased student-faculty ratios and shall carefully consider
whether current student-faculty ratios are detrimental to quality
instruction and should be reduced.
Quality in Vocational Education
Quality in vocational education has long been of state interest. As the pressures
increase to provide a wide range of career training and skill improvement
opportunities, the need to ensure quality becomes even more important. Previous
efforts to determine the success and quality of vocational education have been
handicapped, however, by the lack of a comprehensive data base on programs offered
and students served by the public sector. Moreover, private postsecondary
vocational schools now provide a large share of all vocational instruction and job
training, but little is known about the scope of their programs or their effectiveness.
Therefore, the Commission recommends that:
19. The State Job Training Coordinating Council shall establish
an integrated statewide system of planning, evaluation, and data
collection for the use of all public and private institutions which
offer vocational education and job training. The Council shall be
responsible for the initial establishment of the system and in doing
so shall consult with the Board of Governors, the California
Postsecondary Education Commission, and the State Board of
Education. All private occupational schools shall be required to
participate in the state system of data collection as a condition of
accreditation, licensing, or approval by the state.
The California Postsecondary Education Commission is responsible for seeing that
information about labor market patterns, the training requirements of each
occupation, licensing requirements, and existing program offerings are considered
when decisions are made about establishing or maintaining vocational programs. At
present, however, it lacks the staff to do so on a timely and comprehensive basis.
Therefore, the Commission recommends that:
20.
The Governor and Legislature shall fund a strengthened
program review office in the California Postsecondary Education
Commission specifically to include the capacity to review
vocational and occupational programs in the two-year and fouryear institutions.
34
The Master Plan Renewed
Quality in Graduate Instruction
Graduate education constitutes an important element of postsecondary education,
one that will become increasingly significant in the next few decades. More and
more students are likely to seek graduate degrees as part of their career preparation
or advancement, and graduate study is likely to become a necessity for advancement
in an increasing number of occupations.
California is blessed with outstanding graduate programs -- particularly in the
public sector, but also among several of the state’s independent institutions. Those
graduate programs successfully compete in national and international arenas with
enormous benefit to California in terms of its financial and human resources.
To maintain our preeminence in graduate education we must be certain that
competing pressures do not diminish program quality. The state must be prepared to
make the essential budgetary commitment to support continuing authorized growth
of graduate education, but limited resources must be effectively allocated to areas
that are responsive to societal needs as well as to state priorities and concerns. This
will require periodic review of existing as well as proposed new programs.
Special attention must be given to master’s degree programs. In recent years, the
meaning and purpose of the master’s degree has become increasingly confused. In
some cases it is clearly a terminal degree necessary for certification and
advancement in a profession. In other fields, however, master’s programs often end
up competing directly with parallel undergraduate programs (e.g., in certain cases
between the M.B.A. and undergraduate business degrees, or the master’s in social
work and B.S.W. programs). In many liberal arts and sciences fields, the degree has
become merely a consolation prize for persons who stop short of the doctorate.
Therefore, the Commission recommends that:
21. The Regents of the University of California and the Trustees
of the California State University shall maintain consistent policies
for rigorous and systematic review of the quality of graduate
programs. In addition to quality evaluations, reviews must
determine whether there is a continuing need and adequate
resources for both existing and new programs; programs for which
both conditions do not exist shall be phased out. CPEC shall
advise the segments, the Governor, and the Legislature on
segmental compliance with this policy.
The California Postsecondary Education Commission seek private
foundation or state support for a blue ribbon commission to study
the master’s degree in the California State University, the
University of California, and the independent institutions.
The Master Plan Renewed
35
Based upon the result of such reviews, students applying for admission to doctoral
programs should be given specific information about the ratio of applications to
acceptance for the previous years, placement experience of earlier graduates, sources
of student aid for students currently enrolled, levels of indebtedness for those
completing the degree in the previous five years, ethnic and gender distribution of
program students, and length of time to complete the degree.
Quality in the New Instructional Technologies
New instructional technologies have the exciting potential for revolutionizing the
educational process. Improving the quality of learning through the application of
these rapidly changing and advancing technologies is a serious issue. It requires
careful monitoring and evaluation for impact on students and their development of
critical cognitive skills, particularly in the public schools where the application of
technology to instruction is already quite extensive.
Systemwide policies endorsed by institutional governing boards and supported by
the central administration, faculty, and students, are essential to the successful
application and integration of the new instructional technologies. Such policy
endorsement will enable the institutions to employ these technologies on a scale that
will enhance the delivery of information and instruction and provide for
interconnected networks allowing free movement of information between campuses,
sharing of resources, elimination of unnecessary duplication, and support of
instructional activities both on and off campus.
Among the public segments, the California State University produces the majority of
teachers in California and thus has a major responsibility for assuring that the most
up-to-date means of enhancing instruction, while maintaining quality, are utilized
by faculty within the colleges and universities and within the schools of education.
The California State University has an excellent history of technological integration
and implementation and an extensive systemwide network already in place.
Therefore, the Commission recommends that:
22.
The governing boards of the California State University, the
University of California, and the California Community Colleges
shall establish appropriate infrastructures in their systems and on
their campuses so that the new instructional technologies are
effectively integrated in support of the fundamental institutional
missions.
36
The Master Plan Renewed
The California State University shall have a particular
responsibility for and shall receive state support to research and
evaluate the impact new instructional technologies have on the
learning process. CSU shall work in close consultation with the
University of California, the California Community Colleges, the
State Department of Education, and representatives of the
independent institutions through the California Education Round
Table.
Accreditation
Regional, national, and specialized accreditation are the principal guarantees of
overall institutional quality in American higher education. Through this voluntary
system, institutional quality is subject to peer review organized and administered by
practicing educators. This system has avoided the creation of ministries of education
of the sort that have so bureaucratized and politicized the educational systems of
many other countries.
Voluntary accreditation, however, has problems. Regional accrediting agencies,
which accredit the whole institution, are criticized for evaluating quality in terms of
inputs or resources (library holdings, student-faculty ratios, facilities, percentage of
faculty holding the doctorate), rather than in terms of what happens to the students.
Specialized accrediting agencies, which accredit particular programs such as
engineering or business, often insist on so many discipline-specific requirements
that the students’ general education suffers. Because of the large stake the state has
in ensuring postsecondary quality, the representatives of California’s public and
private institutions who serve on the accrediting boards must be held responsible for
the implementation of necessary improvements in the accreditation process.
Therefore, the Commission recommends:
23.
To assure quality and breadth in the undergraduate
curriculum, the chief executive officers and other representatives
of the University of California, the California State University, the
California Community Colleges, and California’s accredited
private institutions must exert their influence as board members of
various accrediting agencies to insure that:
(a) the regional accrediting commissions take sufficient
cognizance of student "outcomes" in evaluating institutions -holding colleges and universities accountable for clear
expectations for student learning and appropriate assessment
programs to determine whether the expectations are being met;
and
The Master Plan Renewed
37
(b) the programmatic accrediting agencies acknowledge the
larger institutional missions and purposes of undergraduate
colleges and the importance of maintaining the integrity of the
general education curriculum guarding against over specialization
and excessive requirements for academic majors.
Many institutions, however, are unaccredited and are instead licensed by the state.
The Commission is concerned that current licensing procedures may not provide
adequate protection for students and assist individual schools in maintaining
quality. For these schools, the state should strengthen and maintain policies for
regular and careful review of all licensing procedures, and it should limit the
operation of unaccredited institutions to those that demonstrate through the
12
licensing process that they offer quality programs.
12
See Appendix B, item 3 for details of a legislatively mandated study.
38
The Master Plan Renewed
IV.
Toward More Efficient Use of
Educational Resources
If instructional quality and responsiveness to diversity are to be ensured in the
future, California must be certain that it is now making effective and efficient use of
all of its postsecondary education resources, public and private. In an era of rapidly
rising costs for other public services and growing constraints on state revenues,
efficiency in the operation of the public institutions is essential if there is to be
adequate funding for further growth. Although enrollment is increasing relatively
slowly now, very substantial growth is projected for the 1990’s.
Greater attention must also be given to potential methods of containing operating
and capital costs, establishing and maintaining efficient pricing policies, and
employing equitable funding formulas that reflect institutional missions. Longrange planning, coordinated by the California Postsecondary Education
Commission, must become a central element in the management of each segment.
Long-Range Planning and Cost Containment
Postsecondary education, which now receives approximately 16 percent of state
General Fund revenues, must compete with the public schools, health care,
corrections, and other major state-supported services for additional funding.
Therefore, every effort must be made to assure taxpayers that funds for
postsecondary education are being used as efficiently as possible. Long-range
planning and cost containment are the responsibility of each segment and the
California Postsecondary Education Commission.
Continuing, systematic long-range planning is essential to the efficient and orderly
growth of postsecondary education in California. Long-range planning must take
into account such matters as projected enrollment growth, undergraduate and
graduate academic plans, faculty supply and demand, educational equity, facility
and space standards, potential uses of new technology, funding sources, the need for
student services, and the impact of one segment’s decisions on the academic and
financial health of the others. Such planning also must be based upon certain
common assumptions, including assumptions about enrollment growth or decline in
both the public and the private sectors.
In the absence of systematic and comprehensive long-range planning, important
public policy decisions are often made on an ad hoc basis and before many are aware
that they have been made. Examples of this are common in the selection of new
campus sites, the patterns of growth in undergraduate enrollment, the allocation of
student financial aid, the development of new instructional programs, and many
other ways.
The Master Plan Renewed
39
Central to effective long-range planning is the development of comprehensive longrange enrollment projections. The Department of Finance is the appropriate agency
to prepare the projections for the public institutions on which current support and
capital outlay budgets are based. CPEC, working with the Department of Finance
and the segments, must take responsibility for extending those projections to
encompass all of postsecondary education and to take into account the full array of
factors that are likely to affect enrollments in this state. Therefore, the Commission
recommends that:
24.
The California Postsecondary Education Commission shall
have the following responsibilities with regard to long-range
planning in consultation with the segments: (1) development of a
common definition of long-range planning; (2) development of a
common set of assumptions upon which such planning is to be
based; (3) review of segmental activities to verify that they
periodically prepare and update long-range plans based upon the
common set of assumptions; and (4) annual preparation of detailed
20-year projections of postsecondary enrollment in the public and
private sectors at all levels of instruction, built upon the
projections prepared by the Department of Finance.
Each segment will continue to be responsible for developing its own long-range
academic and facility plans, but such plans will be related to the development of
postsecondary education generally and not simply to the aspirations of each
segment. Moreover, CPEC will be informed of such planning as it takes place, rather
than after the fact as at present.
It is also extremely important that any proposed expansion of existing campuses or
development of new campuses and off-campus centers be justified according to the
mission of each segment. Community College campuses should be expanded or new
colleges built as necessary for growth in lower-division and occupational programs,
13
but not for increases in noncredit and community service courses. CSU campuses
should be expanded or new campuses built to serve growth in undergraduate and
graduate enrollment through the master’s degree. UC campuses should be
expanded to serve authorized growth at the graduate level plus related
undergraduate enrollment. Neither should be expanded principally to accommodate
growth at the lower-division level. An increase in the number of high school
graduates going on to college is not-sufficient justification for building new research
or teaching university campuses. Therefore, the Commission recommends that:
25.
In reviewing the proposed growth of existing campuses and
the development of new campuses and off-campus centers, the
segmental governing boards and the California Postsecondary
Education Commission shall verify that the proposed growth is
13
See Appendix B, item 1 for further discussion noncredit instruction.
40
The Master Plan Renewed
appropriate to the mission of each segment. The Community
Colleges shall be expanded as necessary to accommodate growth
in demand for lower-division academic and vocational instruction
for credit; the California State University shall be expanded as
necessary to accommodate growth in demand for upper-division
instruction and instruction through the master’s degree and the
accompanying lower-division enrollment; the University of
California shall be expanded as necessary to accommodate
approved growth in graduate and postgraduate instruction and
the accompanying undergraduate enrollment.
Many of the statutory responsibilities of CPEC pertain to cost containment and the
maintenance of efficiency in postsecondary education expenditures. CPEC is also
authorized to gather information from the private institutions which it may use to
determine whether there is excess capacity in those institutions that may be used to
accommodate projected enrollment growth. Therefore, the Commission recommends
that:
26.
The California Postsecondary Education Commission, in
cooperation with the Department of Finance and the Legislative
Analyst, and in consultation with the segments, shall regularly
review methods of controlling state-supported costs of
postsecondary education and for the elimination of waste and
unnecessary duplication. These reviews shall include a careful
examination of ways in which unused capacity among private
institutions may be employed to accommodate enrollment growth
at the undergraduate and graduate levels and thus reduce costs to
the state’s taxpayers.
California has long been a leader in the use of workload measures (formulas) as a
basis for determining the annual state appropriations for support of postsecondary
education. These formulas have the merit of being relatively objective and
predictable in their application. In time, however, budget formulas may provide
unexpected spending incentives or may produce differing levels of institutional
support that cannot be justified by differences in mission.
For these reasons, the state’s budget formulas must be reexamined periodically to
make certain that they do not have unintended and undesirable results. Inasmuch
as CPEC also is directed by statute to establish (in consultation with the segments,
the Department of Finance, and the Legislative Analyst), criteria for state support
for new and existing postsecondary programs, it is the appropriate agency to
undertake such studies. Therefore, the Commission recommends that:
27. The California
Postsecondary Education Commission, with
the assistance of the Department of Finance, the Legislative
Analyst, and the three public segments of postsecondary
education, shall regularly examine the formulas used to budget
The Master Plan Renewed
45
state support for each of the public segments. The objective of
these studies shall be to make recommendations to the Governor
and Legislature about ways to eliminate incentives for excessive
spending, eliminate differences in funding formulas that are not
justified by differences in role and mission, and maintain an
equitable allocation of state support among the three segments.
These studies should also include determination of costs by level of
14
instruction for all three public segments.
Budgeting State Support for the California Community Colleges
Current funding for the Community Colleges is determined according to statutory
formulas in the Education Code, much like current funding for the public schools.
There is no budget development process from the campuses up through the Board of
Governors comparable to that of the University of California and the California
State University. The Board of Governors plays little part in the budget process
except when a change in the statutory formula is proposed, and then it is but one
among many Community College organizations seeking to influence the
Legislature’s decisions as it considers proposed amendments to the funding statutes.
This serves to weaken the Board of Governors and deny the Community Colleges a
strong, unified voice in the state’s annual budget deliberations. It also tends to
exclude the Community Colleges from other funding decisions for postsecondary
education. Therefore, the Commission recommends that:
28.
The California Community Colleges shall be funded by the
state through the annual budget act according to standards and
workload measures appropriate to their status as postsecondary
institutions. The Board of Governors shall be authorized by
statute to allocate state support among the districts and colleges
according to rules and regulations to be established by the Board.
Funding for Community College capital outlay projects shall be
provided by the state in the same manner as is employed for the
University of California and the California State University.
At present, Community College enrollment growth in credit classes and in statesupported noncredit classes is funded only to the extent that it does not exceed
growth in the adult population. This “cap” was imposed some years ago when
sudden and unanticipated growth in a single year threatened the state’s ability to
fund other public services. A ceiling on growth in noncredit instruction, which is
subject to a large degree of administrative control, may be necessary, but the ceiling
on credit enrollment is not justified in the Commission’s view. At times, Community
14
See Appendix A, item 4, for further details.
42
The Master Plan Renewed
College credit enrollment can and should grow more rapidly than the total adult
population, and imposition of an arbitrary ceiling only reduces the level of support
for the most rapidly growing colleges. Therefore, the Commission recommends that:
29. The statutory provision limiting the annual increase in state
support for the Community Colleges to the percentage growth in
the state’s adult population shall be repealed by the Legislature,
but the Board of Governors shall be responsible for guarding
against sudden unanticipated increases in enrollment that strain
state funding resources.
Pricing Public Postsecondary Education
Recent legislation has established that in California the state is primarily
responsible for the cost of providing postsecondary education, but that students in all
three public segments should bear a portion of the total cost of their education. It has
also established that fees should be low and any changes in fees should be gradual,
moderate, and predictable.
The Commission strongly supports this policy. Low student fees are a strong
tradition in this state. In prior years when state funding was constrained by a
decrease in revenues or by particularly intense competition for the funds available,
the four-year segments, especially, tended to rely on adjustments in student fees to
help fill the shortfall. The result was unpredictable increases in student fees, which
placed unprecedented burdens on currently enrolled students and discouraged
potential students from attending.
The Board of Governors should have much the same authority with respect to the
determination of student charges as the Trustees of the California State University.
The exercise of such authority would be consistent with other Commission
recommendations regarding the Board of Governors’ fiscal duties and
responsibilities. Therefore, the Commission recommends that:
30.
The state shall continue to be primarily responsible for
funding postsecondary education, and students shall continue to
pay a portion of the cost; but student charges shall not be changed
substantially in any single year. Fees shall be maintained by the
state and governing boards in a constant relationship to state
support within each segment, and fee increases that do occur shall
be waived or offset by financial aid for needy students.
The Board of Governors shall be given statutory responsibility for
establishing Community College charges.
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43
If graduate studies are substantially more costly than undergraduate studies,
student charges may very well reflect that difference. At the same time, however,
the governing boards shall not establish fees in a manner that will unduly influence
student choices as to the courses and programs in which they enroll or needlessly
discourage full-time enrollment. Moreover, if student charges are differentiated
according to level or program, it shall be the responsibility of the governing board to
support such differentiations with appropriate cost data. Therefore, the Commission
recommends that:
31.
The segmental governing boards shall have authority to
differentiate between undergraduate and graduate levels and
between professional programs at the graduate level in
establishing student charges. Segmental governing boards shall
have the authority to set fees in relation to costs in a manner that
will not unduly influence student program decisions.
Nonresident students in all three public segments should be expected to pay the full
(average) cost of their instruction. California benefits substantially from the influx
of large numbers of students from other states and nations, many of whom become
permanent residents. Until such students do become residents, however, it is
appropriate that they and their families, rather than the California taxpayers, pay
for the cost of their instruction. Therefore, the Commission recommends that:
32.
Nonresident tuition for all three public segments shall be
equal to the average cost of instruction and related services,
including administration but excluding research, except that it
shall not exceed the average charge at comparable institutions in
other states.
Student Financial Aid Policy
When the 1960 Master Plan was written, student financial aid was uncomplicated
and very limited, and student aid policy formulation could remain with the
Governor, the Legislature, and the segments. In the intervening years, student
financial aid has become a very complex matter of substantial importance to many
students and to every postsecondary institution, public and private. Decisions as to
which students are to receive aid, in what amounts, in what forms, at what
institutions, and for what studies are now major factors in determining not only
access to postsecondary education but the structure of the postsecondary enterprise
itself.
In the absence of a body that is responsible for student aid policy, however, a number
of important issues have not received the systematic consideration they merit.
These issues include the declining share of state grants going to students at
independent colleges and universities, the increase in institutional (nonportable) aid
at public institutions, changes in student aid necessary to meet the needs of a more
diverse student population, the appropriateness of funding student aid from student
44
The Master Plan Renewed
fees, the efficacy of student aid as a manpower development device, and other
matters.
California also needs a unified and authoritative voice in Washington D.C. to
respond to proposed changes in federal policy, express the state’s views (rather than
those of the individual institutions), and help in other ways to shape federal policy so
that it is of maximum benefit to California’s students. At present, there is no state
agency capable of doing this.
If the state is to gain the ability to formulate a coherent, effective student aid policy,
it is logical that responsibility for doing so should be assigned to the Student Aid
Commission, the agency that now has primary responsibility for administering state
student financial aid. The commission’s policy responsibility should encompass not
only those programs that it administers, but state-supported student financial aid in
all its forms, including the grants, loans, waivers, and work-study programs
administered by the segments. Therefore, the Commission recommends that:
33.
The Student Aid Commission shall, by statute, have primary
responsibility for formulating state financial aid policy and shall
administer all state-funded student financial aid programs other
than those administered by the institutions.
Accompanying this change in the commission’s responsibilities should be a change
in its membership. The Student Aid Commission is now composed of 15 members, of
which 7 are public members and 8 (including two students) are representatives of the
public and private segments and the public schools. As the commission takes on
responsibility for state policy formulation for student financial aid, its membership
should be expanded to include a majority of public members.
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V.
Resources and Responsibility
If unity, equity, quality, and efficiency are to be achieved, the Governor, the
Legislature, and the people of California must provide the required financial
resources. They, we, must provide the resources necessary to support the continuing
quality and efficiency of operation we expect of our postsecondary institutions. Our
expectations of our colleges and universities, in short, must be matched by our
willingness to meet their costs.
Education at all levels now receives about 55 percent of the State’s General Fund
expenditures and postsecondary education about 16 percent. As recommended
reforms are carried out in the elementary and secondary schools and enrollment at
all levels continues to rise more rapidly than the state’s population, there is little
likelihood that these percentages will decline. On the contrary, there will be strong
pressures to raise them,
In this study, therefore, the Commission has given considerable attention to policies
that can be expected to produce savings as well as policies that carry with them
undeniable cost increases. Accommodating larger numbers of lower-division
students in the Community Colleges rather than in the universities, taking
advantage of unused capacity in private institutions, developing a coordinated
system of long-range planning, and other actions recommended by the Commission
will produce long-term savings of substantial magnitude. Moreover, investment in
postsecondary education will pay off in greater economic growth and, if true equity is
achieved, lower costs for law enforcement, welfare, and other social programs.
In most cases, however, the probable costs of the Commission’s recommendations are
more easily identified than the potential savings. Based upon the data available to
the Commission at this time and certain assumptions as to decisions by the
Governor, Legislature, and governing boards, it appears that (as detailed in
Appendix C) if all the Commission’s recommendations were to be adopted, the total
additional annual cost in 1988-89 would be approximately $252 million and
quantifiable total savings of approximately $10 million for a net cost increase of
about $242 million (as compared with current annual state support totaling nearly
$5 billion). Approximately $98.3 million of the increase would result from
enrollment growth.
Nearly three decades ago, in the face of projected sharp increases in cost, the authors
of the 1960 Master Plan were confident that “whatever is required in the future to
offer qualified students an efficient program of public higher education will be
provided by the citizens of the state.” The members of this Commission share that
confidence today. We believe that the citizens of this state will continue to be
committed to supporting a postsecondary education system that is unified, equitable,
of the highest quality, and efficiently operated.
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47
There is, however, an important obstacle to the fulfillment of this commitment.
Article XIIIB of the California Constitution, adopted by the voters in 1979,
establishes a limit on state and local spending that in the past few years has begun to
loom as a serious threat to the state’s ability to adequately support education at all
levels. Under the provisions of Article XIIIB, state population growth determines
how much can be spent for education, but enrollment in the public schools and in
postsecondary institutions has been growing much faster than the state’s population.
Thus, it is likely to be increasingly difficult to maintain current levels of spending,
quite apart from implementing the reforms and effecting the other changes that are
called for in this and other recent studies of California’s educational-system.
There may be ways in which the Governor and Legislature can postpone the impact
of Article XIIIB. It is likely, however, that Californians will be called upon to choose
between repealing or modifying Article XIIIB or abandoning their traditional
commitment to educational opportunity. We believe that they should not abandon
that commitment.
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APPENDIX A
SUPPLEMENTARY RECOMMENDATIONS
Appendix A
Supplementary Recommendations
Following are a group of supplementary recommendations which expand upon and
clarify recommendations made in the main body of the report. In general, the
supplementary recommendations include detailed specifics inappropriate to easy
reading of the main text. The supplementary recommendations, however, are to be
fully considered in the revision of the Master Plan.
Intersegmental Coordinating Council
1.
The California Education Round Table is established in Chapter I as the
primary body responsible for necessary operational linkage between the
segments within the larger educational system. The Round Table, in turn,
needs an administrative, coordinating, and recommending staff agency to
facilitate cooperation among the segments. Therefore, the Commission
recommends:
The California Education Round Table shall establish an
Inter-segmental Coordinating Council to assist it in carrying out its
responsibilities. This Council shall be made up of senior staff from
each segment and the California Postsecondary Education
Commission, and shall include representatives of the academic
senates and students of each postsecondary segment.
2.
Intersegmental Degree Programs Board
The California Education Round Table is charged in Chapters I and III with
creating and overseeing an Intersegmental Degree Programs Board to guide
studies of the need for intersegmental degree programs. To facilitate the
development of an effective board, the Commission recommends:
The Intersegmental Degree Programs Board shall be composed of
appointees representing the University of California, the California
State University, and the California Community Colleges, as well as
representatives from the independent colleges and the State
Superintendent of Public Instruction. The funding for the
Intersegmental Degree Programs Board shall be through the
California State University budget, and staff shall be under the
direction of the Intersegmental Degree Programs Board.
The Intersegmental Degree Programs Board shall examine the issue
of access to and need for intersegmental graduate degree programs,
as one of its tasks. Such intersegmental degree programs as the
Intersegmental Degree Programs Board recommends shall be subject
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to the normal review processes of the segments as well as those of the
California Postsecondary Education Commission. The development
of policies and procedures for such intersegmental degrees, a regular
review of and reporting of such programs, and a process for airing
differences shall be the responsibility of the California Education
Round Table.
The Intersegmental Degree Programs Board shall be charged with
the responsibility to find ways to use all of the state’s postsecondary
education resources in meeting determined needs and eliminating
obstacles to a more expansive use of intersegmental graduate degrees.
The effectiveness of the Intersegmental Degree Programs Board and
the intersegmental degree in meeting students access to and need for
doctoral education shall be subject to review in five years by the
California Postsecondary Education Commission.
Community College Governance
3.
In Chapter I, the Commission recommends significant strengthening of
Community College governance. Following are detailed recommendations
as to how that strengthening is to be accomplished.
The California Community Colleges shall be reestablished in statute
as a unified state-local postsecondary system. They shall no longer be
designated in statute as secondary schools or schools that make up a
part of the public school system. The California Community Colleges
should have the following characteristics:
•
State Governing Board
The California Community Colleges shall be administered by a
Board of Governors with the following membership: the
Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Speaker of the Assembly,
Superintendent of Public Instruction, and Chancellor as ex
officio members; twelve members appointed by the Governor for
eight-year terms, of which four are to be past or present
members of district governing boards; one faculty member and
one student member.
•
Powers and Duties
The Board of Governors shall appoint the Chancellor of the
California Community Colleges and confirm the appointment of
district chief executive officers.
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The Board of Governors shall have comprehensive authority
with regard to academic affairs, including, but not limited to
student academic standards, approval of courses and programs,
and approval of campus academic plans. This authority may be
delegated to the district governing boards or the academic
senates as the Board deems appropriate.
All state support for the Community Colleges shall be
appropriated to the Board of Governors according to nonstatutory formulas. The Board shall determine by regulation how
this support is to be allocated among the districts.
The Board of Governors shall establish minimum standards for
the employment of academic and administrative staff by the
districts.
The Chancellor’s Office shall be removed from the state civil
service system (by amendment of the California Constitution)
and a separate merit system established by statute. The
Legislature shall authorize the Board of Governors to determine
where the Office of the Chancellor should be located.
•
Local Governing Boards
The state shall be divided into Community College Districts,
each with a locally elected governing board responsible for the
operation of one or more Community Colleges. Two or more
existing districts may be consolidated or otherwise reorganized
subject to approval by the Board of Governors.
Each district governing board shall consist of five to nine
members elected to four-year terms plus one student member
serving a one-year term. Elections for district governing boards
shall be held in November of even-numbered years.
•
Powers and Duties
The district governing boards shall appoint the district chief
executive officers, subject to confirmation by the Board of
Governors, and shall employ all other district personnel as
provided by law.
The district governing boards shall have such responsibilities
for the academic and financial affairs of the district as are
delegated by the Board of Governors.
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4.
Budget Formulas
In Chapter IV (Recommendation 27), the California Postsecondary Education
Commission is charged to take the lead in a regular examination of the equity
of state budget formulas. The review should include the impact of such
formulas on workload issues such as class size and teacher load.
Remedial Education
5.
In Chapter II, the Commission recommends that the four-year institutions
continue in the immediate future to offer remediation necessary to success for
those students the universities choose to admit. However, there must be limits
to such remediation as suggested by the recommendation for establishment of
academic floors below which remediation will not be offered. A taxonomy of
remediation has been developed by the segments in cooperation with the
Commission staff. This taxonomy is outlined below.
Except in the most exceptional circumstances, and then only in the
case of special-action students, the University of California should
not offer remedial courses below “Pre-College Level 1,” and the
California State University should not offer such courses below “PreCollege Level 2” as defined in the remediation taxonomy.
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Remediation Taxonomy
Levels of Student
Levels of Instruction
Examples of Courses
English
Math
University Level
Students who are
college-ready and
likely to succeed in the
freshman-level
courses.
Pre-College Level 1*
(A) Students who are
college-ready except
for minimal specific
Adv. Algebra
skill deficiencies that
Int. Algebra
require instruction one Trigonometry
level below the Freshman level in English
and/or Math.
Subject A or one course
below Fr. Comp. (Eng.
1A)
Pre-College Level 2
(B) Students who are
nearly college-ready,
but exhibit serious
multiple skill deficienties that require
instruction at two
levels below the Fr.
Level in Eng. and/or
Math. (Also, II.S.
college-prep students.)
Geometry
Elementary Alg.
Courses two levels
below Fr. Comp. (Eng.
1A)
High School Diploma
Noncollege-ready in
need of high school
level skills in various
disciplines (i.e., below
College Prep. level).
General Math (2 years
required courses not
specified)
Paragraphs, sentence
structure, reading
skills at 9-12th-grade
level.
Junior High Level
Nonhigh school-ready,
in need of jr. high
school level skills in
various disciplines.
Arithmetic
Basic reading and
beginning sentence
skills in courses at the
7-9th-grade level.
Elementary Level
Nonhigh school-ready,
in need of elementary
school level skills in
various disciplines.
Calculus, PreCalculus, Analyt.
Geom.
Students operating
below elementary level Counting
Developmental/Basic
Living Skills Level or who need basic life
and coping skills.
Freshman
Composition (Eng. 1 A)
Above skills but at 6thgrade level and below.
Most basic English
vocabulary and
speaking skills.
*Courses listed under Pre-College Level 1 may not be considered remedial and are sometimes
given degree credit by UC, CSU, and the CCC.
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APPENDIX B
RECOMMENDED STUDIES
Appendix B
Recommended Studies
The Commission recommends the following one-time studies in support of specific
elements in the revised Master Plan:
1.
State-Supported Noncredit Instruction
Because of conflicting views as to the proper scope and purpose of state support
for noncredit instruction in the Community Colleges, the California
Postsecondary Education Commission, in consultation with the Board of
Governors and the State Board of Education, shall conduct a study of the
current and projected need for noncredit instruction, including the ten statefunded areas, in the Community Colleges and public school system adult
schools.
If the study finds that there is continued need for some or all of such programs
in the Community Colleges, it will delineate the scope of such programs. The
findings of the study will be reported to the Board of Governors of the
California Community Colleges. The Board will review the CPEC findings and
determine which state-supported programs are postsecondary and should
continue to receive state support, which should be offered only as fee-supported
community service courses, and which should be assigned to the adult schools.
The Board may also determine where exceptions are appropriate because
“adult education” is offered solely or largely by the Community College
districts.
2.
English as a Second Language
The CPEC task force on ESL programs, recommended in Chapter II, should
include representatives from postsecondary education, the adult education
sections of the State Department of Education, professional organizations such
as CATESOL representing those involved in teaching ESL, and
representatives of the secondary schools.
3.
Private Postsecondary Education Accreditation
The California Postsecondary Education Commission should begin its
statutorily mandated review of existing standards and the appropriate
administrative structure for state supervision of private postsecondary
institutions by no later than 1988.
In conducting its review, CPEC should specifically consider consolidation of the
“approved” and “authorized” categories of licensure for nonaccredited degreegranting institutions; prohibition of nonaccredited institutions from operating
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B-1
in the state; establishment of a single process of licensure for all private
institutions; modification of existing statutory language to delete references to
comparability between approved and accredited institutions; prohibition of
nonaccredited institutions from granting degrees beyond the baccalaureate;
establishment of a hierarchy of licensure in which institutions would be
required to move to accredited status within a stipulated period of time;
establish the Council for Private Postsecondary Education Institutions and the
Office of Private Postsecondary Education as an entity separate from the State
Department of Education; and restructure the membership of the Council on
Private Postsecondary Educational Institutions to provide a majority of lay
citizens without current or prior employment or business connections to private
postsecondary institutions that fall under the Council’s jurisdiction.
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APPENDIX C
ESTIMATED COSTS OF THE
COMMISSION’S RECOMMENDATIONS
Appendix C
Summary of Estimated Costs of Recommendations
Rec.
No. Subject
Estimated Costs
Future Years
1988-89
$ 14,500,000
Cont.
1,500,000
Cont.
Minority and Women Faculty
7,100,000
Cont.
8
Graduate Student Finitncial Aid
3,100,000
Cont.
9
Student Aid Guarantee
9
Maximum Cal Grant Award
34,000,000
Cont.
9
Balance Loans and Grants
56,000,000
Cont.
10
Support for Degree Study
24,100,000
2
CSU Research
3
Lower-Division Enrollment
5
Community College Governance
7
Performance Funding
8
$12,000,0001
Cont.
1
45,000,000 1
11
Retention Rates
9,000,000
11
Retention Rates for Special Admits
2,800,000 1
11
Remedial Instruction and Counseling
7,500,000
11
English as a Second Language
70,000
12
Professional Service to Schools
2,260,000
Cont.
14
Undergraduate Instructional Quality
3,325,000
Cont.
17
Faculty Development
20
CPEC Program Review
60,000
Cont.
22
New Instructional Technologies
24
Long-Range Planning
225,000
Cont.
1
Cont.
29
32
1
Community College Credit Enrollment Cap
Nonresident Tuition
86,500,000
(10,000,000)
14,000,000
Cont.
2
Intersegmental Coordinating Council
Cont.
500,000
$ 242,040,000
$301,670,000
1
Cost increases totaling $98.3 million in 1988-89 and $157.5 million in future years
resulting from enrollment growth.
2
Savings.
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Estimated Costs of the Commission’s Recommendations
A number of the Commission’s recommendations for changes in the Master Plan will
entail additional cost to the state either as a result of enrollment growth or to fund
program changes. One recommendation will result in quantifiable savings. Several
other recommendations, those that provide for accommodating the great majority of
lower-division students in the Community Colleges, taking advantage of unused
capacity in the private institutions, and developing a coordinated system of longrange planning, for example, will also result in substantial long-term savings to the
state’s taxpayers. Although such savings cannot be quantified, they are every bit as
real as the costs that can be estimated.
The estimated costs of (or savings from) specific recommendations are summarized
on the preceding page. It must be understood, however, that in most cases these
estimates are based upon assumptions regarding decisions to be made by the
Governor, the Legislature, and the segmental governing boards. Thus, the estimates
can only illustrate the magnitude of the potential cost within a broad range of
possibilities.
The following is a more detailed statement of the assumptions behind and data
source for each of the recommendations. Wherever possible, the estimates are based
upon 1986-87 or 1987-88 data and future costs are expressed at current prices.
Recommendations believed to have only minor additional costs and
recommendations for which funding has already been authorized have been
excluded.
The recommendation numbers correspond to those in the text of the report. Several
have more than one cost element.
Recommendation No. 2
Subject:
State support for CSU research.
Estimated Cost:
$14.5 million
Assumptions:
The cost of replacing one full-time CSU faculty member is
$30,000. There will be 14,084 full-time faculty employed by
CSU in 1987-88. If ten percent are given one-third released
time to conduct research, their replacement cost will be $14
million. If additional support costs average $1,000 per
researcher, there will be added support cost totaling $467,000.
Indeterminable expenditures for facilities and equipment may
also be required.
Data Source:
Commission staff estimate based on CSU budget for 1987-88.
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Recommendation No. 3
Subject:
Achievement and maintenance of 40 percent ceiling on lowerdivision enrollment as a percentage of total undergraduate
enrollment at UC and CSU.
Estimated Savings: Indeterminable.
Assumptions:
If lower-division students who would otherwise enroll at a UC
campus choose instead to enroll first in a Community College,
there will be a reduction in total UC enrollment and a
corresponding reduction in state cost equivalent to the
differences in UC and Community College lower-division costs.
If, however, UC increases its enrollment of upper-division
(transfer) students to compensate for the decline in lowerdivision enrollment, UC support costs will not change, and
state costs will actually increase with the increase in
Community College enrollment. In the long run, however,
implementation of this recommendation should result in
significant savings to the state by reducing UC lower-division
enrollment growth and encouraging many more students to
obtain their lower-division instruction at a Community
College.
Data Source:
Commission staff estimate based upon UC undergraduate
enrollment projection (October 1986) and marginal cost data
prepared by the Legislative Analyst and UC.
Recommendation No. 5
Subject:
State-local governance system for the California Community
Colleges.
Estimated Cost:
$1,500,000
Assumptions:
The increase in the responsibilities of the Board of Governors
will require an increase in the Chancellor’s staff. If 25
positions are added at an average cost of $60,000 each, the
added cost will be $1.5 million. Additional costs at the district
level are not included in this estimate.
Data Source:
Commission staff estimate based on Board of Governor’s
budget for 1987-88.
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Recommendation No. 7
Subject:
Performance-driven funding incentives related to equity.
Estimated Cost:
Indeterminable additional developmental, administrative, and
incentive costs.
Recommendation No. 8
Subject:
Early identification, recruitment, and training of minority and
women students for faculty and administrative positions.
Estimated Cost:
$7.1 million
Assumptions:
If this program requires two additional staff positions for each
of the public segments, the cost for salaries and expenses will
be approximately $500,000. An additional expenditure of $5.8
million will provide 100 early faculty appointments for the
California State University (at $40,000 each), 40 for the
University of California (at $60,000 each), and $100,000 each
for program administration. The costs of increases in graduate
student aid and other factors are included under other
recommendations.
Data Source:
Commission staff estimate based upon data from UC and CSU.
Recommendation No. 8
Subject:
Increased support for graduate student financial aid.
Estimated Cost:
$3.1 million
Assumptions:
If the existing graduate fellowship program is doubled in size,
there will be additional costs of $3 million for awards and
approximately $100,000 for administration.
Data Source:
Commission staff estimate based on data in the Governor’s
Budget and the Analysis of the Budget Bill for 1987-88.
Recommendation No. 9
Subject:
Guarantee of student aid.
Estimated Cost:
No immediate increase in cost; future cost increases of
approximately $12 million.
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Assumptions:
The guarantee of student aid for students who make
themselves eligible for admission to UC or CSU is not likely to
have an immediate impact on support costs. In time, however,
if it results in an undergraduate enrollment increase of
approximately 500 students for UC and 1,500 students for
CSU, the increase in operating costs for the two segments
would be approximately $7.7 million at current support levels.
If the additional students receive Cal Grant awards averaging
$1,500 (CSU) and $4,000 (UC), the increases in student aid
costs would be $4,250,000.
Data Source:
Commission staff estimate based upon data in the Governor’s
Budget for 1987-88.
Recommendation No. 9
Subject:
Increasing maximum Cal Grant award to average cost for UC
and CSU.
Estimated Cost:
$34 million
Assumptions:
The maximum Cal Grant A award is now $4,320. If the
operating cost per undergraduate student is $5,000 at CSU and
$9,000 at UC, for an average of $7,000 for the two segments,
then the maximum award amount would be increased by
$2,680. If one-third of Cal Grant recipients continue to enroll
in independent institutions, and their average grant increases
by 90 percent of the maximum grant increase, the additional
cost will be $34 million.
Data Source:
Commission staff estimate based upon data from the
Governor’s Budget for 1987-88.
Recommendation No. 9
Subject:
Balancing loans and grants in providing student financial aid
for California students attending California institutions.
Public service employment to repay student loans.
Estimated Cost:
$56 million
Assumptions:
Loan funds exceeded grant aid for all sources by approximately
$90 million in 1986-87. Grant aid will have to be increased by
an additional $56 million (over the $34 million increase above)
to reach equality, assuming no change in loan funds. The
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substantial cost of administering public service employment
cannot be estimated at this time.
Data Source:
Analysis of the Budget Bill for 1987-88.
Recommendation No. 10
Subject:
State support for all CSU and UC matriculated enrollment in
courses leading to a degree.
Estimated Cost:
$24.1 million
Assumptions:
For UC, it is assumed that all summer session and 9.16 percent
of extension students are matriculated for degree credit and
that 100 percent of current fee income ($19.9 million) from
such students would be replaced by state support. For CSU, it
is assumed that fee increases for all “special session"
instruction ($14.2 million) would be replaced by state support.
Data Source:
Commission staff estimate based on data from UC and CSU
budget staffs.
Recommendation No. 11
Subject:
Retention rates at CSU for regularly admitted students.
Estimated Cost:
$9 million increasing to $45 million
Assumptions:
CSU enrollment will increase one percent per year to a total
increase of five percent in five years as a consequence of
improved retention. At current support levels, each one
percent increase will cost $9 million.
Data Source:
Commission staff estimate based upon Governor’s Budget for
1987-88.
Recommendation No. 11
Subject:
Improvement of retention rates at UC and CSU for specialaction admittees.
Estimated Cost:
$2.8 million increasing to $14 million.
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Assumptions:
Improving retention rates for special-action admittees may be
expected to increase enrollment in each segment. If
enrollment is increased over a five-year period by one percent
for each, the approximate additional cost at current support
levels will be $2.8 million in 1988-89 rising to $14 million by
1992-93.
Data Source:
Commission staff estimate based upon 1987-88 Governor’s
Budget data.
Recommendation No. 11
Subject:
State-funded remedial instruction accompanied by student
assessment, counseling, placement, and follow-up.
Estimated Cost:
$7.5 million
Assumptions:
Additional student assessment, counseling, placement, and
follow-up at UC and CSU is likely to require at least 2 FTE
positions per campus at an average cost of $55,000 per position.
The Governor and Legislature have previously agreed to
support assessment, counseling, placement, and follow-up at
the Community Colleges. The additional cost of funding UC
remedial courses would be $4.5 million.
Data Source:
Commission staff estimate reviewed by segments; UC budget
staff estimate for remedial course costs.
Recommendation No. 11
Subject:
CPEC task force study of English as a Second Language.
Estimated Cost:
$70,000
Assumptions:
The task force will consist of representatives of the interested
agencies as recommended with necessary support costs.
Data Source:
CPEC
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Recommendation No. 12
Subject:
High priority for teacher education; faculty rewards for
professional service to the public schools.
Estimated Cost:
$2,260,000
Assumptions:
The cost of implementing this recommendation is
indeterminable at this time, but one-third released time for 20
faculty at each of UC’s eight general campuses and onequarter for 20 faculty at each of CSU’s 19 campuses, at an
average of $4,000 each, would amount to $2,160,000. An
additional $100,000 may be required to establish a Community
College pilot program.
Data Source:
Commission staff estimate reviewed by segmental staff.
Recommendation No. 14
Subject:
Performance reports on undergraduate instructional quality.
Estimated Cost:
$3,325,000
Assumptions:
Average cost of $25,000 per campus for each of 133 UC, CSU,
and CCC campuses.
Data Source:
Commission staff estimate.
Recommendation No. 17
Subject:
Faculty professional development at all three public segments.
Estimated Cost:
To be determined following CPEC study. CSU requested $1.6
million for a faculty development program in its 1987-88
budget. A Community College program is estimated to cost
approximately $9 million.
Assumptions:
CSU 1987-88 cost estimates based upon providing sabbatical
leaves for 32 additional faculty positions ($.9 million) and
additional travel expenses for professional purposes ($.6
million). The Community Colleges estimate is based upon an
expense equal to approximately one percent of faculty and
administrative salaries for 1985-86.
Data Source:
CSU Budget for 1987-88; Chancellor’s Office, California
Community Colleges.
C-8
The Master Plan Renewed
Recommendation No. 20
Subject:
CPEC program review office.
Estimated Cost:
$60,000
Assumptions:
One additional CPEC staff to review 30-40 existing programs
annually.
Data Source:
CPEC
Recommendation No. 22
Subject:
CSU research and evaluation of new instructional
technologies.
Estimated Cost:
Included under Recommendation 2, above.
Recommendation No. 24
Subject:
CPEC’s long-range planning responsibilities.
Estimated Cost:
$225,000
Assumptions:
The new responsibilities of CPEC with respect to long-range
planning, including long-range enrollment projections, will
require an additional $150,000 in personnel support and
$75,000 for operating expenses, principally data storage and
processing.
Data Source:
CPEC
Recommendation No. 29
Subject:
Removal of "cap" on state support for enrollment growth in
Community College credit courses.
Estimated Cost:
$86.5 million
The Master Plan Renewed
C-9
Assumptions:
Removal of the existing "cap" on state support might result in
an increase in state-supported credit enrollment of as much as
five percent. State-supported credit enrollment (ADA) is
estimated at 591,387 for 1987-88, and state support (from all
state and local sources) will average $2,925 per ADA.
Extending these figures into 1988-89, a five percent increase
would increase state costs by $86.5 million.
Data Source:
Analysis of the Budget Bill and Governor’s Budget for 1987-88.
Recommendation No. 32
Subject:
Nonresident tuition
Estimated Savings:
$10 million
Assumptions:
Currently, there are 8,400 nonresident students enrolled at
CSU and 12,000 at UC. Based upon reported nonresident
charges for 1986-87, it appears that this recommendation
might increase nonresident tuition at CSU and UC by amounts
that might result in a total savings to the state on the order of
$10 million. Inasmuch as the charge for each segment is to be
no greater than the average charge for comparable institutions
in other states, however, and the number and names of those
institutions are now being negotiated with the Department of
Finance and the Legislative Analyst, a more precise estimate
cannot be made at this time.
Data Source:
Commission staff estimate based upon data from MPC
Background Papers and Analysis of the Budget Bill for
1987-88.
Supplemental Recommendations -- No. 1
Subject:
Intersegmental Coordinating Council.
Estimated Cost:
None in 1988-89; possible request of $500,000 per year in the
future.
Assumptions:
The ICC will be funded initially from contributions from the
participating segments and agencies. A future request for
direct state support is likely, however.
Data Source:
Draft organization and plan for the ICC, dated May 24,1987.
C-10
The Master Plan Renewed
APPENDIX D
COMMISSIONER COMMENTS AND DISSENTS
Commissioner Henry Der voted against approval of the
Commission’s report. Letters from the Chairman and other
Commissioners are attached.
STATE OF CALIFORNIA
GEORGE DEUKMEJIAN, Governor
COMMISSION FOR THE REVIEW OF THE MASTER PLAN FOR HIGHER EDUCATION
1215 FIFTEENTH STREET, SECOND FLOOR
SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA 95814
(916) 445-0132
August 3, 1987
The Honorable George Deukmejian,
Governor, State of California
The Honorable David A. Roberti
President pro Tempore of the Senate
The Honorable Willie L. Brown, Jr.
Speaker of the Assembly
Gentlemen:
As Chairman of the Commission for the Review of the Master
Plan for Higher Education, I would like to make a few comments
about the final report, the Commission, and the manner in which
it carried out its responsibilities.
I believe that the Commission has been very effective over
the past two-and-a-half years in meeting the challenge presented
to us by SB 1570. The Commissioners were appointed by the
Governor, the President pro Tempore of the Senate, and the
Speaker of the Assembly and represented a very broad range of
interests and viewpoints. Yet from their first meeting they put
their commitment to education before any other commitment.
Despite their many other responsibilities, 15 of the 16 Commissioners served the entire term of the Commission. Only Commissioner Rothner served for less than a full term, having been
appointed following completion of the study of the Community
Colleges. Attendance at the meetings exceeded 85 percent, and
all Commissioners participated actively in debating the issues
that came before us.
In addition to the participation by the Commissioners, we
received excellent input on a consistent basis from representatives of the California Community Colleges, the California
State University, the University of California, the independent
colleges and universities, the California Postsecondary Education Commission, and the Department of Education. Throughout the
study, Commission meetings and public hearings were well
attended by senior staff of the segments. We were also pleased
to have continuing advice and counsel from students, faculty,
union organizations, campus administrators, chief executive
officers, local and statewide governing board members, legislative and gubernatorial staffs, and authorities on education
from across the country. In summary, the participation and
involvement of everyone was very gratifying.
J. Gary Shansby
Chalrman
William D. Campbell
Vice Chairman
Commissioners
Seth P. Brunner
Henry Der
Patsy Estreiias
Claudia Hampton, Ed.D.
Bill Honig
Meredith J. Khachigian
George David Kieffer, Esq.
Felix S. LeMarinei
Peter A. McCuen, Ph.D.
Edward R. Mosiey, M.D.
Michael R. Peevey
Ray Remy
Glenn Rothner
Harold M. Willlams
Executive Director
Lee R. Kerschner, Ph.D.
I believe that the Commission carefully reviewed all matters of
importance that came before it, focused its attention on the most
important policy issues, and debated those issues openly and at
length. Moreover, it did so in a spirit of cooperation and dedication to the task at hand. The first report, Challenge of Change,
which dealt solely with the California Community Colleges, was
approved by unanimous vote of the Commission. Three Commissioners
who dissented on a few issues explained their positions in letters
that were included in background documents to the report. The final
report, The Master Plan Renewed, was approved by all Commissioners
with the exception- of Commissioner Henry Der. Appended to the
report is a letter from Commissioner Der explaining his position, a
letter from Commissioner Williams clarifying his support for one set
of recommendations, and a letter from Commissioner Rothner dissenting from two recommendations.
Commissioner Rothner's letter also outlines his view of the
Commission's process and composition. I am confident that the
majority of the Commission disagrees with this view and believes
that his comments are inappropriate and inaccurate. The Commission
was able to review all matters of importance in significant detail
and was able to make a strong case for each of the recommendations
it presents in the report.
The Commission is hopeful that the Joint Legislative Committee
and the Governor will review our recommendations and will propose
and approve supporting legislation that will strengthen higher
education in California. The recommendations cover all of the most
pressing issues, and, we believe, deal effectively with the needs of
our citizens well into the next century.
On a personal note, I would like to express my appreciation for
the opportunity to serve as Chairman of the Commission. I have
enjoyed the process, and I am very proud of the Commission, the
staff, and the participation of so many people who have contributed
to those recommendations. I endorse the final report in its
entirety.
Sincerely,
J. Gary Shansby
Chairman
-2-
July 27, 1987
Mr. J. Gary Shansby, Chairman
Commission for the Review of the
Master Plan for Higher Education
1215 Fifteenth Street, Second Floor
Sacramento, California 95814
Dear Gary:
Thank you for providing me with this opportunity to
express a few disagreements and concluding thoughts on "The Master
Plan Renewed" and the process that led to its adoption.
The comments that follow should not be misinterpreted as
general disagreement with our process or report, which I voted to
adopt and generally endorse. I am particularly pleased with the
recommendations designed to increase the representation among the
students and faculty of underrepresented segments of our diverse
society, the recognition that educational quality suffers from
increased student-faculty ratios and excessive use of part-time
faculty, and the Commission's warning to the public that we can
maintain educational opportunity and quality only through the
repeal or modification of Article XIII(B) of the State
Constitution --the Gann Limitation.
Community College Governance
The Commission% focus upon improving the quality of
education in the community colleges was both useful and necessary;
changes in governance in that system are no doubt required to
achieve that end. I agree with the thrust of the report's recommendations urging a strengthening of the powers and authority of
the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges so as
to enable the Board of Governors to better represent the community
colleges before the Legislature and to establish and enforce
statewide programs and policies.
However, I believe the Commission has gone too far in
recommending that the Board of Governors have primary responsibility with respect to academic and financial administration of
Mr. J. Gary Shansby, Chairman
Commission for the Review of the
Master Plan for Higher Education
-2-
July 27, 1987
the colleges, whereas the district governing boards will have only
such responsibilities in these areas as are delegated to them by
the Board of Governors. Thus, I dissent from recommendation no. 5
and supplemental recommendation no. 3.
My dissent stems from both policy and practical
disagreement. I supported options debated among us that would have
permitted the Board of Governors and the Chancellor to review the
academic and financial administration of the colleges and require
the establishment of uniform policies and programs, with the added
option of temporarily taking over the operation of a district in
an appropriate case where mismanagement so required. But the governance structure recommended in our final report relegates local
governing boards to an insignificant status and deprives them, in
cases where local governance works well, of fulfilling their proper
function in responding to the particular educational and program
needs of their community, needs which differ by region and
demography.
Further, the report fails to identify how the new
governance structure would work in practice at the local governing
board level, and I fear that a system which calls for the election
by the community of a board which is then given only such authority
over academic and financial management and policy as an appointed
statewide board deems appropriate is destined to fail. Rather than
promote unity, this new structure is likely to promote antagonism
between the community and Sacramento. The local governing boards
are likely to be viewed and treated as unwanted appendages, and
they will likely rebel.
Pilot Programs of Rolling Contracts for
Community College Faculty
The recommendation (no. 16) that the Board of Governors
develop pilot programs of rolling contracts for community college
faculty was first adopted in the "Challenge of Change," prior to my
appointment to the Commission. Had I been present at that time, I
would have pointed out that:
(1) The colleges use part-time faculty for purposes
of salary and benefit savings (they pay them at
lower rates and do not provide most fringe benefits)
and flexibility in regard to time of course
offerings, not flexibility in regard to the avoidance
of tenure;
Mr. J. Gary Shansby, Chairman
Commission for the Review of the
Master Plan for Higher Education
-3-
July 27, 1987
(2) The colleges already have a quick, efficient
mechanism under the Education Code for the avoidance
of tenure where the concern is declining enrollment
or reduced interest in particular course offeringslayoff;
(3) Rolling contracts will, therefore, provide no
benefit to the colleges or the part-time faculty.
The colleges will still have an incentive to use the
cheaper, part-time faculty, and the part-time faculty
will have no greater leverage in escaping the
multiple appointments trap;
(4) The only outcome of the pilot program will be to
permit colleges to lengthen the probationary period,
or avoid tenure completely, for those faculty hired
under rolling contracts. The colleges will have
every reason to hire persons who otherwise would have
been given probationary status under rolling
contracts instead, thereby providing a lengthier,
no-strings-attached opportunity for the colleges to
evaluate new faculty.
In short, I dissent from recommendation no. 16 because I am
not in favor of unlimited probationary periods. Rather, I support
the traditional method used in our society to select higher education faculty and guarantee that those selected will have freedom to
teach without interference resulting from managerial whim or political interference and with sufficient economic security to make
the profession attractive to men and women of ability: tenure
awarded upon satisfactory completion of a reasonable probationary
period.
The Commission's Process and Composition
With the clearer vision that comes only from hindsight,
and without any motive to criticize the Governor, the Legislature,
the Commission, or its staff for the less than clear vision that
necessarily comes with foresight, I offer the following thoughts on
the Commission% composition and process.
Mr. J. Gary Shansby, Chairman
Commission for the Review of the
Master Plan for Higher Education
-4-
July 27, 1987
We are a "blue ribbon" commission composed primarily of
lay persons not chosen to represent a higher education constituency. Blue ribbon, lay commissions serve a useful purpose in our
society when properly directed to provide an external, impartial
citizens' perspective on matters of social policy. Often, only lay
"outsiders" can ask the probing questions and make the significant
criticisms that our institutions periodically require.
Institutionally-based, expert commissions also have their
place in our society, especially where a commission% task is to
promote segmental cooperation and financial and administrative
efficiency or to undertake research designed to inform public
policy discussions. Such a commission was the group that created
the 1960 Master Plan.
We tried, as a blue ribbon commission, to assume the role
of the institutionally-based, expert commission. We should have
set out to identify a handful of significant issues in higher education and contented ourselves with asking probing questions and
making appropriate criticisms and recommendations. Instead, we set
out to undertake a comprehensive revision of the 1960 Master Plan,
recognizing much later that we had assumed to great a burden.
Some of our recommendations would have benefitted from
segmentally-directed study and debate. The prime example, in my
view, is the community college state-local governance recommendation, from which I dissented. I believe a more workable and
better policy would have been achieved through discussions in which
the competing constituencies were the "insiders" in the debate. In
our process, they were necessarily viewed as "outsiders."
Other recommendations would have benefitted from research
and statistical surveys among the segments. Again, I offer as an
example a recommendation from which I dissented--rolling contracts
for faculty. We had no empirical data to suggest a need for such a
program and we failed even to think through its consequences. The
same lack of data exists with regard to other recommendations I
support, namely, reductions in excessive faculty student-faculty
ratios in the California State University and the improvement in
the quality of undergraduate education in the University of
California. Input from and research directed by segmental representatives having "insider," rather than "outsider" status would
have corrected some of those shortcomings.
Mr. J. Gary Shansby, Chairman
Commission for the Review of the
Master Plan for Higher Education
-5-
July 27, 1987
In light of our composition, the scope of our delegated
tasks, and the small, albeit able and dedicated, staff we had
available to us, we were unable to make the best case possible for
some of our most important recommendations. In many of those
areas, the creation of an institutionally-based, expert commission
would have been preferable. In short, I recommend that in the
future the Governor and the Legislature refrain from simply
choosing either a blue ribbon, lay commission or an
institutionally-based, expert commission. Each has its proper
place and function; neither is sufficient by itself for all purposes.
Finally, please do not mistake these thoughts for regret.
They are, I believe, a proper part of our function in fully
informing the Governor and the Legislature concerning our processes. On balance, I am satisfied with the report and enjoyed the
experience of serving on the Commission. Congratulations to you,
our fellow Commissioners, and our Executive Director and staff.
Very truly yours,
Glenn Rothner
GR:mc
Harold M. Williams, President and Chief Executive Officer
July 21, 1987
Mr. J, Gary Shansby
Chairman
Commission to Review the Master Plan
1215 Fifteenth Street
Sacramento, California 95814
Dear Gary:
With the issuance of "The Master Plan Renewed" the
Commission completes its mandate to assure the vitality
of higher education in California into the next century. You, Executive Director Kerschner and the Commission staff are to be commended for the leadership in
what has been accomplished over the past two and a half
years. By placing the objective of strengthening the
Community Colleges at the forefront of this State's
policy agenda, the Commission has made a particularly
significant contribution to the future of California
higher education. I can assure you and the Commission
of the University's full support of the essential and
critical efforts to ensure the revitalization of the
Community College transfer function.
It does seem to me necessary, however, to state my
understanding of the section of our report dealing with
"A Unified Admissions and Transfer System." The text
quite correctly makes the point that neither UC nor CSU
achieved compliance with the 1960 Master Plan's goal of
40/60 ratio of lower division to upper division students by turning away eligible students. Rather,
students chose to attend the Community Colleges and
then to transfer. The University has consistently
maintained a commitment, with the required budgetary
support of every governor and legislature, to offer a
place somewhere within the University system for every
eligible student wishing to enroll at UC.
1875 Century Park East, Suite 2300 Los Angeles, California 90067-2561 Telephone 213 277-9188 Telefax 5568215
Mr. J. Gary Shansby
July 21, 1987
Page two
While this commitment is not as clearly acknowledged in
the text as it might be, I support the Commission's
recommendations for strengthening the transfer
function, which in our report now links together the
three critical elements of this process:
(1) the legislature's willingness to fund transfer
education at an appropriate level
(2) the Community Colleges' ability to attract students by delivering quality transfer education
(3) the University's ability to attract and accept
Community College transfers as upper division
students.
It would be impossible for the University to reduce its
percentage of lower division enrollments without this
linkage effectively in place or, alternatively, denying
admission to UC eligible applicants.
I can assure you that the University stands committed
to working with the Community Colleges to improve and
facilitate the transfer function. I will recommend to
my fellow Regents their full support of the Commission's report provided that the University is not
expected to abandon its historic commitment to admit
all UC eligible students wishing to enroll.
It has been a pleasure to participate on the Commission
to Review the Master Plan.
Very truly yours,
Harold
HMW:bam
M. Williams
APPENDIX E
THE COMMISSION AND ITS PROCESS
Appendix E
The Commission and Its Process
Postsecondary education in California is organized under the provisions of a
statewide Master Plan, originally adopted in 1960. The plan delineates roles,
responsibilities, governance, and coordination of the three public postsecondary
systems: the California Community Colleges, the California State University, and
the University of California.
The Master Plan is periodically reviewed in light of the state’s changing needs to
determine what, if any, changes are necessary to ensure higher education’s
continued success. Specific concerns about the Community Colleges and more
general concerns about the ability of postsecondary education to respond to the new
demographics of the state raised questions as to the extent to which the three public
segments could meet changing needs. These concerns gave rise to legislation calling
for a Master Plan review and the Legislature established the Commission for the
Review of the Master Plan for Higher Education (SB 1570, Nielsen, Chapter 1507,
Statutes of 1984) and a separate review of the Community Colleges.
The Commission is required to submit a report to the Legislature and the Governor
relative to its findings and recommendations on the Master Plan by June 30,1987.
COMMISSION MEMBERS
Governor’s Appointees
J. Gary Shansby, San Francisco (Chairman)
William D. Campbell, Carlsbad (Vice Chairman)
Meredith J. Khachigian, San Clemente
Edward R. Mosley, Fresno
Senate Rules Committee Appointees
Patsy Estrellas, Anaheim
Felix S. LeMarinel, Palmdale
Glenn Rothner, Los Angeles
Assembly Speaker’s Appointees
Henry Der, San Francisco
Peter McCuen, Rancho Cordova
Michael R. Peevey, La Canada Flintridge
The Master Plan Renewed
E-1
University of California Regents’ Appointee
Harold M. Williams, Los Angeles
California State University Trustees’ Appointee
Claudia H. Hampton, Los Angeles
Community College Board of Governors Appointee
George David Kieffer, Los Angeles
California Postsecondary Education Commissions Appointee
Seth P. Brunner, Sacramento
Superintendent of Public Instruction’s Appointee
Bill Honig, Sacramento
Harvey Hunt, Sacramento (Superintendent’s Designee)
Xavier Del Buono (Superintendent’s Designee/Community College Study)
Association of Independent California Colleges and Universities’ Appointee
Ray Remy, Los Angeles
COMMISSION STAFF
Lee R. Kerschner, Executive Director
Jerome Evans, Executive Staff
Julia B. Fahrenbruch, Executive Staff
Robert S. Palacio, Executive Staff
Ronald W. Saufley, Executive Staff
Kim Pennino and Katherine E. Johnson, Offke Assistants
A. Alan Post, Interim Executive Director (1985)
Janis Cox Coffey, Executive Staff (Community College Study)
Murray Haberman, Executive Staff (April 1986 to November 1986)
E- 2
The Master Plan Renewed
The Community College Reassessment Study
Simultaneously with the establishment of the Commission for the Review of the
Master Plan for Higher Education, the Legislature adopted and the Governor signed
SB 2064 (Stiern), Chapter 1506, 1984. This legislation mandated a special
Community College reassessment study as the Commission’s first priority and
requested a special report to the Legislature and Governor by March 30, 1986. The
Commission adopted that report, titled The Challenge of Change, on March 18 1986.
The recommendations in the report were subject to revision and supplement as the
Commission began its work on the Master Plan as a whole.
The Master Plan Process
In April and May 1986, the Commission began its review of the Master Plan for
postsecondary education with four days of presentations by distinguished academic
leaders, followed by a three-day retreat in June during which the Commissioners
established an agenda for their work. This included a lengthy list of issues, goals,
and expectations.
The Commission adhered to a rigorous schedule, conducting 14 open, 2-day meetings
(one per month), public hearings that included presentations from members of the
Legislature and their staffs; presidents, chancellors, administrative staff, faculty,
and student representatives from the postsecondary segments; representatives of the
independent colleges and universities; representatives of the Department of
Education and the public schools, and the California Postsecondary Education
Commission; professional researchers; and others. The Commission distributed over
550 copies of its monthly meeting agenda and background materials to
representatives of the postsecondary education community, students, libraries, and
the general public for comments and criticisms.
The Commission’s consideration of a variety of policy options was supplemented at
each meeting by the Chair’s recognition of individuals in the audience who had
comments and advice to contribute. Written comments from the public were
encouraged and, when received, were distributed to all Commissioners. Regular
meetings were exceptionally well attended and all Commissioners actively
participated in the exploration of issues before the Commission.
The Executive Director had the advice and counsel of faculty, students, and
segmental staff advisory groups, and met regularly with campus and segmental
chief executive officers. Informal advisory groups of faculty, students, and others
met to discuss pertinent issues under Commission consideration. In addition, the
Chair, Vice-Chair, individual Commissioners, and the Executive Director
participated in numerous student, faculty, governing board, and organizational
conferences and meetings held both locally and statewide.
The Master Plan Renewed
E-3
The Commission reviewed and synthesized a substantial amount of research,
statistics, background material, and other information throughout its work on the
Master Plan. Background materials were provided to help the Commissioners frame
issues and 16 separate issue papers provided a broad range of policy options. The
issue papers received two Commission readings. First drafts were specifically
intended to express every conceivable policy option; second drafts reflected the
Commission’s first-draft discussions as to deletions, additions, and highlights. From
these second drafts, the Master Plan report was written. (Background and issue
papers, as well as detailed minutes reflecting the Commission’s discussions, are
available as separate supplemental documents.)
A first rough draft of the Master Plan report was presented to the Commission in
April 1987. After making revisions in style, content, and format as directed by the
Commission, staff presented a second draft in May. This second draft was further
revised and presented in a substantially different format in June. The Commission
approved, in June, additional recommendations on Community College governance
to augment its recommendations in Challenge of Change and subsequently
transmitted it to the Joint Legislative Committee on the Master Plan for Higher
Education.
Final approval of the Commission’s report on the Master Plan took place July 22,
1987, and the Governor and Legislature were notified that the Commission had
completed its work and would be available to present the report and advocate the
reforms through the rest of the year. The Commission will present its report to the
Joint Legislative Committee on the Master Plan for Higher Education in August
1987.
E-4
The Master Plan Renewed
APPENDIX F
SB 1570 NIELSEN; CHAPTER 1507, 1984
SB 1570 Nielsen; Chapter 1507, 1984
Appendix F
Senate Bill No. 1570
CHAPTER 1507
An act to add and repeal Section 66903.7 of the Education Code,
relating to postsecondary education. making an appropriation therefor, and declaring the urgency thereof, to take effect immediately.
[Approved by Governor September 27, 1984 Filed with
Secretary of State September 28, 1984]
LEGISLATIVE COUSEL'S DIGEST
SB 1570, Nielsen. Postsecondary education: Master Plan for
Higher Education: review.
(1) Under existing law, there are no provisions requiring the
review of the Master Plan for Higher Education.
This bill would establish the Commission for the Review of the
Master Plan for Higher Education to be comprised of 16 members to
be appointed in a prescribed manner. This bill would specify that the
duties of the Commission for the Review of the Master Plan for
Higher Education shall include, but need not be limited to, the
review of reports submitted by the California Postsecondary
Education Commission, the University of California, the California
State University, the Board of Governors of the California
Community Colleges, the Department of Finance, the Legislative
Analyst, or any other relevant reports, the conducting of public
hearings. and the formulation and submission of recommendations
regarding policies and the content of the master plan.
This bill would prohibit any person employed or retained by any
public or private postsecondary educational institution from serving
on the commission, and would authorize representatives to the
commission to be reimbursed for actual and necessary travel
expenses.
This bill would require the commission to select and designate a
state administrative agency to carry out the personnel, contractual,
and al! other fiscal services required by the commission.
This bill would state the legislative intent that any agency
receiving public funds for postsecondary education shall, upon
request by the commission, provide all necessary information or
assistance required by the commission.
This bill would require the Commission for the Review of the
Master Plan for Higher Education to submit a report to the
Legislature and the Governor not later than January 1,1987, relative
to its findings and recommendations regarding the master plan and
the functions and interrelationships of public postsecondary
education institutions.
This bill would make these provisions inoperative on June 30, 1987,
and would repeal them as of January 1, l988.
The Master Plan Renewed
F-1
Ch. 1507
— 2 —
(2) This bill would appropriate $500,000 from the General Fund
to the Controller for allocation to the Commission for the Review of
the Master Plan for Higher Education for all expenses deemed
necessary by the commission without regard to fiscal years.
(3) This bill would specify that, upon completion of the study
authorized by this bill, all of the documents and working papers of
the commission shall become the property of the State Archives.
(4) This bill would specify that these provisions shall not become
operative unless ACR 162 and SB 2064 of the 1983-84 Regular Session
are both chaptered.
(5) This bill would take effect immediately as an urgency statute.
Appropriation: yes.
The people of the State of California do enact as follows:
SECTION 1. Section 66903.7 is added to the Education Code, to
read:
66903.7. (a) There is hereby established the Commission for the
Review of the Master Plan for Higher Education to be comprised of
16 members who shall be citizens knowledgeable in the area of
postsecondary education, business, and community leaders
representative of the cultural, ethnic, and geographic diversity of the
state. Members of the Commission for the Review of the Master Plan
for Higher Education shall be appointed as follows:
(1) One representative appointed by the Regents of the
University of California.
(2) One representative appointed by the Trustees of the
California State University.
(3) One representative appointed by the Board of Governors of
the California Community Colleges.
(4) One representative appointed from among the membership
of the California Postsecondary Education Commission.
(5) The Superintendent of Public Instruction, or his or her
designee.
(6) Four representatives appointed by the Governor.
(7) Three representatives appointed by the Speaker of the
Assembly.
(8) Three representatives appointed by the Senate Rules
Committee.
(9) One representative appointed b y t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f
Independent California Colleges and Universities.
The Governor may designate any one of the 16 members
appointed to the commission pursuant to this subdivision to serve as
chairperson of the commission.
(b) No person who is employed or retained by any public or
private postsecondary educational institution shall be appointed to
or serve on the commission Representatives to the commission shall
receive reimbursement for actual and necessary travel expenses
F-2
The Master Plan Renewed
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Ch. 1507
incurred while conducting the business of the commission.
(c) The duties of the Commission for the Review of the Master
Plan for Higher Education shall include, but need not be limited to,
the review of relevant reports by the California Postsecondary
Education Commission, the University of California, the California
State University, the Board of Governors of the California
Community Colleges, the Department of Finance, the Legislative
Analyst, or any other reports the commission deems appropriate.
The commission shall select and designate a state administrative
agency to carry out the personnel, contractual, and all other fiscal
services required by the commission.
In addition, the commission shall, at a minimum, report on all of
the following to the Joint Legislative Committee on the Review of
the Master Plan established pursuant to Assembly Concurrent
Resolution 162 of the 1983-84 Regular Session:
(1) California’s postsecondary educational needs through the year
2000, with emphasis on the demography of student. societal and
employment needs in the next decade versus the projected supply
of postsecondary education faculty.
(2) Basic and lower division instruction at the various
postsecondary institutions, with an initial emphasis on the mission
and function of the California Community Colleges, as specified in
Senate Bill 2064 of the 1983-84 Regular Session.
(3) Strategies to promote an increase in the access and success of
students, particularly those underrepresented in postsecondary
education, including adult education through graduate instruction,
in the following areas:
(A) Preparation and outreach: basic skills and college preparation
in kindergarten through grade 12, and community college
curriculum.
(B) Matriculation: admission, assessment, and advisement.
(C) Retention: remediation, academic support, and financial
assistance.
(D) Articulation: transition from secondary education to
postsecondary education and employment.
(E) Accountability: assurance that courses offered are consistent
with the mission of various segments of postsecondary education.
(4) The appropriateness of existing educational delivery systems
and their ability to serve present and future student populations.
(5) Analysis of direct and indirect expenditures for students
attending California postsecondary institutions, including student
financial assistance and instructional support, as to the efficient use
of state resources.
The commission shall conduct public hearings designed to solicit
testimony of private citizens, public intertest groups, alumni
organizations, or any other interested private groups and
organizations, as well as professors, administrator, students, and
others who are directly affected by that master plan, for the purpose
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of soliciting the input of these groups in the formulation of the
commission’s recommendations regarding the master plan.
The commission shall formulate and submit recommendations
regarding the policies and content of the master plan, in addition to
recommendations regarding the goals, programs, functions, funding,
and interrelationships of the Master Plan for Higher Education.
(c) The commission shall develop and submit a management plan
identifying; the commission’s specific objectives and output for
review by the Joint Legislative Committee for the Review of the
Master Plan for Higher Education by March 1, 1985. The
management plan shall also include l resource and staffing
requirements and specific dates for the completion of interim and
final reports to the Joint Committee.
(d) Not later than January 1,1987, the Commission for the Review
of the Master Plan for Higher Education shall submit a report to the
Legislature and the Governor relative to its findings and
recommendations regarding the master plan and the functions and
interrelationships of public postsecondary education institutions.
(e) It is the intent of the Legislature that any agency receiving
public funds for postsecondarv education shall, upon request by the
commission, provide all necessary information or assistance required
by the commission.
(f) This section shall become inoperative on June 30,1987, and, as
of Januarv 1, 1988, is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, which
becomes effective on or before January 1,1988, deletes or extends the
dates on which it becomes inoperative and is repealed.
SEC. 2. Section 1 of this act shall not become operative unless
both Assembly Concurrent Resolution 162 and Senate Bill 2064 of the
1983-84 Regular Session are chaptered, and in that case Section 1 of
this act shall become operative upon the later of the effective dates
of this bill, Assembly Concurrent Resolution 162, or Senate Bill 2064.
SEC. 3. The sum of five hundred thousand dollars ($500,000) is
hereby appropriated from the General Fund to the Controller for
allocation to the Commission for the Review of the Master Plan for
Higher Education for all expenses deemed necessary by the
commission without regard to fiscal years.
SEC. 4. Upon completion of the study authorized by this act, all
of the documents and working papers of the commission shall
become the property of the State Archives.
SEC. 5. This act is an urgency statute necessary for the
immediate preservation of the public peace, health, or safety within
the meaning of Article IV of the Constitution and shall go into
immediate effect. The facts constituting the necessity are:
In order that the reassessment study of the Master Plan for Higher
Education required by this act may be completed at the earliest
possible time, it is necessary that this act take effect immediately.
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